|Region of Italy|
Satellite view of Calabria
|• President||Mario Oliverio (PD)|
|• Total||15,080 km2 (5,820 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 (340/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||Calabrian(s) / Calabrese / Calabresi|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|GDP/ Nominal||€33.6 billion (2008)|
|GDP per capita||€16,400 (2008)|
Calabria (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈlaːbrja]; Calàbbria in Calabrian, Calavría in Calabrian Greek, Καλαβρία in Greek, Kalavrì in Arbëresh), known in antiquity as Bruttium or formerly as Italia, is a region in Southern Italy, forming the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula.
It is bordered to the north by the region of Basilicata, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and to the east by the Ionian Sea. The region covers 15,080 km2 (5,822 sq mi) and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria in English is Calabrian.
In ancient times Calabria was referred to as "Italy". The Romans later extended the name to cover Southern Italy and then the entire peninsula. Whereas the name Calabria was used to refer to the peninsula of Salento (also known as the "heel" of Italy).
- 1 Geography
- 2 Climate
- 3 Geology
- 4 History
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure and transport
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Government and politics
- 9 Administrative divisions
- 10 Cuisine
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Universities
- 13 Notable people
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The region is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for 248 km (154 mi), with a maximum width of 110 km (68 mi). Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory. It is surrounded by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas. It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only 3.2 km (2 mi).
Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino, La Sila and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna. The Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety, and are included in the Pollino National Park. La Sila is a vast mountainous plateau, about 1,200 metres above sea level, which stretches for nearly 2,000 km2 (772 sq mi) along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches 1,928 metres. The area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests. The Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres, and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea.
In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus. The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees.
Along the coastlines, the climate is Mediterranean with average low temperatures of 8 °C (46 °F) in the winter months and average high temperatures of 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer months. Along the Apennines and in the inland areas, the climate is mountainous (continental) with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers with occasional thunderstorms.
When describing the geology of Calabria, it is commonly considered as part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the Basilicata Region to the northeast of Sicily, and including the Peloritano Mountains (although some authors extend this domain from Naples in the North up to Palermo in the Southwest). The Calabrian area shows basement (crystalline and metamorphic rocks) of Paleozoic and younger ages, covered by (mostly Upper) Neogene sediments. Studies have revealed that these rocks comprise the upper Unit of a pile of thrust sheets which dominate the Apennines and the Sicilian Maghrebides.
The Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean system is dominated by the migration of the Calabrian Arc to the southeast, overriding the African Plate and its promontories (Argand, 1922; Boccaletti and Guazzone, 1972). The main tectonic elements of the Calabrian Arc are the Southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, the "Calabria-Peloritani", or simply Calabrian block and the Sicilian Maghrebides fold-and-thrust belt. The foreland area is formed by the Apulia Platform, which is part of the Adriatic Plate, and the Ragusa or Iblean Platform, which is an extension of the African Plate. These platforms are separated by the Ionian Basin. The Tyrrhenian oceanized basin is regarded as the back-arc basin. This subduction system therefore shows the southern plates of African affinity subducting below the northern plates of European affinity.
The geology of Calabria has been studied for more than a century. For details concerning the older literature, i.e. from before 1973, the reader is referred to the review of Ogniben (1973). Ippolito (1959) presented a complete bibliography of the literature on the Calabrian geology as published up until that moment. Books, reviews and important "mile¬stones" concerning the geology of the Calabrian Arc are the following: Cortese (1895), Limanowski (1913), Quitzow (1935), Caire et al. (1960), Caire (1961), Grandjacquet et al. (1961), Ogniben (1969, 1973 ), Caire (1970, 1975, 1978 ), Burton (1971), Amodio-Morelli et al. (1976), Dubois (1976), Grandjacquet and Mascle (1978), Moussat (1983), van Dijk (1992), and van Dijk et al. (2000). The earlier works were mainly dedicated to the evolution of the basement rocks of the area. The Neogene sedimentary successions were merely regarded as "post-orogenic" infill of "neo-tectonic" tensional features. In the course of time, however, a shift can be observed in the temporal significance of these terms, from post-Eocene to post-Early Miocene to post-middle Pleistocene.
