Brothers of Italy

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Brothers of Italy
Fratelli d'Italia
President Giorgia Meloni
Founded 17 Decembre 2012
Split from The People of Freedom
Headquarters Via di San Teodoro, 20
00186 Rome
Newspaper La Gazzetta Tricolore
Youth wing Gioventù Nazionale
Membership  (2014) 50,000[1]
Ideology National conservatism[2]
Nationalism[2]
Euroscepticism[3]

Social conservatism
Political position Right-wing[4]
European affiliation none
International affiliation none
European Parliament group no MEPs
Colours      Blue
Chamber of Deputies
10 / 630
Senate
0 / 315
European Parliament
0 / 73
Website
www.fratelli-italia.it
Politics of Italy
Political parties
Elections

Brothers of Italy (Italian: Fratelli d'Italia, FdI), whose complete name is Brothers of Italy – National Alliance (Fratelli d'Italia – Alleanza Nazionale, FdI–AN)[5] is a national-conservative political party in Italy.

History

Background and foundation

In November 2012 Ignazio La Russa and Maurizio Gasparri, leaders of Protagonist Right, a faction within The People of Freedom (PdL), announced their support for Angelino Alfano in the party primary scheduled for December.[6] The subsequent cancellation of the primary was not agreed by La Russa and many others in the party.

On 16 December Giorgia Meloni and Fabio Rampelli, Guido Crosetto and Giuseppe Cossiga organised in Rome the so-called "Primaries of Ideas",[7] in which they openly criticised Silvio Berlusconi's leadership and any possible prospect of an electoral alliance with Prime Minister Mario Monti, proposed by some leading factions of the party (Liberamente, Network Italy, Reformism and Freedom, Liberal Populars, New Italy, FareItalia, etc.).[8][9]

On 17 December La Russa, one of the three national coordinators of the PdL, announced he was leaving the party in order to form "National Centre-right", including not just right-wingers, but also Christian democrats and liberals from Forza Italia like Crosetto and Cossiga.[10] The split from the PdL was agreed with Berlusconi in order to better represent the Italian right and present an appealing choice to right-wing voters.[11] Simultaneously, Crosetto and Meloni announced the formation of "Brothers of Italy",[12] whose name was taken from the first line of the national anthem. On 21 December the two groups, formed mainly by former members of National Alliance (La Russa, Meloni, Rampelli, Massimo Corsaro, Viviana Beccalossi, Alfredo Mantica, etc.) joined forces as "Brothers of Italy – National Centre-right",[13] usually shortened to "Brothers of Italy" (FdI).

La Russa's followers soon formed their own groups in most regional councils, starting with the Regional Council of Lombardy on 18 December (under the leadership of La Russa's brother),[14] and the Senate.[15] Two MEPs, Carlo Fidanza and Marco Scurria, both members of the Group of the European People's Party, joined the party too.

2013 general election

In the 2013 general election, held in February, the party obtained 2.0% of the vote and 9 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.[16] On 5 March 2013 the party's executive board appointed La Russa president, Crosetto coordinator and Meloni leader in the Chamber.[17]

During 2013 presidential election's fourth ballot, FdI decided to support Franco Marini, a Democrat supported also by the PdL and Lega Nord. Following the unsuccessful outcome of the vote, FdI started voting for colonel Sergio De Caprio,[18] known for having arrested Mafia boss Totò Riina. On 29 April 2013 Meloni announced in the Chamber of Deputies the party's vote of no confidence for Enrico Letta's government of Enrico Letta, supported by the Democrats, the PdL and Civic Choice.[19]

In the May and June 2013 local elections FdI increased its electoral support, especially in Central and Southern Italy.[citation needed]

The new National Alliance

In September 2013 FdI launched "Workshop for Italy" (Officina per l'Italia, OpI), a political initiative aimed at broadening the party's base.[20] The newly formed OpI's political committee, led by Cossiga, included, among others, former minister of Foreign Affairs Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata, former members of National Alliance (notably including Gianni Alemanno, Mario Landolfi, Sergio Berlato, Adolfo Urso and Souad Sbai), former members of Forza Italia (including former Socialists like Giulio Tremonti and Antonio Guidi, and former Christian Democrats like Fabio Garagnani), former members of the Union of the Centre (Magdi Allam and Luciano Ciocchetti), and a former member of Lega Nord (Oreste Rossi).[21] Alemanno's Italy First and Urso's FareItalia were to join FdI by February 2014.[22][23]

Giorgia Meloni in 2014.

