|Birth name||Ellas Otha Bates
(as child, changed to Ellas McDaniel)
|Also known as||The Originator|
December 30, 1928|
McComb, Mississippi, United States
|Died||June 2, 2008
Archer, Florida, United States
|Genres||Chicago blues, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, blues|
|Occupation(s)||Singer, musician, songwriter, record producer, movie actor|
|Instruments||Vocals, guitar, violin, keyboards, percussion, drums|
|Labels||Checker, Chess, BoKay Productions, RCA, MF Productions, Triple X, Atlantic|
|Gretsch G6138 Kinman custom (pictured below)|
|Oral History, Bo Diddley talks about his early days, including his twelve years of classical music training. Interview date June 23, 2005, NAMM (National Association of Music Merchants) Oral History Library|
Bo Diddley (December 30, 1928 – June 2, 2008), born Ellas Otha Bates but changed as a child to Ellas McDaniel, was an American R&B and Chicago Blues vocalist and guitarist. In addition, he was a songwriter and music producer, usually as Ellas McDaniel, and had cameo appearances in movies. He was nicknamed The Originator because of his key role in the transition from the blues to rock and roll, and rock, and influenced a host of acts, including Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, the Beatles, The Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, Eric Clapton, The Who, Jimi Hendrix and Parliament Funkadelic.
He instigated a constant driving rhythm and biting electric guitar sound which he applied to a wide range of songs. His use of African rhythms and a signature beat, a simple five-accent clave rhythm, is a cornerstone of hip hop, rock, and pop. In recognition of his achievements Bo Diddley was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and received Lifetime Achievement Awards from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation and a Grammy Award from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. He is also recognised for his technical innovations, including his trademark rectangular guitar.
Early life and career
Born in McComb, Mississippi, as Ellas Otha Bates, he was adopted and raised by his mother's cousin, Gussie McDaniel, whose surname he assumed. In 1934, the McDaniel family moved to the largely black South Side area of Chicago, where the young Ellas dropped the name Otha and became simply Ellas McDaniel. In Chicago, he was an active member of the local Ebenezer Baptist Church, where he studied the trombone and the violin, becoming proficient enough on the violin for the musical director to invite him to join the orchestra, with which he performed until the age of 18. However, he was more taken by the pulsating, rhythmic music he heard at a local Pentecostal Church, and became interested in the guitar.
Inspired by a John Lee Hooker performance, he supplemented his work as a carpenter and mechanic by playing on street corners with friends, including Jerome Green (c. 1934–1973), in the Hipsters band, later renamed the Langley Avenue Jive Cats. Green would become a near-constant member of McDaniel's backing band, the two often trading joking insults with each other during live shows.[unreliable source?] During the summer of 1943–1944, he played at the Maxwell Street market in a band with Earl Hooker. By 1951 he was playing on the street with backing from Roosevelt Jackson on washtub bass, and Jody Williams, whom he had taught to play the guitar. Williams later played lead guitar on "Who Do You Love?" (1956).
In 1951 he landed a regular spot at the 708 Club on Chicago's South Side, with a repertoire influenced by Louis Jordan, John Lee Hooker, and Muddy Waters. In late 1954, he teamed up with harmonica player Billy Boy Arnold, drummer Clifton James and bass player Roosevelt Jackson, and recorded demos of "I'm A Man" and "Bo Diddley". They re-recorded the songs at Chess Studios with a backing ensemble comprising Otis Spann (piano), Lester Davenport (harmonica), Frank Kirkland (drums), and Jerome Green (maracas). The record was released in March 1955, and the A-side, "Bo Diddley", became a number one R&B hit.
Origins of stage name
The origin of the Bo Diddley stage name is unclear. McDaniel claimed that his peers gave him the name, which he suspected to be an insult. He also said that the name first belonged to a singer his adoptive mother knew, but harmonicist Billy Boy Arnold said that it was a local comedian's name, which Leonard Chess adopted as McDaniel's stage name and also for the title of his first single. Guitar craftsman Ed Roman stated that it was McDaniel's nickname as a Golden Gloves boxer.