The area is seismically and volcanically highly active. This is generally ascribed to the re-establishment of an equilibrium after the latest (mid-Pleistocene) deformation phase. Some authors believe that the subduction process is still ongoing, which is a matter of debate (van Dijk & Scheepers, 1995).
Calabria is one of the oldest regions of Italy, with the first villages in the region springing up around 3,500 BC. At about 1500 BC Italic Oscan-speaking tribes settled in the region. Two of these tribes were the Oenotrians (translates to the "vine-cultivators") and the Itali. Greek contact with the latter would result in Calabria taking the name of the tribe and was the first region to be called Italy (Italia). Greeks settled heavily along the coast during the 8th and 7th centuries BC and several of their settlements, including the first Italian city called Rhégion (Reggio di Calabria) and the next ones Sybaris, Kroton (Crotone), a settlement which spawned many ancient olympic victors and where the mathematician Pythagoras later resided, and Locri, which were among the leading cities of Magna Graecia during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. The Greeks would create "Intellectual Property" in Sybaris and also turn the city of Kroton into a center of philosophy, science and medicine with the help of Pythagoras and Alcmaeon. Sybaris would also benefit from "vinoducts" which were a series of pipes that would carry wine to the homes of its citizens. Locri would be renowned for being the town where Zaleucus would create the first Western Greek law which was called the "Locrian Code".
The Greeks were conquered by the 3rd century BC by roving Oscan tribes from the north, including a branch of the Samnites called the Lucanians and an offshoot of the Lucanians called the Bruttii. The Bruttii conquered the Greek cities, established their sovereignty over present day Calabria and founded new cities, including their own capital, Cosenza (known as Consentia in the ancient times).
The Romans conquered the area in the 3rd century BC after the fierce Bruttian resistance, possibly the fiercest resistance the Romans had to face from another Italic people. At the beginning of the Roman Empire the region would form the Augustan Regio III Lucania et Bruttii of Roman Italy. After Alaric I (King of the Visigoths) sacked Rome in the year 410 he contracted malaria and died in Cosenza. Legend has it that he along with the treasure of Rome were buried under the bed of the Busento River.
During the 6th century a new group of Greeks had arrived in Calabria called the Byzantines. The Byzantines thrived in Calabria and towns such as Stilo and Rossano achieved great wealth and status. Today these two towns still retain much of their Byzantine heritage. Their best examples of Byzantine architecture are their churches with Stilo's La Cattolica and Rossano’s San Marco Evangelista. The Byzantines are credited with giving Calabria her name from the term “kalos-bruo” meaning “fertile earth.”
Around the year 800, Saracens began invading the shores of Calabria, attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines. This group of Arabs had already been successful in Sicily and knew that Calabria was another key spot. The people of Calabria retreated into the mountains for safety. Although the Arabs never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern world. In 918, Saracens captured Reggio (which was renamed Rivà) and sold the majority of its population in the slave markets of Sicily and North Africa. It is during this time of Arab invasions that many staples of today’s Calabrian cuisine came into fashion: citrus fruits and eggplants for example. Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg were also introduced.
In the 1060s the Normans, under the leadership of Robert Guiscard's brother Roger, established a presence in this borderland, and organized a government along Byzantine lines that was run by the local Greek magnates of Calabria. In 1098, Roger named the equivalent of an apostolic legate by Pope Urban II, and later formed what became the Kingdom of Sicily. The administrative divisions created in the late medieval times were maintained right through to unification: Calabria Citeriore (or Latin Calabria) in the northern half and Calabria Ulteriore (or Greek Calabria) in the southern half. By the end of the Middle Ages, large parts of Calabria continued to speak Greek as their mother tongue. During the 13th century a French chronicler who travelled through Calabria stated that “the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek”. By the 15th and 16th centuries, the Greek spoken in Calabria was rapidly replaced by Latin, the dominant language of the Italian Peninsula through a process of Italianization. Today, the last remnants of the Greek formerly spoken widely throughout Calabria can still be heard amongst the ethnically Greek Griko people of the Aspromonte mountains of southern Calabria.