In December 2013 the "National Alliance Foundation", the association in charge of administering the assets of the defunct party, authorized FdI, supported by Alemanno and Urso, to use the logo of AN in the 2014 European Parliament election,[24] despite opposition from an alternative front composed of The Right, Future and Freedom, Tricolour Flame, I South, New Alliance, etc.[25] let alone the former members of AN who were active in Forza Italia like Maurizio Gasparri and Altero Matteoli.[26] In February 2014 the party organised a "primary" in which party members and supporters agreed to change the party's name to Brothers of Italy – National Alliance, chose the new symbol and voted Meloni for president.[27] In March, during its first party congress, the FdI ratified the primary's outcome and Meloni was proclaimed president.[5][28]

In the EP election the FdI obtained 3.7% of the vote and no seats. The party did particularly well in Lazio (5.6%) and, more generally, in Central and Southern Italy.[29]

In October 2015, during an assembly of the National Alliance Foundation, the representatives of FdI, supported by former AN heavyweights who had remained in the PdL, won a decisive vote over a front led by Alemanno, who had left FdI earlier, joined forces with former allies of Gianfranco Fini and wanted to form a larger party (including FdI). FdI thus retained the use of AN's name and symbol, while Alemanno announced that he would create a "Movement for the United Right".[30][31]

Toward Our Land

In November 2015 it was announced that the party would undergo a new process of enlargement and that a new party, named Our Land (TN), would be launched by January 2016. TN would comprise FdI, along with other right-wing politicians, notably including Alberto Giorgetti (a deputy of Forza Italia, who was long a member of AN), Giuseppe Cossiga (former deputy of Forza Italia and founding member of FdI) and Walter Rizzetto (deputy of Free Alternative, originally elected with the Five Star Movement).[32][33][34]

In March 2016 Rizzetto officially joined FdI and, contextually, it was announced that the party's group in the Chamber will be renamed "Brothers of Italy–Our Land".[35][36][37] As of May 2016, the name change has not happened yet, but, in the meantime, two deputies have switched from FI.[38]

Ideology and factions

FdI traces its roots in the history and values of the Italian Social Movement and National Alliance.[39][40] The party's main ideological trends are Italian nationalism and conservatism, but its ideology includes also an Eurosceptic sentiment (mainly against the treaty of Lisbon)[41] and economic liberalism.

The FdI has included several internal factions, notably including:

Alemanno and Poli Bortone left FdI, along with their factions, in December 2014 and April 2015, respectively.

Election results

Italian Parliament

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2013 666,035 (#8) 1.95
9 / 630
Giorgia Meloni
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2013 590,083 (#7) 1.92
0 / 315
Giorgia Meloni

European Parliament

Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2014 1,004,037 (#7) 3.66
0 / 73
Giorgia Meloni

Regional Councils

Region Latest election # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
Abruzzo 2014 19,548 (#9) 2.9
0 / 31
Apulia 2015 39,164 (#10) 2.3
0 / 51
Calabria 2014 19,353 (#13) 2.5
0 / 30
Campania 2015 124,499 (#6) 5.5
2 / 51
Emilia-Romagna 2014 23,052 (#8) 1.9
1 / 50
Lazio 2013 107,731 (#6) 3.8
1 / 50
Liguria 2015 16,525 (#6) 3.1
1 / 30
Lombardy 2013 83,810 (#10) 1.5
2 / 80
Marche 2015 34,538 (#5) 6.5
1 / 31
Piedmont 2014 72,776 (#6) 3.7
1 / 50
Sardinia 2014 19,275 (#7) 2.8
2 / 60
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 2013 3,699 (#12) 1.6
0 / 35
Tuscany 2015 51,152 (#6) 3.9
1 / 41
Umbria 2015 16,525 (#5) 6.2
1 / 20
Veneto 2015 48,163 (#9) 3.6
1 / 51