A "diddley bow" is a homemade, American single-string instrument played mainly by workers in the southern fields. It probably has influences from the West African coast. In the American slang term, bo diddly, bo is an intensifier and diddly is a truncation of diddly squat, which means absolutely nothing.
Success in the 1950s and 1960s
On November 20, 1955, Bo Diddley appeared on the hugely popular Ed Sullivan TV show. The show asked him to sing "Sixteen Tons", but instead he sang "Bo Diddley". Ed Sullivan was infuriated and banned Bo Diddley from his show. He also said that Bo Diddley wouldn't last six months. The request came about because the show's staff heard Bo Diddley casually singing "Sixteen Tons" in the dressing room. Bo Diddley was a great storyteller but the slant tended to vary. He said that when he saw "Bo Diddley" on the cue-card, he thought he was to perform two songs: "Bo Diddley" and "Sixteen Tons". Chess included Diddley's "Sixteen Tons" on the 1960 album Bo Diddley Is a Gunslinger.
Bo Diddley's single hits continued in the 1950s and 1960s: "Pretty Thing" (1956), "Say Man" (1959), and "You Can't Judge a Book by the Cover" (1962). He also released a string of albums: Bo Diddley Is a Gunslinger and Have Guitar, Will Travel. These bolstered his self-invented legend. Between 1958 and 1963, Checker Records released eleven full-length Bo Diddley albums. Although, in the 1960s, he broke through as a crossover artist with white audiences, appearing at the Alan Freed concerts for example, he rarely aimed his compositions at teenagers. The album title Surfing with Bo Diddley boasted his influence on surf guitarists rather than surfing per se.
Bo Diddley wrote many songs for himself, but he also wrote for others. In 1956 he and guitarist Jody Williams co-wrote the pioneering pop song "Love Is Strange", a hit for Mickey & Sylvia in 1957. He also wrote "Mama (Can I Go Out)" which would become a minor hit for pioneering Rockabilly singer Jo Ann Campbell who performed the song in the 1959 Rock & Roll film Go Johnny Go.
Bo Diddley included women in his band: Norma-Jean Wofford, also known as "The Duchess"; Gloria Jolivet; Peggy Jones, also known as "Lady Bo", was a rare, for the time, female lead guitarist; Cornelia Redmond, also known as Cookie; Debby Hastings, who led his band for the final 25 years. After moving from Chicago to Washington, D.C., he set up one of the first home recording studios where he not only recorded the album Bo Diddley Is a Gunslinger but produced and recorded his valet, Marvin Gaye. The Bo Diddley-penned, "Wyatt Earp" was Gaye's first single. It was released on Okeh Records, after Chess turned it down. During this time, Moonglows' founder Harvey Fuqua sang backing vocals on many of Diddley's home recordings. Gaye later joined the Moonglows and followed them to Motown.
Over the decades, Bo Diddley's performing venues ranged from intimate clubs to stadiums. On March 25, 1972, he played with the Grateful Dead at the Academy of Music in New York City. The Grateful Dead released part of this concert as Volume 30 of the band's Dick's Picks concert album series. Also in the early 1970s, the soundtrack for the ground-breaking animated film Fritz the Cat contained his song "Bo Diddley", in which a crow idly finger-pops along to the track.
Bo Diddley spent some years in New Mexico, living in Los Lunas from 1971 to 1978, while continuing his musical career. He served for two and a half years as Deputy Sheriff in the Valencia County Citizens' Patrol; during that time he purchased and donated three highway-patrol pursuit-cars. In the late 1970s, Diddley left Los Lunas and moved to Hawthorne, Florida where he lived on a large estate in a custom-made log-cabin home, which he helped to build. For the remainder of his life he spent time between Albuquerque and Florida, living the last 13 years of his life in Archer, Florida, a small farming town near Gainesville.