Beginning with the subsequent Angevin rule, which ruled Calabria as part of the Kingdom of Naples, Calabria was ruled from Naples right up until unification with Italy. The kingdom came under many rulers: the Habsburg dynasties of both Spain and Austria; the Franco-Spanish Bourbon dynasty which created the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte, and then French Marshal Joachim Murat, who was executed in the small town of Pizzo. Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European Revolutions of 1848. This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy in 1861, when the Kingdom of Naples was brought into the union by Giuseppe Garibaldi. The Aspromonte was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy, in which Garibaldi was wounded.
Calabria is one of the least developed regions in Italy, although the high degree of tax evasion makes it difficult to verify these statistics. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Calabria is subdivided as follows: service industry (28.94%), financial activities and real estate (21.09%), trade, tourism, transportation and communication (19.39%), taxation (11.49%), manufacturing (8.77%), construction (6.19%) and agriculture (4.13%). Its economy is hampered by the fact that it is beset by corruption and organized crime which is mainly run by the 'Ndrangheta (the local Mafia syndicate).
Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant. Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross value added of 7.2%. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very close to the national average. Over the recent decades have emerged some petrochemical, engineering and chemical industries, within the areas of Crotone, Vibo Valentia and Reggio Calabria.
The 485 miles of its coast make Calabria a popular tourist destination during the summer. The low industrial development and the lack of large cities in much of its territory have allowed the maintenance of low levels of marine pollution. In fact, the region is considered by many a natural paradise, which attracts a number of tourists from all over Italy. Foreign tourism is still low compared to similar places, but it is growing each year. The most popular seaside destinations are: Tropea, Capo Vaticano, Pizzo, Scilla, Diamante, Amantea and Soverato.
In addition to the most popular coastal tourist destinations, the interior of Calabria is rich in history, traditions, art and culture that attract a discrete number of tourists. Cosenza is among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich historical and artistic patrimony. Fortresses, castles, churches, historic centers and cemeteries are common elements in the interior of Calabria.
Some mountain locations attract tourists even in winter. Sila and Aspromonte are two national parks that offer facilities for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello, Lorica and Gambarie.
A typical feature is agricultural richness in Calabria. The region boasts the second highest number of organic farmers only after Sicily. The olive tree, representing 29.6% of UAA and represents approximately 70% of tree crops. The region is the second-highest for olive oil production. The Bergamot orange is intensively cultivated, since the 18th century, exclusively in coastal area nearby to Reggio, where it found its optimal geological and weather conditions: essence oil from Calabrian Bergamot reach the best quality in the world.
Infrastructure and transport
The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in Gioia Tauro. The Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of 1,530 metres. The Gioia Tauro port has seven loading docks with an extension of 4,646 metres; it is the largest in Italy and the seventh largest container port in Europe, with a 2007 throughput of 3.7 million TEUs from more than 3,000 ships.
The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national highways along the coasts (SS18 Napoli-Reggio and SS106 Reggio-Taranto) and the A3 motorway, which links Naples and Reggio, passing by Salerno and Cosenza along the old inland route.
In Calabria there are three main airports: one is situated in Reggio, a few kilometres from city centre, built in 1939 is chronologically the first airport in Calabria; another is located in Lamezia Terme municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria concerning the number of passengers per year; the other near the town of Crotone.
