Blue Ridge Parkway

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Blue Ridge Parkway
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
The parkway near Grandfather Mountain
Location North Carolina & Virginia, USA
Nearest city Asheville, NC & Roanoke, VA
Coordinates Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Area 93,390 acres (377.9 km2)
Established June 30, 1936
Visitors 12,877,368 (in 2013)[1]
Governing body National Park Service

Blue Ridge Parkway
Blue Ridge Parkway route map
Route information
Maintained by NPS
Length: 469 mi[2] (755 km)
Existed: June 30, 1936 (1936-06-30) – present
Major junctions
North end: US 250 in Rockfish Gap, VA
South end: US 441 in Swain County, NC
Highway system
National Parkway
National Scenic Byway

The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. The parkway, which is America's longest linear park,[3] runs for 469 miles (755 km) through 29 Virginia and North Carolina counties, mostly along the Blue Ridge, a major mountain chain that is part of the Appalachian Mountains. Its southern terminus is on the boundary between Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Indian Reservation in North Carolina, from which it travels north to Shenandoah National Park in Virginia and offers access to the Skyline Drive. While the two roads join together end-to-end, they are separate and distinct entities, built as two different projects and managed by two different National Park Service units. The Blue Ridge Parkway was built to connect Shenandoah National Park to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

The parkway, while not a National Park, has been the most visited unit of the National Park System every year since 1946 except two (1949, 2013).[4] Land on either side of the road is owned and maintained by the National Park Service and, in many places, parkway land is bordered by United States Forest Service property. The parkway is on North Carolina's version of the America the Beautiful quarter in 2015.[5]


Begun during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the project was originally called the Appalachian Scenic Highway. Most construction was carried out by private contractors under federal contracts under an authorization by Harold L. Ickes in his role as federal public works administrator. Work began on September 11, 1935, near Cumberland Knob in North Carolina; construction in Virginia began the following February. On June 30, 1936, Congress formally authorized the project as the Blue Ridge Parkway and placed it under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. Some work was carried out by various New Deal public works agencies. The Works Progress Administration did some roadway construction. Crews from the Emergency Relief Administration carried out landscape work and development of parkway recreation areas. Personnel from four Civilian Conservation Corps camps worked on roadside cleanup, roadside plantings, grading slopes, and improving adjacent fields and forest lands. During World War II, the CCC crews were replaced by conscientious objectors in the Civilian Public Service program.

The parkway's construction created jobs in the region, but also displaced many residents and created new rules and regulations for landowners, including requirements related to how farmers could transport crops.[6] Residents could no longer build on their lands without permission or develop land except for agricultural use.[6] They were not permitted to use the parkway for any commercial travel but were required to transport equipment and materials on side roads.[6]

The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians were also affected by the parkway, which was built through their lands.[7] From 1935 to 1940, they resisted giving up the right-of-way through the Qualla Boundary, and they were successful in gaining more favorable terms from the U.S. government.[7] Specifically, the revised bill "specified the parkway route, assured the $40,000 payment for the tribe's land, and required the state to build [a] regular highway through the Soco Valley" (the highway referred to is part of U.S. Route 19, US 19).[7] Cherokee leaders participated in the dedications when the Cherokee sections opened in the 1950s.

Construction of the parkway was complete by the end of 1966 with one notable exception.[8] The 7.7 miles (12.4 km) stretch including the Linn Cove Viaduct around Grandfather Mountain did not open until 1987.[9] The project took over 52 years to complete.

Ecology along the parkway

Flowering shrubs and wildflowers dominate the parkway in the spring, including rhododendrons and dogwoods, moving from valleys to mountains as the cold weather retreats. Smaller annuals and perennials such as the daisy and aster flower through the summer. Brilliant autumn foliage occurs later in September on the mountaintops, descending to the valleys by later in October. Often in early-to-middle October and middle to late April, all three seasons can be seen simply by looking down from the cold and windy parkway to the green and warm valleys below. October is especially dramatic, as the colored leaves stand out boldly and occur mostly at the same time, unlike the flowers.