In 1979, he appeared as an opening act for the Clash on their US tour; and in Legends of Guitar (filmed live in Spain, 1991) with B.B. King, Les Paul, Albert Collins, George Benson, among others. He joined the Rolling Stones as a guest on their 1994 concert broadcast of Voodoo Lounge, performing "Who Do You Love?" with the band. Sheryl Crow and Robert Cray also appeared on the pay-per-view special.
Diddley's final vocal performance on a studio album was with the band Munkeez Strikin' Matchiz, on their 2005 album BananAtomic Mass. He co-wrote the song "Wreck it", and was joined by Parliament-Funkadelic keyboardist Bernie Worrell and rapper Chuck D of Public Enemy.
His final guitar performance on a studio album was with the New York Dolls on their 2006 album One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This. Bo contributed guitar work to the song "Seventeen", which was included as a Bonus Track on the limited-edition version of the disc.
Bo Diddley fought sportswear brand Nike in his later years over alleged copyright infringement, specifically over the use of his likeness and the slogan "YOU DON'T KNOW DIDDLEY." In 1989, Bo had worked with Nike on a commercial in the "Bo Knows" campaign, and had entered a licensing agreement with the company. However, the agreement ended in 1991. When Nike began selling the apparel again in 1999, Diddley did not feel that Nike should continue to use the slogan or his likeness. Despite the fact that lawyers for both parties could not come to a renewed legal arrangement, Nike allegedly continued marketing the apparel, and ignored cease and desist orders. The lawsuit was filed by Diddley's attorney, John Rosenberg, in Manhattan Federal Court.
On May 13, 2007, Diddley was admitted to intensive care in Creighton University Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska, following a stroke after a concert the previous day in Council Bluffs, Iowa. Starting the show, he had complained that he did not feel well. He referred to smoke from the wildfires that were ravaging South Georgia and blowing south to the area near his home in Archer, Florida. Nonetheless, he delivered an energetic performance to an enthusiastic crowd. The next day, as Diddley was heading back home, he seemed dazed and confused at the airport. His manager, Margo Lewis, called 911 and airport security and Diddley was immediately taken by ambulance to Creighton University Medical Center and admitted to the Intensive-care unit, where he stayed for several days. After tests, it was confirmed that he had suffered a stroke. Diddley had a history of hypertension and diabetes, and the stroke affected the left side of his brain, causing receptive and expressive aphasia (speech impairment). The stroke was followed by a heart attack, which he suffered in Gainesville, Florida, on August 28, 2007.
While recovering from the stroke and heart attack, Diddley came back to his home town of McComb, Mississippi, in early November 2007, for the unveiling of a plaque devoted to him on the Mississippi Blues Trail. This marked his achievements and noted that he was "acclaimed as a founder of rock-and-roll." He was not supposed to perform, but as he listened to the music of local musician Jesse Robinson, who sang a song written for this occasion, Robinson sensed that Bo wanted to perform and handed him a microphone. That was the first and last time that Bo Diddley performed publicly after suffering a stroke.
Bo Diddley died on June 2, 2008 of heart failure at his home in Archer, Florida. Garry Mitchell, a grandson of Diddley and one of more than 35 family members at the musician's home when he died at 1:45 am EDT (05:45 GMT), said his death was not unexpected. "There was a gospel song that was sung (at his bedside) and (when it was done) he said 'wow' with a thumbs up," Mitchell told Reuters, when asked to describe the scene at Diddley's deathbed. "The song was 'Walk Around Heaven' and in his last words he said 'I'm going to heaven.'"
His funeral, a four-hour "homegoing" service, took place on June 7, 2008 at Showers of Blessings Church in Gainesville, Florida, and kept in tune with the vibrant spirit of Bo Diddley's life and career. The many in attendance chanted "Hey Bo Diddley" as a gospel band played the legend's music. A number of notable musicians sent flowers, including: George Thorogood, Tom Petty and Jerry Lee Lewis. Little Richard, who had been asking his audiences to pray for Bo Diddley throughout his illness, had to fulfil concert commitments in Westbury and New York City the weekend of the funeral. He took time at both concerts to remember his friend of a half-century, performing Bo's namesake tune in his honor.
