Benevolent dictatorship

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search


A benevolent dictatorship is a theoretical form of government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is seen to do so for the benefit of the population as a whole. A benevolent dictator may allow for some democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power.

The label has been applied to leaders such as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Turkey),[1] Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia),[2] Lee Kuan Yew (Singapore),[3] Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines),[4] and Abdullah II of Jordan,[5] although it may also apply to President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus.[citation needed]

Characteristics

Many dictators' regimes[which?] portray themselves as benevolent, often tending to regard democratic regimes as messy, inefficient and corrupt.

In the Spanish language, the pun word dictablanda is sometimes used for a dictatorship conserving some of the liberties and mechanisms of democracy.[citation needed] The pun is that, in Spanish, dictadura is "dictatorship", dura is "hard" and blanda is "soft". Analogously, the same pun is made in Portuguese as ditabranda or ditamole. In February 2009, the Brazilian newspaper Folha de S.Paulo ran an editorial classifying the military dictatorship in Brazil (1964–1985) as a "ditabranda", creating controversy.[6]

Benevolent dictators

Josip Broz Tito

Although Tito led the former republic of Yugoslavia as Prime Minister and President (later President for Life) from 1944 until his death in 1980 under what some criticized as an authoritarian rule,[7][8][9] he was widely popular and was "seen by most as a benevolent dictator".[2]

King Abdullah II of Jordan

Despite ruling over a monarchy, King Abdullah is often seen as a reformist and progressive leader whom is seen to many as a 'benevolent' monarch.[10] As one of only two Arab nations that recognize Israel, his regime has been at the cornerstone of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.[11]

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

Known affectionaly as 'Ataturk' by many, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is credited with removing foreign influence from former Ottoman territory, and is looked fondly upon as 'the father' of modern Turkey.[12] He passed a series of societal reforms such as allowing women to vote, removing Islam as the state religion, and adoption of a Western criminal code.[13]

Lee Kuan Yew

Known to be the man who transformed Singapore from a poor agrarian society into one of Asia's wealthiest nations, is often called a 'benevolent dictator.' [14] As a leader whom was in power for thirty one years,[15] he implemented some laws that were deemed to be autocratic, and attempted to dismantle political opposition. Despite this he is often looked upon favorably for his transformation of Singapore, and is considered by many to one of the most successful political pragmatists.[16]

Alexander Lukashenko

Alexander Lukashenko is the current president of Belarus. His rule may be described as authoritarian; nevertheless, under his rule, corruption in Belarus has virtually disappeared. Belarus has a low income gap, and enjoys one of the highest HDIs in the former Soviet Union.

See also

References

  1. http://turkeyfile.blogspot.com/2009/10/benevolent-dictator.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shapiro, Susan; Shapiro, Ronald (2004). The Curtain Rises: Oral Histories of the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1672-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "...All Yugoslavs had educational opportunities, jobs, food, and housing regardless of nationality. Tito, seen by most as a benevolent dictator, brought peaceful co-existence to the Balkan region, a region historically synonymous with factionalism."
  3. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  4. http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1986/mar-apr/hill.html
  5. http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/10783/king-abdullah-ii-of-jordan-world-statesman
  6. Ribeiro, Igor (February 25, 2009). "A "ditabranda" da Folha" (in português). Portal Imprensa.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Cohen, Bertram D.; Ettin, Mark F.; Fidler, Jay W. (2002). Group Psychotherapy and Political Reality: A Two-Way Mirror. International Universities Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-8236-2228-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Andjelic, Neven (2003). Bosnia-Herzegovina: The End of a Legacy. Frank Cass. p. 36. ISBN 0-7146-5485-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Tierney, Stephen (2000). Accommodating National Identity: New Approaches in International and Domestic Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 90-411-1400-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. http://harvardpolitics.com/features/memoirs-project/king-abdullah-ii-of-jordan-modern-monarch-and-would-be-peacemaker/
  11. http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/King-Abdullah-II-A-true-partner-for-peace-310974
  12. http://thepolicywire.com/lee-kuan-yew-the-curious-legacies-of-benevolent-dictators/
  13. http://www.columbia.edu/~sss31/Turkiye/ata/hayati.html
  14. http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/obituary-lee-kuan-yew-the-benevolent-dictator
  15. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/23/lee-kuan-yews-legacy-of-authoritarian-pragmatism-will-serve-singapore-well
  16. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/lee-kuan-yew-an-entirely-exceptional-leader-who-balanced-authoritarianism-with-pragmatism-10128277.html