|Source: ISTAT 2001|
The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population of over 20,000:
- Reggio Calabria - 186,013 inhabitants
- Catanzaro - 93,265
- Lamezia Terme - 71,123
- Cosenza - 69,827
- Crotone - 61,529
- Corigliano Calabro - 40,533
- Rossano - 38,280
- Rende - 35,352
- Vibo Valentia - 33,857
- Castrovillari - 22,518
- Acri - 21,263
- Montalto Uffugo - 20,553
Government and politics
Sister cities and countries
Calabria is divided into five provinces:
|Province of Cosenza||734,260|
|Province of Reggio Calabria||565,813|
|Province of Catanzaro||368,318|
|Province of Crotone||174,076|
|Province of Vibo Valentia||166,760|
Tourism in Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist attractions are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations. The sea around Calabria is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. The poet Gabriele D'Annunzio called the coast facing Sicily near Reggio Calabria "... the most beautiful kilometer in Italy" (il più bel chilometro d'Italia). The primary mountain tourist draws are Aspromonte and La Sila, with its national park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include:
- Reggio Calabria is on the strait between the mainland and Sicily, the largest and oldest city in Calabria dating from the 8th century BC, renowned for its panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between the art nouveau buildings and the beautiful beaches, and its 3,000 years of history with its Aragonese Castle and the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia where the famous Riace bronzes (Bronzi di Riace) are located.
- Cosenza, birthplace of scientist and philosopher Bernardino Telesio and seat of the Cosentian Academy, renowned for its cultural institutions, the beautiful old quarter, a Hohenstaufen Castle, an open-air museum and an 11th-century Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral. On the 12th of October 2011, the Cathedral of Cosenza received UNESCO World Heritage status for being "Heritage Witness to a Culture of Peace". This is the first award given by UNESCO to the region of Calabria.
- Scilla, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, "pearl" of the "Violet Coast", has a delightful panorama and is the site of some of Homer's tales.
- Tropea, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, is home to a dramatic seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is also renowned for its sweet red onions (mainly produced in Ricadi).
- Capo Vaticano, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a very famous wide bathing place near Tropea.
- Gerace, near Locri, is a beautiful medieval city with a Norman Castle and Norman Cathedral.
- Squillace, a seaside resort and important archaeological site. Nearby is the birthplace of Cassiodorus.
- Stilo, the birthplace of philosopher Tommaso Campanella, with its Norman Castle and beautiful Byzantine church, the Cattolica.
- Pizzo Calabro, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, known for its ice cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza Repubblica and the Aragonese castle where Murat was shot.
- Paola, a town situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, renowned for being the birthplace of St. Francis of Paola, patron saint of Calabria and Italian sailors, and for the old Franciscan sanctuary built during the last hundred years of the Middle Ages by the will of St. Francis.
- Sybaris, on the Ionian sea, a picturesque village situated near the excavation of ancient Sybaris, a Greek colony of the 8th century BC.
- Lamezia Terme, the main transportation hub of the region with its international airport which links it to many destinations in Europe plus Canada and Israel and the train station. Several are the historical sights of the city, like the Norman-Swabian castle, the Jewish historical quarter and the Casa del Libro Antico (House of the Ancient Book) where books from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as well as old globes and ancient maps reproduction are well preserved and available to be seen by the public.
- Catanzaro, an important silk center since the time of the Byzantines, is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy, from where the Ionian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea are both visible, but not from Catanzaro. Of note are the well-known one-arch bridge (Viaduct Morandi-Bisantis, one of the tallest in Europe), the Cathedral (rebuilt after World War II bombing), the castle, the promenade on the Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park.
- Soverato on the Ionian Sea, also known as the "Pearl" of the Ionian Sea. Especially renowned for its beaches, boardwalk and nightlife.
- Badolato near Soverato is a well preserved medieval hilltop village with 13 churches. It was selected as one of the 1000 marvels of Italy to mark the anniversary of the unification of Italy. It is increasingly popular with wealthy foreigners who have renovated the old houses.
- Nicotera on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a beautiful little medieval town with an ancient Ruffo's castle.
- Ancient temples of the Roman gods on the sun-kissed hills of Catanzaro still stand as others are swept beneath the earth. Many excavations are going on along the east coast, digging up what seems to be an ancient burial ground.
- Samo, a village on the foot of the Aspromonte, is well known for its spring water and ruins of the old village destroyed in the 1908 Messina earthquake.