After the funeral service, a tribute concert was held at the Martin Luther King Center, also in Gainesville, and featured performances by his son and daughter, Anthony McDaniel and Evelyn Cooper, as well as long-time background vocalist Gloria Jolivet; co-producer and guitarist Scott "Skyntyte" Free; Bo's touring band the Debby Hastings Band; and guest-artist Eric Burdon.
In the days following his death, tributes were paid to Diddley by then-President George W. Bush, the United States House of Representatives, and an uncounted number of musicians and performers, including Eric Burdon, Elvis Costello, Ronnie Hawkins, Mick Jagger, B. B. King, Tom Petty, Robert Plant, Bonnie Raitt, George Thorogood, Robert Randolph and the Family Band, Eric Clapton and Ronnie Wood. He was posthumously awarded a Doctor of Fine Arts degree by the University of Florida for his influence on American popular music. In its "People in America" radio series about influential people in American history, the Voice of America radio service paid tribute to him, describing how "his influence was so widespread that it is hard to imagine what rock and roll would have sounded like without him." Mick Jagger stated that, "he was a wonderful, original musician who was an enormous force in music and was a big influence on the Rolling Stones. He was very generous to us in our early years and we learned a lot from him". Jagger also praised the late star as a one-of-a-kind musician, adding, "We will never see his like again".
In November 2009, the guitar used by Diddley in his final stage performance sold for $60,000 at auction.
Bo Diddley achieved numerous accolades in recognition of his significant role as one of the founding fathers of rock and roll.
- 1986: inducted into the Washington Area Music Association's Hall of Fame.
- 1987: inducted the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Rockabilly Hall of Fame.
- 1990: Lifetime Achievement Award from Guitar Player magazine.
- 1998: Lifetime Achievement Awards from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation and the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences.
- 1999: His 1955 recording of his song "Bo Diddley" inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame as a recording of lasting qualitative or historical significance.
- 2000: Inducted into the Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame and into the North Florida Music Association's Hall of Fame.
- 2002: Pioneer in Entertainment Award from the National Association of Black Owned Broadcasters
- 2002: Bo Diddley was honored as one of the first BMI Icons at the 50th annual BMI Pop Awards. He was presented the award along with BMI affiliates Chuck Berry and Little Richard.
- 2008: Although confirmed before his death in June 2008, an honorary degree was posthumously conferred upon Diddley by the University of Florida in August 2008.
- 2009: Florida's Secretary of State announces Bo's induction into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame (induction to occur during Florida Heritage Month, March 2010).
- 2010: Bo Diddley was inducted into the Hit Parade Hall of Fame.
In 2003, U.S. Representative John Conyers paid tribute to Bo Diddley in the United States House of Representatives describing him as "one of the true pioneers of rock and roll, who has influenced generations".
In 2004, Mickey and Sylvia's 1956 recording of "Love Is Strange" (a song first recorded by Diddley but not released until a year before his death) was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame as a recording of qualitative or historical significance, and he was inducted into the Blues Foundation's Blues Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked him No. 20 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
In 2005, Bo Diddley celebrated his 50th anniversary in music with successful tours of Australia and Europe, and with coast-to-coast shows across North America. He performed his song "Bo Diddley" with Eric Clapton, Robbie Robertson and longtime bassist and musical director Debby Hastings at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 20th annual induction ceremony. In the UK, Uncut magazine included his 1957 debut album "Bo Diddley" in its listing of the '100 Music, Movie & TV Moments That Have Changed The World'.
