Bone Valley Formation

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Bone Valley Formation
Stratigraphic range: Middle Miocene to Early Pliocene
Type Formation
Unit of Hawthorn Group
Underlies Pleistocene sand
Overlies Peace River Formation
Thickness 30 metres (100 ft)
Primary Sand, marl, clay
Other Phosphorite pebbles, chert
Region  Florida
Country  United States
Type section
Named for Bone Valley, Florida
Named by G.C. Matson and F.G. Clapp, 1909[1]

The Bone Valley Formation is a geologic formation in Florida. It is sometimes classified as the upper member of the Peace River Formation of the Hawthorn Group.[2] It contains economically important phosphorite deposits that are mined in west-central Florida, as well as rich assemblages of vertebrate fossils.


The Bone Valley Formation consists of sandy marl that contains pebbles of phosphate and chert, fragments of bone, and other organic remains. The finer grained material is soft and plastic when wet, but hardens when dry.[1]


The Bone Valley Formation contains mammal fossils and its age has been determined by mammalian biostratigraphy.
Period: Neogene
Epoch: Middle Miocene to Early Pliocene
North American land mammal age: Barstovian to Hemphillian[3]


The Bone Valley Formation includes a diverse assemblage of vertebrate fossils. These include remains sea turtles,[4] equines,[5] felines,[6][7] peccaries,[8] and others.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Matson, G.C. and Clapp, F.G. 1909. A preliminary report on the geology of Florida with special reference to the stratigraphy. Florida Geological Survey Annual Report, no. 2, p. 13-173.
  2. U.S. Geological Survey. "Geologic Unit: Bone Valley". Retrieved 2014-12-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Morgan, G.S. 1993. Mammalian biochronology and marine-nonmarine correlations in the Neogene of Florida. In: Zullo, V.A. and others, The Neogene of Florida and adjacent regions; proceedings of the Third Bald Head Island conference on coastal plains geology, Hilton Head Island, SC, November 4–8, 1992. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication no. 37, p. 55-66.
  4. Dodd Jr, C.K. and Morgan, G. S. 1992. Fossil sea turtles from the early Pliocene Bone Valley Formation, central Florida. Journal of herpetology, 1-8.
  5. MacFadden, B. J. 1986. Late Hemphillian monodactyl horses (Mammalia, Equidae) from the Bone Valley formation of central Florida. Journal of Paleontology, 466-475.
  6. MacFadden, B. J. and Galiano, H. 1981. Late Hemphillian cat (Mammalia, Felidae) from the Bone Valley Formation of central Florida. Journal of Paleontology, 218-226.
  7. Berta, A. and Galiano, H. 1983. Megantereon hesperus from the late Hemphillian of Florida with remarks on the phylogenetic relationships of machairodonts (Mammalia, Felidae, Machairodontinae). Journal of Paleontology, 892-899.
  8. Wright, D. B. and Webb, S. D. 1984. Primitive Mylohyus (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) from the late Hemphillian Bone Valley of Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 3(3), 152-159.