Brain mapping

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Brain mapping
MeSH D001931
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Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps. Brain mapping is further defined as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging (including intra-operative, microscopic, endoscopic and multi-modality imaging), immunohistochemistry, molecular & optogenetics, stem cell and cellular biology, engineering (material, electrical and biomedical), neurophysiology and nanotechnology, according to the definition established in 2013 by Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT).


All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behavior onto brain regions (see fMRI). One such map, called a connectogram, depicts cortical regions around a circle, organized by lobes. Concentric circles within the ring represent various common neurological measurements, such as cortical thickness or curvature. In the center of the circles, lines representing white matter fibers illustrate the connections between cortical regions, weighted by fractional anisotropy and strength of connection.[1]

Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping.


In 1962 The origin of Brain Mapping Research was first started in Ohio, and conducted at the Columbus State Hospital. More than 500 subjects were scanned using the US patented Hyper-frequency Electroencephalograph (Hyfreeg) brain scanner for the Brain Mapping Research. [2] A detailed brain mapping report was published by the Battelle Memorial Institute "A New Window into the Human Brain?". [3] The Journal of the American Medical Association also published a report concerning this brain mapping research: "Is Nervous System Amplitude or Frequency Oriented?". [4] JAMA reported: "One of the points on which most neurologist have agreed, is that the nervous system is amplitude oriented. Now a new theory indicates exactly the opposite--that the nervous system actually is frequency oriented." As a result of the brain mapping research, the Psychiatric team members were able to cure: Epilepsy, Psychomotor Epilepsy, Hallucinations, and Schizophrenia by lowering the neuronal activity in the Reticular Activating System located in the Brain Stem. They also observed the functions of Dreaming and the unique functions of the two Brain Hemispheres that was later confirmed by a girl born with only one Hemisphere. [5] [6]

A book has been published by Kindle Books describing the original Brain Mapping Research project conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute, and identifies a behavioral classification matrix and methods for personality modification. [7]

Victor H. Fischer was the Principle Investigator of the original Psychiatric team incorporating: ten Clinical Psychiatrists, Dr. Paul W. Watkins MD as a member of the Psychiatric staff, Dr. Calvin Baker MD, former commissioner of the Ohio Department of Mental Hygiene, and Neurologist consultant, USAF Colonel Robert F. Hood, MD, Neurology and Psychiatry, Director of Psychiatry, Wright-Patterson Medical Center, USA.

In the late 1980s in the United States, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science was commissioned to establish a panel to investigate the value of integrating neuroscientific information across a variety of techniques.[8]

Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy, physiology, perfusion, function and phenotypes of the human brain. Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory, learning, aging, and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia, autism, and clinical depression. This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project.[9] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries (as in the case of Phineas Gage)[10] and improving brain injury treatment.[11]

Following a series of meetings, the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) evolved.[12] The ultimate goal is to develop flexible computational brain atlases.

On May 5, 2010 the Supreme Court in India (Smt. Selvi vs. State of Karnataka) declared brain mapping, lie detector tests and narcoanalysis to be unconstitutional, violating Article 20 (3) of Fundamental Rights. These techniques cannot be conducted forcefully on any individual and requires consent for the same. When they are conducted with consent, the material so obtained is regarded as evidence during trial of cases according to Section 27 of the Evidence Act.[13]

Current Atlas tools

See also


  1. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  2. Fischer, Victor H. (July 20, 1965). "Detecting Physiological Conditions By Measuring Bioelectric Output Frequency #3,195,533". United States Patent Office.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Fischer, Victor H. (May 1962). "A New Window into the Human Brain?". Battelle Technical Review: 3-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Fischer, Victor H. (June 23, 1962). "Is Nervous System Amplitude or Frequency Oriented?". The Journal of the American Medical Association: 30-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Fischer, Victor H. (August 4, 2009). "Bilateral visual field maps in a patient with only one hemisphere". 106 (31). PNAS Organization: 13034–13039.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  8. Pechura, Constance M.; Martin, Joseph B. (1991). Mapping the Brain and Its Functions: Integrating Enabling Technologies Into Neuroscience Research. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on a National Neural Circuitry Database.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[page needed]
  9. Koslow, Stephen H.; Huerta, Michael F. (1997). Neuroinformatics: An Overview of the Human Brain Project.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[page needed]
  10. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  11. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  12. Toga, Arthur W.; Mazziotta, John C., eds. (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods. ISBN 978-0-12-693019-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[page needed]
  14. Harvard Whole Brain Atlas
  15. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

Further reading

  • Rita Carter (1998). Mapping the Mind.
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Brain Mapping And Language
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Focus on Brain Mapping Research.
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Trends in Brain Mapping Research.
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.
  • Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET 2001).
  • Konrad Maurer and Thomas Dierks (1991). Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
  • Konrad Maurer (1989). Topographic Brain Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
  • Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods.
  • Tatsuhiko Yuasa, James Prichard and S. Ogawa (1998). Current Progress in Functional Brain Mapping: Science and Applications.

External links