In 2006, Bo Diddley participated as the headliner of a grassroots organized fundraiser concert, to benefit the town of Ocean Springs, Mississippi, which had been devastated by Hurricane Katrina. The "Florida Keys for Katrina Relief" had originally been set for October 23, 2005, when Hurricane Wilma barreled through the Florida Keys on October 24, causing flooding and economic mayhem. In January 2006, the Florida Keys had recovered enough to host the fundraising concert to benefit the more hard-hit community of Ocean Springs. When asked about the fundraiser Bo Diddley stated, "This is the United States of America. We believe in helping one another". In an interview with Holger Petersen, on Saturday Night Blues on CBC Radio in the fall of 2006 Bo Diddley commented about the racism that existed in the music industry establishment during the early part of his career, that saw him deprived of royalties from the most successful part of his career.
Bo Diddley performed a number of shows around the country in 2005 and 2006 with the fellow Rock and Roll Hall of Famer Johnnie Johnson Band, featuring Johnson on keyboards, Richard Hunt on drums and Gus Thornton on bass. From 1985 until he died, his touring band consisted of Debby Hastings (bassist and musical director); Jim Satten (guitarist, band leader, musical director); Scott "Skyntyte" Free, Nunzio Signore or Frank Daley (guitar); Tom Major, Dave Johnson, Yoshi Shimada, Mike Fink or Sandy Gennaro (drums); John Margolis, Dave Keys or Bo's personal manager, Margo Lewis (keyboards).
Bo Diddley was honored by the Mississippi Blues Commission with a Mississippi Blues Trail historic marker placed in McComb, his birthplace, in recognition of his enormous contribution to the development of the blues in Mississippi. On June 5, 2009 the city of Gainesville, Florida, officially renamed and dedicated its downtown plaza the Bo Diddley Community Plaza. The plaza was the site of many benefit concerts at which Bo Diddley performed during his lifetime to raise awareness about the plight of the homeless in Alachua County, and to raise money for local charities, as well as the Red Cross.
The 1988 video game Super Mario Bros. 3 featured a ghost-like enemy named "Boo Diddley" in an homage to the legendary singer. In later games, his name was changed to "Boo".
The Bo Diddley beat
Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley" (1955), his debut single which introduced the Bo Diddley beat.
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Bo Diddley is well known for the Bo Diddley beat, which is essentially the clave rhythm, and one of the most common bell patterns found in sub-Saharan African music traditions. Tamlyn found this rhythm in 13 rhythm and blues recordings made in the years 1944–55, including two by Johnny Otis from 1948.
Bo Diddley has given different accounts regarding how he began to use this rhythm. Sublette asserts: "In the context of the time, and especially those maracas [heard on the record], 'Bo Diddley' has to be understood as a Latin-tinged record. A rejected cut recorded at the same session was titled only 'Rhumba' on the track sheets." The Bo Diddley beat is similar to "hambone", a style used by street performers who play out the beat by slapping and patting their arms, legs, chest, and cheeks while chanting rhymes. Somewhat resembling "shave and a haircut, two bits" rhythm, Diddley came across it while trying to play Gene Autry's "(I've Got Spurs That) Jingle, Jangle, Jingle". Three years before Bo's "Bo Diddley", a song similar syncopation "Hambone", was cut by Red Saunders' Orchestra with The Hambone Kids. In 1944, "Rum and Coca Cola", containing the Bo Diddley beat, was recorded by the Andrews Sisters and later Buddy Holly's "Not Fade Away" (1957) and Them's "Mystic Eyes" (1965) used the beat.
In its simplest form, the Bo Diddley beat can be counted out as either a one-bar, or a two-bar phrase. Here is the count as a one-bar phrase: One e and ah, two e and ah, three e and ah, four e and ah. The bolded counts are the clave rhythm.
Many songs (for example, "Hey Bo Diddley" and "Who Do You Love?") often have no chord changes; that is, the musicians play the same chord throughout the piece, so that the rhythms create the excitement, rather than having the excitement generated by harmonic tension and release. In his other recordings, Bo Diddley used a variety of rhythms, from straight back beat to pop ballad style to doo-wop, frequently with maracas by Jerome Green.
