Cadillac ELR

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Cadillac ELR
2014 Cadillac ELR trimmed.jpg
2014 Cadillac ELR
Manufacturer Cadillac (General Motors)
Production 2013–Present
Model years 2014, 2016–Present
Assembly United States: Detroit, Michigan (Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly)[1]
  • Exterior: Tim Kozub
  • Interior: Keith Fisher
Body and chassis
Class Compact car[1]
Body style 2-door coupé
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive[1]
Platform GM Delta II / GM Voltec[3]
Engine 1398 cc EcoFLEX LUU I4 (gasoline)[1]
Transmission CVT Voltec 4ET50 multi-mode electric transaxle[1]
Hybrid drivetrain Series hybrid[4]
Battery 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery[1]
Range 340 mi (550 km)(EPA)[5]
Electric range 37 mi (60 km) (EPA)[5]
Wheelbase 2,695 mm (106.1 in)[1]
Length 4,724 mm (186.0 in)[1]
Width 1,847 mm (72.7 in)[1]
Height 1,420 mm (55.9 in)[1]
Curb weight 1,846 kg (4,070 lb)[1]

The Cadillac ELR is a luxury plug-in hybrid compact coupé developed and manufactured by Cadillac.[6] The ELR powertrain is a re-tuned version of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain used in the Chevrolet Volt.[3] The ELR's 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack delivers an all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a top speed of 106 mph (171 km/h).[5][7]

Cadillac debuted the concept car that would become the ELR, the Cadillac Converj, at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. The production version was unveiled four years later, at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[8][9] Deliveries to retail customers in the United States and Canada began in December 2013.[10]


The Cadillac Converj concept debuted in January, 2009 at the North American International Auto Show.
The Cadillac Converj concept viewed from the rear

General Motors debuted the Cadillac Converj concept, the car that would eventually become the 2014 Cadillac ELR, in January 2009, at the North American International Auto Show.[11]

In April 2009, Motor Trend reported that General Motors approved the production version of Cadillac Converj in 2011 as 2012 model year vehicle.[12] GM refuted the report, saying the Converj was "a concept vehicle undergoing a review".[13] An August 2009 BusinessWeek report stated that GM Vice Chairman Robert Lutz wanted to see the Converj go to production, possibly as early as 2014,[14] and it was reported that while delivering the keynote speech at the 46th annual Northwood Auto Show Lutz "hinted that an announcement on production for the well-received Cadillac Converj concept car may be forthcoming."[15] At the 2010 North American International Auto Show, Lutz told the Society of Automotive Analysts “The Cadillac Converj is cleared for production,” but that "It won’t be next year or the year after that.”[16] Despite these statements, in March 2010, Bloomberg BusinessWeek reported that GM decided to end work on the Converj, because the Converj "couldn’t have enough amenities and electric range to be compelling to buyers and produce a profit".[17]

General Motors reversed its decision to cancel the project in August 2011 and announced the Converj concept would go into production as the Cadillac ELR, at a price less than the US$57,400 Tesla Model S, but did not provide details on performance or timing. General Motors said the ELR would be about the same size as the Chevrolet Volt and produced in the same facility.[18][19] Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy,[20] the Cadillac ELR is after the Chevrolet Volt EREV and Spark EV the third electrically powered passenger car by General Motors in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued: In contrast to pure battery EV protagonists, like e.g., Tesla Motors, GM focuses for the long-range application on extended-range EV technology.

General Motors began testing ELR prototypes in mid-2012.[21][22] The production version was unveiled at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[9]


File:2014 Cadillac ELR DoE.jpg
U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu discusses the features of the 2014 Cadillac ELR exhibited at the 2013 Washington Auto Show.