- Mammola, art center, tourist and gastronomic, boasts an ancient history. Well worth a visit, the old town, with its small houses attached to each other, the ancient churches and noble palaces. Of particular interest is the Museum Park Santa Barbara, a place of art and cultural events of many international artists and the Shrine of St. Nicodemo of the 10th century, in the highlands of Limina. Its renowned gastronomy with the "Stocco" typical of Mammola, cooked in various ways, other typical products are smoked ricotta and goat cheese, salami pepper and wild fennel, bread "pizza" (corn bread) and wheat bread baked in a wood oven.
- Praia a Mare on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a well-known tourist city, thanks to the Isola di Dino and the seaside beach.
Although the official national language of Calabria has been Standard Italian since before unification in 1861, as a consequence of its deep and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have been spoken in the region for centuries. The Calabrian language is a direct derivative of the Latin language, and is closer to the words spoken in Latin than the standard Italian. Most linguists divide the various dialects into two different language groups. In the northern one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the Neapolitan language (or Southern Italian) and are grouped as Northern Calabrian or Cosentino. In the southern two-thirds of the region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and Southern Calabrian. In many respects, the Calabrian dialect is considered very similar to the Puglian/Salentine dialects spoken in Salento, the region situated on the "heel" of Italy. However, in isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria a variety of Occitan can also be found in certain communities and French has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases. In addition, since Calabria was once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects exhibit Spanish derivatives.
The majority of Calabrians are Roman Catholic. There are also communities of Evangelicals on the western coast. The most famous saint in Calabria and also the patron saint of the region is St. Francis of Paola.
Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a long history of the presence of Jews in Calabria. The Jews have had a presence in the region for at least 1600 years and possibly as much as 2300 years. Calabrian Jews have had notably influence on many areas of Jewish life and culture. Although virtually identitical to the Jews of Sicily, the Jews of Calabria are considered a distinct Jewish population due to historical and geographic considerations. There is a small community of Italian Anusim who have resumed the Jewish faith.
It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in Renaissance humanism and in the Renaissance. Indeed, the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria maybe because of the Greek influence. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara: Barlaam, bishop of Gerace, and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato. Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was a Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer's works.
The cuisine is a typical southern Italian Mediterranean cuisine with a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables (especially eggplant), and fish. Pasta (as in Central Italy and the rest of Southern Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food and packing vegetables and meats in olive oil. Also making sausages and cold cuts (Sopressata, 'Nduja), along the coast curing fish - especially swordfish, sardines (sardelle rosamarina) and cod (Baccalà). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries Cudduraci, Scalille or scalidde or baked biscotti-type treats (such as 'nzudda).
Some local specialties include Caciocavallo Cheese, Cipolla rossa di Tropea (red onion), Frìttuli and Curcùci (fried pork), Liquorice (liquirizia), Lagane e Cicciari (a pasta dish with chickpeas), Pecorino Crotonese (Cheese of Sheep), and Pignolata.
In ancient times Calabria was referred to as Enotria (from Ancient Greek Οἰνωτρία - Oenotria, "land of wine"). According to ancient Greek tradition, Οἴνωτρος (Oenotrus), the youngest of the sons of Lycaon, was the eponym of Oenotria. Some vineyards have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best known DOC wines are Cirò (Province of Crotone) and Donnici (Province of Cosenza). 3% of the total annual production qualifies as DOC. Important grape varieties are the red Gaglioppo and white Greco. Many producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have been around for as long as 3000 years.
- Lamezia Terme International Airport (Airport IATA code: SUF)
- Reggio Calabria Airport (Airport IATA code: REG)
- Crotone Airport (Airport IATA code: CRV)
- Port of Gioia Tauro (the busiest container port in Italy and seventh-busiest in mainland Europe)
- Port of Reggio Calabria
- Port of Vibo Valentia
- Port of Villa San Giovanni
- Port of Corigliano Calabro
- Port of Crotone
Calabria has the two highest bridges in Italy
There are 3 public universities in the region of Calabria
- University of Calabria (Cosenza)
- Magna Graecia University (Catanzaro)
- Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria
There is also the private University for Foreigners "Dante Alighieri" in Reggio Calabria.