Major trees include oak, hickory, and tulip tree at lower elevations and buckeye and ash in the middle, turning into conifers such as fir and spruce at the highest elevations on the parkway. Trees near ridges, peaks, and passes (often called gaps or notches) are often distorted and even contorted by the wind, and persistent rime ice deposited by passing clouds in the winter.

Route description

The Blue Ridge Parkway tunnels were constructed through the rock—one in Virginia and twenty-five in North Carolina. Sections of the parkway near the tunnels are often closed in winter. (Due to dripping groundwater from above, freezing temperatures, and the lack of sunlight, ice often accumulates inside these areas even when the surrounding areas are above freezing.) The highest point on the parkway (south of Waynesville, near Mount Pisgah in North Carolina) is 6053 feet or 1845 m above sea level (AMSL) on Richland Balsam Mountain at Milepost 431, and is often closed from November to April due to inclement weather such as snow, fog, and even freezing fog from low clouds. The parkway is carried across streams, railway ravines and cross roads by 168 bridges and six viaducts.

Farm at the Humpback Rock

The parkway runs from the southern terminus of Shenandoah National Park's Skyline Drive in Virginia at Rockfish Gap to U.S. Route 441 at Oconaluftee in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park near Cherokee, North Carolina. There is no fee for using the parkway; however, commercial vehicles are prohibited without approval from the Park Service Headquarters, near Asheville, North Carolina.[10][11] The roadway is not maintained in the winter, and sections which pass over especially high elevations and through tunnels are often impassable and therefore closed from late fall through early spring. Weather is extremely variable in the mountains, so conditions and closures often change rapidly. The speed limit is never higher than 45 mph (72 km/h) and lower in some sections.

The parkway uses short side roads to connect to other highways, and there are no direct interchanges with Interstate Highways (though current plans for Interstate 73 take it along current US 220 at its parkway interchange), making it possible to enjoy wildlife and other scenery without stopping for cross-traffic. Mileposts along the parkway start at zero at the northeast end in Virginia and count to 469 at the southern end in North Carolina. The mileposts can be found on the west side of the road. Major towns and cities along the way include Waynesboro, Roanoke, and Galax in Virginia; and in North Carolina, Boone and Asheville, where it runs across the property of the Biltmore Estate. The Blue Ridge Music Center (also part of the park) is located in Galax, and Mount Mitchell (the highest point in eastern North America) is only accessible via a state highway (NC 128) from the parkway at milepost 355.4.[12]

Highlights in Virginia

Mabry Mill
The view from Craggy Gardens on the Blue Ridge Parkway
East Fork Overlook from Blue Ridge Parkway

Highlights in North Carolina

Blue Ridge Parkway in autumn near Looking Glass Rock
Black Balsam Knob, Graveyard Fields and Yellowstone Falls as seen at sunrise from Milepost 419
Sign marking the southern end of the Blue Ridge Parkway, near Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Blue Ridge Parkway featured in the 2015 America the Beautiful Quarters series

The Blue Ridge Parkway crosses the North Carolina-Virginia state line at mile 216.9. The 1749 party that surveyed the boundary included Peter Jefferson, father of Thomas Jefferson.