Also an influential guitar player, he developed many special effects and other innovations in tone and attack. Bo Diddley's trademark instrument was the rectangular-bodied Gretsch nicknamed the "Twang Machine" (referred to as "cigar-box shaped" by music promoter Dick Clark). Although he had other odd-shaped guitars custom-made for him by other manufacturers throughout the years, most notably the "Cadillac" and the rectangular "Turbo 5-speed" (with built-in envelope filter, flanger and delay) designs made by Tom Holmes (who also made guitars for ZZ Top's Billy Gibbons, among others), Diddley fashioned the square guitar himself around 1958 and wielded it in thousands of concerts over the years. In a 2005 interview on JJJ radio in Australia, Bo implied that the design sprang from an embarrassing moment. During an early gig, while jumping around on stage with a Gibson L5 guitar, he landed awkwardly hurting his groin. He then went about designing a smaller, less restrictive guitar that allowed him to keep jumping around on stage while still playing his guitar. He also played the violin, which is featured on his mournful instrumental "The Clock Strikes Twelve", a twelve-bar blues.
He often created lyrics as witty and humorous adaptations of folk music themes. The song "Bo Diddley" was based on the African American clapping rhyme "Hambone" (which in turn was based on the lullaby "Hush Little Baby"). Likewise, "Hey Bo Diddley" is based on the song "Old MacDonald". The rap-style boasting of "Who Do You Love?", a wordplay on hoodoo, used many striking lyrics from the African-American tradition of toasts and boasts. His "Say Man" and "Say Man, Back Again," both of which were later cited as progenerators of hip-hop music, share a strong connection to the insult game known as "the dozens". For example: "You got the nerve to call somebody ugly. Why you so ugly, the stork that brought you into the world ought to be arrested".
- Bo Diddley (1958)
- Go Bo Diddley (1959)
- Have Guitar Will Travel (1960)
- Bo Diddley in the Spotlight (1960)
- Bo Diddley Is a Gunslinger (1960)
- Bo Diddley Is a Lover (1961)
- Bo Diddley's a Twister (1962)
- Bo Diddley (1962)
- Bo Diddley & Company (1963)
- Surfin' with Bo Diddley (1963)
- Two Great Guitars (1964)
- Hey! Good Lookin' (1965)
- 500% More Man (1965)
- The Originator (1966)
- Super Blues (1967)
- The Super Super Blues Band (1968)
- The Black Gladiator (1970)
- Another Dimension (1971)
- Where It All Began (1972)
- The London Bo Diddley Sessions (1973)
- Big Bad Bo (1974)
- 20th Anniversary of Rock & Roll (1976)
- Ain't It Good To Be Free (1983)
- Breakin' Through the B.S. (1989)
- Living Legend (1989)
- This Should Not Be (1992)
- A Man Amongst Men (1996)
- George R. White, Living Legend, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, 1995.
- Laurent Arsicaud, Bo Diddley, Je suis un homme, Camion Blanc editions, 2012.
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Elvis Presley, a young, still raw hayseed, was making his first trip to the Big Apple to see his new record company, and the Apollo was where he wanted to be. Night after night in New York he sat in the Apollo transfixed by the pounding rhythms, the dancing and prancing, the sexual spectacle of rhythm-and-blues masters like Bo Diddley...In 1955, Elvis's stage presence was still rudimentary. But watching Bo Diddley charge up the Apollo crowd undoubtedly had a profound effect on him. When he returned to New York a few months later for his first national television appearance, on Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey's "Stage Show," he again spent hours at the Apollo after rehearsals. On the Dorsey show Elvis shocked the entire country with his outrageous hip-shaking performance, and the furor that followed made him an American sensation.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Rhythm and Blues Foundation
- Some sources give his name as Otha Ellas Bates.
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-  Archived April 2, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived April 3, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
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