- Achille Falcone (16th-century composer)
- Acrion (pythagorean philosopher)
- Ada Dondini (actress)
- Alcmaeon of Croton (ancient philosopher/medical theorist who pioneered anatomical dissection)
- Alessandro Longo (19th-century composer and musicologist)
- Alexis (ancient comic poet)
- Alfonso Rendano (19th-century pianist and composer who invented the "third pedal")
- Aloysius Lilius (16th-century astronomer who created the Gregorian Calendar)
- Amyris of Sybaris (consulted the Delphic oracle)
- Andy Varipapa (professional bowler called "the greatest one-man bowling show on Earth")
- Angelo Arciglione (international prize-winning pianist)
- Angelo Maria Mazzia (19th-century artist and Knight in the Order of the Crown of Italy)
- Anselmo Lorecchio (lawyer, journalist, politician, poet, writer & newspaper founder)
- Antonio Cantafora (film and television actor)
- Antonio Diego Voci (figurative artist and sculptor)
- Antonio Fuoco (racing driver)
- Antonio Maria Magro (actor, director & screenwriter)
- Antonio Porchia (poet)
- Antonio Pujía (Italian-Argentine artist and sculptor)
- Antonio Rodotà (former Director General of the European Space Agency)
- Antonio Serra (late 16th-century philosopher and economist)
- Antony Carbone (film and television actor)
- Arignote (pythagorean philosopher)
- Aristomachus of Croton (ancient party leader of Croton during the Hannibalian war)
- Aroldo Tieri (actor)
- Astylos of Croton (ancient olympic athlete)
- Autoleon (ancient war hero)
- Baldassarre Squitti (teacher of law and politician)
- Barlaam of Seminara (14th-century humanist Greek teacher to Petrarch and Boccaccio)
- Benito Carbone (football manager)
- Bernardino Telesio (16th-century philosopher and first of the modern scientists)
- Blessed Camillus Costanzo (16th-century Jesuit missionary & Roman Catholic martyr)
- Blessed Elena Aiello (founder of "Sister Minims of The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ")
- Bohemond I of Antioch (Prince of Taranto and Antioch)
- Calliphon of Croton (pythagorean physician)
- Carmine Abate (writer and novelist)
- Cassiodorus (founder of the Vivarium Monastery who put together the first western bible)
- Cesare Lanza (Italian journalist & author)
- Charles Atlas (bodybuilder)
- Cicco Simonetta (Renaissance statesman who composed a treatise on cryptography)
- Clearchus of Rhegium (ancient sculptor)
- Clinomachus (Megarian philosopher)
- Corrado Alvaro (writer and journalist)
- Democedes (ancient physician that Herodotus called "the most skillful physician of his time")
- Diego Carpitella (Professor of ethnomusicology)
- Diognetus of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Domenico Berardi (Youngest footballer to score 4 goals in a "Serie A" match since 1931)
- Domenico Caruso (writer, poet and scholar of Calabrian dialects)
- Domingo F. Periconi (20th-century artist)
- Donatella Versace (Vice-President and Chief Designer of Versace Group)
- El Presidente (Musician/Singer/Record Producer)
- Elisabetta Gregoraci (model and television personality)
- Emilio Bulgarelli (won gold team medal in water polo at the 1948 London Olympics)
- Enrico Salfi (19th-century painter of biblical/Roman subjects)
- Enzo Mirigliani (patron of Miss Italy beauty contest)
- Eratosthenes of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Erminio Blotta (sculptor)
- Eugene De Rosa (20th-century Italian-American architect)
- Eugene Gaudio (cinematographer for 1916 version of "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea")
- Eugenio Tano (19th-century painter)
- Fabrizio Ruffo (Italian cardinal and politician who led the Sanfedismo movement)
- Fausto Torrefranca (Italian musicologist & critic)
- Ferruccio Baffa Trasci (17th-century bishop, theologian and philosopher)
- Filippo De Nobili (writer and poet)
- Flavia Fortunato (singer, actress & television presenter)