Leadership

Symbols

External links

References

  1. Giorgia Meloni, Atreju 2014, September 21, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wolfram Nordsieck (2013). "Parties and Elections in Europe – Italy". Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  3. "Marine Le Pen sceglie Giorgia Meloni come alleata: "Sostiene la battaglia contro l'euro"". Libero. April 8, 2014. 
  4. Mackenzie, James (22 October 2013). "Small right-wing party seeks to profit from Berlusconi's disarray". Reuters. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Fratelli d'Italia – Alleanza Nazionale |". Fratelli-italia.it. 2015-04-29. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  6. "Primarie Pdl: La Russa-Gasparri ufficializzano sostegno Alfano - La Stampa". Lastampa.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  7. "Crosetto-Meloni, nasce la destra antiMonti". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  8. "Pdl, il giorno dei montiani. "No a scissioni"". Corriere della Sera. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  9. "Appello a Monti e guerra alla sinistra Il Pdl si ricompatta". Corriere della Sera. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  10. "Pdl, la destra in fermento La Russa se ne va e fonda "Centrodestra nazionale"". Corriere della Sera. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  11. "Pdl, la destra in fermento La Russa se ne va e fonda "Centrodestra nazionale"". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  12. "Meloni e Crosetto dicono addio Ma il Cavaliere si riprende il Pdl". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  13. "Dal Centrodestra nazionale ai Fratelli d'Italia: Giorgia Meloni e Guido Crosetto vicini a Ignazio La Russa". Huffington post. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  14. "Lombardia, nasce il gruppo Centrodestra Nazionale". Milanotoday.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  15. "senato.it - Composizione del Gruppo Fratelli d'Italia - Centrodestra Nazionale nella XVI Legislatura". Leg16.senato.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  16. "Elezioni 2015". Elezioni.interno.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  17. "::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni - Camera del 24 Febbraio 2013". Elezionistorico.interno.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  18. "Quirinale, Fratelli d'Italia candida il Capitano Ultimo - Tgcom24 - Foto 1". Tgcom24.mediaset.it. 2013-04-18. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  19. [1] Archived October 2, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  20. di Gloria Sabatini (1976-02-23). "Da Atreju nasce l'Officina per l'Italia. Meloni: la sfida è lanciata, ma niente rendite di posizione - Secolo d'Italia". Secoloditalia.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  21. [2] Archived November 11, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  22. "Ecco programma e fini (anti euro) del Partito della Nazione di Giorgia Meloni". Formiche. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  23. "A Fiuggi La Casa Comune Della Destra Per Fare Il Partito Della Nazione | Prima L'Italia". Primalitalia.net. 2014-02-13. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  24. "FdI utilizzerà logo An ad europee - Top News". ANSA.it. 2013-11-18. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  25. "Storace, Menia e Poli Bortone, il trio che si coalizza per contendere la destra al duo Meloni-La Russa". Formiche. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  26. "Ecco le macerie della destra italiana: liti, mozioni e veleni". Formiche. 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  27. "Fratelli d'Italia, ritorno di fiamma: le primarie scelgono simbolo e presidente nazionale" (in italiano). IlGiornale.it. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  28. "Fratelli d'Italia-Alleanza Nazionale | Primo congresso nazionale | Fiuggi". Polisblog.it. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  29. "[Scrutini] Europee - Elezioni del 25 maggio 2014 - Ministero dell'Interno". Elezioni.interno.it. 2014-05-26. Retrieved 2015-05-19. 
  30. QuestIT s.r.l. "Archivio Corriere della Sera". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  31. Michele Esposito, Ansa. "An, Giorgia Meloni si tiene il simbolo e sconfigge Gianni Alemanno e Gianfranco Fini". Huffingtonpost.it. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  32. "Fratelli d'Italia lancia "Terra nostra": a fine novembre la prima assemblea - Secolo d'Italia". Secoloditalia.it. 1976-02-23. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  33. "Nasce Terra nostra, parte il derby a destra tra Fini e Meloni". IlGiornale.it (in (Italian)). Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  34. "Fdi, "Terra nostra" per ampliare destra - Italia - La Gazzetta del Mezzogiorno". Lagazzettadelmezzogiorno.it. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  35. "Ex M5s Walter Rizzetto aderisce a Fratelli d'Italia: "Una scelta di cuore e non di calcoli" - Il Fatto Quotidiano". Ilfattoquotidiano.it. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  36. "Walter Rizzetto cambia ancora e sceglie FdiAn - Cronaca - Messaggero Veneto". Messaggeroveneto.gelocal.it. 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  37. "Meloni: «Oggi Fratelli D'Italia si arricchisce con l'ingresso di Walter Rizzetto, ex M5s» - Corriere TV". Video.corriere.it. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  38. http://www.camera.it/leg17/217?idlegislatura=17&idGruppo=1929&idGruppoMisto=&tipoVis=
  39. "Fratelli d’Italia: dova va la destra italiana". i Mille. March 24, 2014. 
  40. "Fratelli d'Italia riaccende la "fiamma". Nel nuovo logo i simboli di Msi e An". TGcom24. February 16, 2014. 
  41. "Fratelli d'Italia attacca: "Ci vuole il coraggio di dire addio all'euro"". il Giornale. March 9, 2014.