Bombardment of the Selee River Forts
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The Bombardment of the Selee River Forts, or the Bombardment of Ganghwa, was the result of a Korean attack on two United States Navy warships supporting the Korean Expedition in 1871. The incident broke down relations between Korea and the United States diplomatic expedition sent to establish trade agreements with the Joseon monarchy. The Battle of Ganghwa was fought as a punitive action against the Korean batteries which had attacked USS Palos.
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- Gordon H. Chang, "Whose "Barbarism"? Whose "Treachery"? Race and Civilization in the Unknown United States-Korea War of 1871," Journal of American History, Vol. 89, No. 4 (Mar., 2003), pp. 1331–1365 in JSTOR