- Florestano Pepe (19th-century Italian patriot)
- Francesco Acri (19th-century philosopher and historian of philosophy)
- Francesco Amico (Roman Catholic theologian, professor & chancellor)
- Francesco Anile (opera tenor)
- Francesco Antonio Santori (19th-century writer, poet and playwright)
- Francesco Cilea (19th-century opera composer)
- Francesco Colelli (baroque painter)
- Francesco Cozza (17th-century Baroque artist)
- Francesco Fiorentino (philosopher and historiographer)
- Francesco Florimo (19th-century archivist, musicologist, music historian and composer)
- Francesco Jacomoni (20th-century Italian diplomat and governor of Albania)
- Francesco Manuel Bongiorno (professional cyclist)
- Francesco Panetta (champion long-distance runner)
- Francesco Pianeta (heavyweight boxer)
- Francesco Reda (professional road bicycle racer)
- Francesco Saverio Mergalo (18th-century painter)
- Francesco Saverio Salfi (writer, politician & librettist)
- Gaetano Scorza (mathematician who inspired the theory of "Scorza varieties")
- Gemelli Careri (17th-century Italian adventurer and traveler)
- Gennaro Gattuso (footballer)
- Giandomenico Martoretta (16th-century Baroque composer)
- Gianna Maria Canale (model and actress)
- Gianni Amelio (Italian film director)
- Gianni De Luca (comic book artist, illustrator, painter and etcher)
- Gianni Versace (fashion designer and founder of Versace Group)
- Gigi Peronace (football agent)
- Gioachino Greco (17th-century champion chess player)
- Giacomo Marramao (Italian philosopher and teacher)
- Giovanni Andrea Serrao (intellectual who supported the Parthenopaean Republic of 1799)
- Giovanni Battista Zupi (16th-century astronomer)
- Giovanni De Gennaro (Police Officer & Chairman of Defense Group Finmeccanica)
- Giovanni Leonardo di Bona (first international chess tournament winner)
- Giovanni Lorenzo d'Anania (16th-century geographer and theologian)
- Giovanni Nicotera (19th-century Italian patriot and politician)
- Giovanni Parisi (gold medal winning boxer at the 1988 Seoul Olympics)
- Giovanni Valentino Gentile (16th-century humanist and non-Trinitarian)
- Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina (17th-century author, academic and jurist)
- Girolamo de Rada (19th-century writer of Italo-Albanian literature)
- Giulio Variboba (18th-century poet and priest)
- Giuseppe Antonio Sorbilli (sculptor)
- Giuseppe Coniglio (poet)
- Giuseppe Faraca (won young rider classification in the 1981 Giro d'Italia)
- Giuseppe Filianoti (lyric tenor)
- Giuseppe Leuzzi (journalist, essayist, writer & author)
- Giuseppe Musolino (outlaw/folk hero)
- Giuseppe Petitto (award winning film director)
- Giuseppe Sensi (Cardinal & Vatican diplomat)
- Giuseppe Vincenzo Ciaccio (anatomist and histologist)
- Glycon of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Goffredo Zehender (Racing Driver)
- Gregorio Carafa (Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta)
- Gregorio Preti (17th-century Baroque artist and brother of Mattia Preti)
- Guglielmo Pepe (19th-century Italian general and patriot)
- Gugliemo Sirleto (16th-century cardinal and scholar)
- Guido Daniele (internationally renowned body painting artist)
- Henry Aristippus (Religious Scholar and writer in Norman Kingdom of Sicily)
- Hippostratus of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Ibycus (ancient lyric poet)
- Isabela de Rosis (religious sister and congregation founder)
- Isomachus of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Janus Parrhasius (16th-century humanist who founded the Cosentian Academy in 1511)
- Joachim of Fiore (12th-century mystic and theologian)
- John Italus (11th-century Byzantine philosopher)
- John XVI (10th-century antipope)
- Leonardo Vinci (18th-century composer)
- Leonida Rèpaci (writer, poet, playwright and political activist)
- Leonzio Pilato (14th-century humanist and Western Europe's first Professor of Greek)