The ELR is built upon the GM Delta II platform and incorporates a version of the Voltec[3] propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt. The Voltec propulsion system includes a 119–135-kilowatt electric motor, a four-cylinder engine-generator and a 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The ELR has an official all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a total range of 340 mi (550 km), as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[5] Charging times are 12.5–18 hours using the 120-volt travel charger, and about 5 hours using a 240-volt charging station. Top speed is 106 mph (171 km/h) and accelerates from 0-60 mph in 7.8 seconds in range extended mode.[7]

There was no 2015 model year Cadillac ELR. Instead, the 2016 model year Cadillac ELR was updated and improved to achieve a 25% performance boost in output from the hybrid powertrain, while the price is US$10,000 lower than the previous model. The engine management software was updated and the regenerative braking system reconfigured. The 2016 ELR delivers an all-electric range of 39 mi (63 km), up from 37 miles (60 km).[23]

Fuel economy

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially rated the 2014 model year ELR's combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 82 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.9 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 98 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). This rating considers a conversion factor of 33.7 kWh of electricity being the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, and the ELR has an energy consumption rate of 41 kWh/100mi for combined city/highway driving.[5] The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode is 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp) for combined driving. The 2014 Volt has a rating of 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp) for gasoline-only mode and a fuel economy in all-electric mode of 98 MPG-e (2.4 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 118 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent).[24] The ELR has more power than the Volt but is 300 lb (140 kg) heavier.[25]

Operating modes

The ELR has a traditional shift lever (PRNDL) with a button to select one of four driving modes: Tour, Hold, Mountain and Sport. Tour mode is the default setting, and the ELR will operate in all-electric mode (EV mode) like a pure-electric car until its battery is fully discharged. The Tour mode provides the maximum powertrain efficiency and a minimum level of vibration. Hold mode allows the driver to save the energy currently stored in the battery for later use, such as traveling in urban areas.[25]

Mountain mode was designed to provide more power in mountainous environments by increasing minimum battery state of charge (SOC) in the battery so its power is always available, and by directing the power system to use the gasoline-engine, thus maintaining performance on steep and long grades. This mode is also useful when the driver wants to drive in EV mode at the end of a long highway trip. Sport mode improves throttle response, and improves feedback with more aggressive steering and suspension settings. The ELR has paddles on the back of the steering wheel for its unique "Regen on Demand" feature. Either paddle can be used to activate aggressive regenerative braking, which slows the vehicle and simultaneously sends charging power back to the battery.[25]

The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" estimated the utility factors for plug-in hybrids to represent the percentage of miles that will be driven using electricity by an average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The ELR has a utility factor in EV mode of 65%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 29% for the Toyota Prius PHV.[26]

Production and sales

File:2014 Cadillac ELR delivery Dec 2013 (1).jpg
Shipping to dealers of the 2014 Cadillac ELR began in late December 2013.

In October 2012, General Motors announced that the ELR would be assembled at the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant, where the similar Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera, and Holden Volt are also assembled. The addition of the ELR to the plant represents an additional US$35 million investment, bringing the total product investment at the plant to US$561 million since December 2009.

General Motors began assembly of pre-production vehicles to be used for testing in late May 2013. Production of vehicles destined for retail customers began in December 2013.[27][28] Shipping to dealerships from the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly began on December 20, 2013[29] and even though retail deliveries were scheduled to begin in January 2014, the first 10 units were delivered in December 2013, six in the U.S.[10] and four in Canada.[30]

In the United States, the 2014 ELR had a base price of US$75,000 excluding any applicable government incentives.[28][31] Due to slow early sales, Cadillac skipped the 2015 model year for the ELR and brought out the 2016 at a $10,000 lower base price.

Calendar Year Total sales United States Canada[30]
2013 10 6 4
2014 1,354 1,310 44
2015 1,049 1,024 25
Total 2,413 2,340 73

Awards and recognition

2014 Cadillac ELR

In 2009, the Converj concept was awarded "Best Concept Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards, "Most Significant Concept Vehicle of 2009" in the North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards and "Specialty Concept Vehicle of the Year" by the Southeast Automotive Media Organization.[32][33][34]

In 2012, Green Car Journal selected the ELR as one of the five finalists in the Green Car Vision Awards.[35]

In 2013, the ELR was awarded "Best Production Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards.[36]