  • Mile 217.5 Cumberland Knob, at 2,885 feet (879 m), is the center piece of a small parkway recreation area.
  • 218.6 Fox Hunters Paradise, down a short walking path, is where hunters could listen to their hounds baying in the valley below.
  • 238.5 Brinegar Cabin was built by Martin Brinegar about 1880 and lived in until the 1930s when the homestead was purchased from his widow for the parkway. The original cabin stands there today.
  • 238.5 to 244.7 Doughton Park was named for Congressman Robert L. Doughton, a staunch supporter and neighbor of the parkway. The park has many miles of hiking trails, a lodge, dinner, picnic area and a campground.
  • 258.6 Northwest Trading Post offers crafts from North Carolina's northwestern counties.
  • 260.6 Jumpinoff Rock is at the end of a short woodland trail.
  • 264.4 The Lump is a grassy knob that provides views of the forested foothills.
  • 272 E. B. Jeffress Park has a self-guided trail to a waterfall known as the Cascades. Another trail goes to an old cabin and church.
  • 285.1 Daniel Boone's Trace, which Boone blazed to the West, crosses near here.
  • 292 to 295 Moses H. Cone Memorial Park has hiking, fishing and horse trails. Flat Top Manor, the former house of Moses H. Cone, is now used as the Parkway Craft Center.
  • 295.1 to 298 Julian Price Memorial Park, the former retreat of the insurance executive Julian Price, offers a variety of hiking trails, campground, and a 47-acre (190,000 m2) Price Lake. This is the only lake on the parkway on which paddling is allowed.
  • 304.4 Linn Cove Viaduct, the last segment of the parkway built, skirts the side of Grandfather Mountain. A visitor center is located nearby and provides access to a trail under the viaduct.
  • 308.3 Flat Rock provides views of Grandfather Mountain and Linville Valley.
  • 316.3 Linville Falls Recreation Area provides trails with overlooks of Linville Falls and the Linville Gorge. A campground and picnic area are also provided.
  • 331 Museum of North Carolina Minerals interprets the state's mineral wealth.
  • 339.5 Crabtree Meadows & Crabtree Falls (North Carolina)is a parkway recreation area with a picnic area, campground, giftshop and hiking trails.
  • 349.2 Laurel Knob, provides views of Grandfather Mountain, Linville Mountain, Hawksbill Mountain, and Table Rock (North Carolina).
  • 355.4 Mount Mitchell State Park, reached via N.C. 128, is the highest point east of the Mississippi River.
  • 359.8 Walker Knob, formerly known as Balsam Gap, is located where the Black Mountains (North Carolina) and the Great Craggy Mountains meet.
  • 361.2 Glassmine Falls, an 800-foot (240 m) ephemeral waterfall visible from an overlook on the side of the parkway.
  • 363.4 to 369.6 Craggy Gardens in the Great Craggy Mountains appear covered with purple rhododendron in mid-to-late June. Craggy Pinnacle Trail and other trails (364.1 and 364.6); road to picnic area and trails (367.6).
  • 382 The Folk Art Center is the flagship facility of the Southern Highland Craft Guild. It offers sales and exhibits of traditional and contemporary crafts of the Appalachian region. There are interpretive programs, three galleries, a library and a book store.
  • 384 The Blue Ridge Parkway Visitor Center is the newest attraction along the Parkway. The building itself is LEED- certified [1]. The Center houses a 70-seat theater showing an award-winning 24 minute film about the region. Information and orientation services are provided by the National Park Service and the Blue Ridge National Heritage Area. Eastern National has a retail shop offering books, apparel and more. There are several exhibits, including a 22-foot interactive map of the entire Blue Ridge Parkway known as the "I-Wall" which provides multi-media information on places to visit on and around the Parkway. Other exhibits focus on the history and heritage of the Parkway and Western North Carolina.
  • 408.6 Mount Pisgah was part of the Biltmore Estate. The estate became home of the first forestry school in America and the nucleus of the Pisgah National Forest. Also located here is the Pisgah Inn resort, a park service concession.
  • 417 Looking Glass Rock is visible from many spots on the Parkway starting at Mount Pisgah.
  • 418 East Fork Overlook. Located here are the headwaters of the Pigeon River. Yellowstone Falls is a short distance away and gets its name from the yellowish moss covering the rocks.
  • 420.2 Shining Rock Wilderness is the largest Wilderness in North Carolina with 18,483 acres (74.80 km2), 25 miles (40 km) of trails and peaks over 6,000 ft (1,800 m). The Wilderness is named for Shining Rock.
  • 420.2 Black Balsam Knob is a grassy bald with panoramic views just outside the Shining Rock Wilderness in Pisgah National Forest. The Wilderness also includes Cold Mountain.
  • 422.4 Devil's Courthouse is a rugged exposed mountaintop rich in Cherokee traditions.
  • 423.5 Herrin Knob Overlook. A hiking trail goes around Tanasee Bald and Herrin Knob. Tanasee Bald (423.7) is said to be the home of the mythical Cherokee giant Tsul 'Kalu.
  • 431 Richland Balsam is the highest point on the parkway at 6,053 feet (1,845 m). There is a self-guiding trail that passes through a remnant spruce-fir forest.
  • 435.7 Licklog Ridge once hosted cattlemen and their herds of cattle before it became part of the national forest. The area earns its name from the cattlemen who would place rocks of salt into logs and holes in the earth.
  • 451.2 Waterrock Knob provides a panorama of the Great Smokies, visitor center, trail, comfort station, exhibits.
  • 458.2 Heintooga Overlook spur road goes to a mile-high overlook 1.3 miles (2.1 km) from the parkway.
  • Mile 469 Southern End of the Blue Ridge Parkway intersects with U.S. 441 in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Reservation near Cherokee, North Carolina.