See also


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "2014 Cadillac ELR Specifications". Cadillac News. General Motors Company. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-09-17. EPA vehicle class: Compact car<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Design Powers 2014 Cadillac ELR" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. 2013-01-15. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-09-18. “When we introduced the Converj in 2009, we knew any production model would need to advance the concept yet retain the distinctive design language and styling that were so well received,” said Tim Kozub, ELR exterior design manager.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matthe, Roland; Eberle, Ulrich (2014-01-01). "The Voltec System - Energy Storage and Electric Propulsion". Retrieved 2014-05-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR". Retrieved 2014-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Mike Szostech. "Cadillac ELR Specs". My Electric Car Forums. Retrieved 2013-11-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Cadillac Converj Extended-Range Electric Vehicle". Retrieved 2012-01-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 Miersma, Seyth (2013-01-15). "2014 Cadillac ELR Is Making Green Sexy in Detroit". Autoblog. AOL. Retrieved 2013-01-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Jay Cole (2014-01-03). "Cadillac ELR Arrives Early, Manages To Sell 6 Copies In December". Retrieved 2014-01-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Johnson, Eric (January 2009). "Cadillac Converj Concept". Car and Driver. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. ...GM rolled out this gorgeous 2+2 coupe concept at the Detroit auto show. Essentially a Chevrolet Volt sedan underneath, the Cadillac Converj makes that car, no uggo itself, look like a toaster oven in comparison.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Mick, Jason (2009-04-15). "Report: Production of Cadillac Converj Approved". DailyTech. DailyTech. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-04-15). "Cadillac Converj Reportedly Approved for Production". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Welch, David (2009-08-21). "At GM, Dreams of an Electric Cadillac". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Doerr, Erich T. (2009-10-03). "Lutz Sings Praises, Quality of 'New' GM's New Auto Line". Midland Daily News. Midland Daily News. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "GM to Produce Cadillac Converj Electric Vehicle, Lutz Says". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  17. Welch, David (2010-03-01). "GM Said to Drop Volt-Based Cadillac to Focus on Plug-In Hybrids". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Cadillac Converj Extended Range EV Concept Officially Headed for Production". Green Car Congress. BioAge Group. 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2011-08-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Trudell, Craig; Welch, David (2011-08-17). "GM Plans to Build Plug-In Cadillac ELR That's Similar to Chevrolet Volt". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2011-08-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Brinkman, Norman; Eberle, Ulrich; Formanski, Volker; Grebe, Uwe-Dieter; Matthe, Roland (2012-04-15). "Vehicle Electrification - Quo Vadis". VDI. Retrieved 2013-04-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2012-06-28). "New Details on Cadillac ELR Extended-Range Electric Car". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Ernst, Kurt (2012-09-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR Spy Shots". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Noah Joseph (2015-04-15). "2016 Cadillac ELR gets more power, $9,000 price drop". Retrieved 2015-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR and 2014 Chevrolet Volt". Retrieved 2014-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Michael Harley (2013-11-25). "First Drive - 2014 Cadillac ELR: When Looks Are Everything". Retrieved 2014-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (October 2014). "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014" (PDF). EPA. Retrieved 2014-10-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> See Table 7.2 - MY 2014 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range.
  27. Ross, Jeffrey N. (2013-05-30). "First Cadillac ELR Rolls Off the Line". Autoblog. AOL. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-05-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  30. 30.0 30.1 Klippenstein, Matthew (January 2015). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, December 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-02-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> A total of 4 ELRs were sold in 2013 and 44 in 2014.
  31. "Cadillac ELR Sales to Begin in January" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. 2013-10-11. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. ...the 2014 ELR has a starting price of $75,995, including a $995 destination charge but excluding tax, title, license and dealer fees. Upon IRS certification of an anticipated federal tax credit, purchasers may be eligible for a tax credit from $0 to $7,500 depending on individual tax liability.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Maynard, Shawn (2010). "Cadillac Converj Named Best Concept Vehicle of 2009 Detroit Show". Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Blanco, Sebastian (2009-06-24). "Fisker Karma Sunset, Converj, BlueSport Roadster win Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Biel, John (2009-07-01). "Converj "Emerjes" as Top Concept Vehicle". How Stuff Works ConsumerGuide Automotive. Publications International. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2010-11-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. King, Danny (2012-01-13). "Tesla Model S, BMW i3 Among 2012 Green Car Vision Finalists". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2012-01-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Leno, Jay (Host); Saucedo, Frank (Guest) (2013-06-17). 2014 Cadillac ELR. Jay Leno's Garage (Web video). Burbank, California: NBC Studio. Retrieved 2013-11-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

Official website