It is not unusual for small sections of the Parkway to be temporarily closed to repair damage caused by the cold winter climate of the mountains or for other maintenance. Detours caused by these closures are well-marked, and are arranged to cause as little disruption as possible, though maintenance such as repaving only warrants a stop/slow switch with a one-lane only restriction.

Due to serious damage in 2004 from Hurricane Frances, then again by Hurricane Ivan, many areas along the parkway were closed until the spring of 2005, with two areas that were not fully repaired until the spring of 2006.

Major intersections

County[13] Location mi[14] km Destinations Notes
Augusta Rockfish Gap 0.00 0.00 US 250 to I‑64 / Skyline Drive north – Charlottesville, Waynesboro, Shenandoah National Forest Interchange
Reids Gap SR 664 (Beech Grove Road / Reeds Gap Road) – Waynesboro
Nelson SR 814 (Campbells Mountain Road) to SR 56 Unpaved road
SR 814 (Love Road) – Sherando Lake
Tye River Gap 27.06 43.55 SR 56 – Montebello, Steele's Tavern Interchange
Rockbridge Humphreys Gap 45.43 73.11 US 60 – Buena Vista, Amherst Interchange
Amherst Otter Creek 61.44 98.88 SR 130 – Natural Bridge, Lynchburg Interchange
Bedford 64.01 103.01 US 501 – Big Island, Glasgow Interchange
Peaks of Otter 85.90 138.24 SR 43 south – Bedford Northern end of southern segment of SR 43
Botetourt Bearwallow Gap 90.81 146.14 SR 43 north / SR 695 south – Buchanan, Montvale Interchange; southern end of northern segment of SR 43
105.71 170.12 US 460 (US 221) – Bedford, Roanoke Interchange
Roanoke 112.32 180.76 SR 24 – Stewartsville, Vinton, Roanoke, Booker T. Washington National Monument Interchange
Blue Ridge Parkway Visitor Center, Virginia's Explore Park (Roanoke River Parkway)
Mill Mountain Park & Zoo, Historic Roanoke Star, Downtown Roanoke (J.B. Fishburn Parkway)
121.11 194.91 US 220 – Rocky Mount, Roanoke Interchange
Adney Gap 135.83 218.60 US 221 Connector road
Floyd SR 860 (Shooting Creek Road) Former SR 109
Tuggle Gap 165.01 265.56 SR 8 – Floyd, Stuart Interchange
SR 799 (Conner Grove Road) former SR 102 north
SR 758 (Woodberry Road) former SR 102 south
SR 758 (Buffalo Mountain Road)
Patrick Meadows of Dan 177.46 285.59 US 58 (via US 58 Bus.) – Stuart, Hillsville
Carroll / Patrick Willis Gap SR 771 (Willis Gap Road)
Carroll SR 608 (Lightning Ridge Road)
SR 608 (Ranger Road)
Fancy Gap 199.38 320.87 US 52 to I‑77 – Mt. Airy, Hillsville Interchange
Grayson Low Gap 215.69 347.12 SR 89 – Mt. Airy, Galax
  Virginia–North Carolina state line
Alleghany NC 18 – Sparta, Mt. Airy Interchange
US 21 – Roaring Gap, Sparta Interchange
NC 18 – North Wilkesboro, Laurel Springs Interchange
Ashe Miller Gap Trading Post Road – Glendale Springs
Horse Gap NC 16 – North Wilkesboro, West Jefferson Interchange
Watauga Deep Gap US 421 – Boone, Wilkesboro, North Wilkesboro Interchange
Old US 421 Connector road
Green Hill Road
US 221 / US 321 – Blowing Rock, Boone Interchange
Avery US 221 – Linville, Grandfather Mountain Interchange
NC 181 – Pineola, Morganton Interchange
Avery Linville Falls Road  – Linville Falls
US 221 – Linville Falls Community Interchange
Mitchell Gillespie Gap NC 226 – Spruce Pine, Marion Interchange
NC 226A – Little Switzerland Interchange
Yancey Buck Creek Gap 344.2 553.9 NC 80 – Marion, Burnsville Interchange
Black Mountain Gap 355.4 572.0 NC 128 – Mount Mitchell State Park
Buncombe Bull Gap 375.7 604.6 Elk Mountain Scenic Highway – Weaverville To Vance Birthplace
Craven Gap 377.4 607.4 NC 694 south (Town Mountain Road)
Asheville 382.6 615.7 US 70 (Tunnel Road) – Black Mountain, Asheville Interchange
384.8 619.3 US 74A to I‑40 – Asheville Interchange
US 25 – Hendersonville, Asheville, NC Arboretum Interchange
NC 191 to I‑26 – Asheville, Hendersonville Interchange
Henderson Elk Pasture Gap NC 151 north – Candler
Haywood Wagon Road Gap US 276 – Brevard, Waynesville Interchange
Transylvania Beech Gap NC 215 Interchange
Haywood Balsam Gap US 74 / US 23 – Waynesville, Sylva Interchange
Soco Gap US 19 (Soco Road) – Cherokee, Maggie Valley Interchange
Jackson Wolf Laurel Gap Balsam Mountain, Black Camp Gap, Masonic Marker (Heintooga Ridge Road)
Swain Ravensford US 441 – Cherokee, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also


  1. "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved March 15, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Blue Ridge Parkway". National Park Service. Retrieved July 18, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Blue Ridge Parkway". The Cultural Landscape Foundation.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "National Park Service Visitor Use Statistics". Retrieved April 19, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "America the Beautiful Quarters". U.S. Mint. Retrieved September 6, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Chesto, Shawna (Summer 2007). "The Effect of the Blue Ridge Parkway on Appalachian Farmers". Appalachian State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  8. Brown, Jeff (January 2015). "Road with a View:Blue Ridge Parkway". Civil Engineering Magazine. American Society of Civil Engineers: 42–45. Retrieved 4 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Mitchell, Monte (September 11, 2012). "25-Year-Old Linn Cove Viaduct Floats Around Grandfather Mountain". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Whisnant, Anne M. (2006). Super-Scenic Motorway: A Blue Ridge Parkway History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 45–46 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "§5.6 Commercial vehicles". Code of Federal Regulations.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Much of the following information comes from Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  13. USGS topos[full citation needed]
  14. Virginia Department of Transportation, 2012 Traffic Data[full citation needed]

Further reading

  • Hall, Karen J.; Friends of the Blue Ridge Parkway (2007). Building the Blue Ridge Parkway. Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0738552879.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Whisnant, Anne Mitchell (2006). Super-Scenic Motorway: A Blue Ridge Parkway History. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-7126-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links