- Leopoldo Trieste (actor, film director and script writer)
- Linda Lanzillotta (Vice-President of Italian Senate)
- Loredana Berté (singer)
- Louiselle (singer)
- Luigi Miceli (19th-century Italian patriot, politician and military figure)
- Luigi Ruffo-Scilla (Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Naples)
- Lycinus of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Marcello Guido (deconstructivist architect)
- Marco Aurelio Severino (Italian surgeon, anatomist & author)
- Marco Cardisco (16th-century Renaissance artist)
- Maria Candida of the Eucharist (beatified Discalced Carmelite nun and mystic)
- Maria Latella (multimedia journalist, columnist, TV anchor woman & interviewer)
- Maria Perrotta (classical pianist)
- Maria Perrusi (Miss Italia 2009)
- Mario Alicata (Italian Partisan, literary critic & politician)
- Mario Tricoci (hairstylist-entrepreneur)
- Marion A. Trozzolo (inventor of the Teflon coated frying pan)
- Matilde Ciccia (actress and professional ice dancer)
- Mattia Preti (17th-century Baroque artist)
- Mauro Fiore (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie "Avatar")
- Mia Martini (singer)
- Michelangelo Falvetti (17th-century Baroque composer)
- Michele Pane (19th-20th-century symbolist poet and journalist)
- Milo of Croton (ancient olympic athlete)
- Mimmo Calopresti (Italian film director, screenwriter, producer and actor)
- Mimmo Rotella (20th-century poet and contemporary artist who invented the Decollage)
- Mino Reitano (singer-songwriter and actor)
- Natuzza Evolo (Catholic mystic)
- Niccolò Lapiccola (18th-century artist)
- Nick Mancuso (actor of stage and screen)
- Nick Nostro (Italian film director)
- Nicola Antonio Manfroce (19th-century composer)
- Nicola Calipari (military intelligence officer)
- Nicola Squitti (Italian senator and diplomat)
- Ninetto Davoli (actor)
- Nossis (ancient epigrammist and poet)
- Ofelia Giudicissi Curci (poet and archeologist)
- Oreste Moricca (gold medal winning fencer at the 1924 Paris Olympics)
- Paolo Antonio Foscarini (16th-century scientist who wrote about the mobility of the earth)
- Pasquale Galluppi (19th-century philosopher)
- Philippus of Croton (ancient olympic athlete and war hero)
- Philistion of Locri (ancient physician and writer on medicine)
- Philolaus (pythagorean and presocratic philosopher)
- Pier Francesco Pingitore (director, screenwriter, playwright & author)
- Pietro Negroni (16th-century Renaissance artist)
- Polissena Ruffo (Princess and first wife to Francesco Sforza)
- Pope Anterus (3rd-century pope & saint)
- Pope John VII (8th-century pope)
- Pope Telesphorus (2nd-century pope & saint)
- Pope Zachary (8th-century pope & saint)
- Pope Zosimus (5th-century pope & saint)
- Proclus of Rhegium (ancient physician)
- Raf Vallone (actor and international film star)
- Raffaele Conflenti (Italian aeronautical engineer & aircraft designer)
- Raffaele Piria (19th-century chemist who discovered the major component of Aspirin)
- Renato Dulbecco (Nobel Prize winning virologist)
- Renato Turano (politician and CEO/President of Turano Baking Company)
- Rhys Coiro (film, television and stage actor)
- Rino Gaetano (singer-songwriter)
- Roberto Sgambelluri (Italian former professional racing cyclist)
- Rocco B. Commisso (founder of Mediacom Communications Corporation)
- Rocco Granata (singer-songwriter who wrote the hit song "Marina")
- Roger II of Sicily (Duke of Apulia and Calabria and 1st King of Sicily)
- Rosalba Forciniti (won bronze medal in Judo at the 2012 London Olympics)
- Rosario Rubbettino (founded publishing house Rubbettino Editore)
- Saint Bartholomew the Younger (970-1055, abbot of Grottaferrata)
- Saint Fantinus (927-1000)
- Saint Francis of Paola (1416–1507, patron saint of Calabria)
- Saint Gaetano Catanoso (1879–1963)
- Saint Gregor von Burtscheid (940-999)
- Saint Himerius of Cremona (Italian Bishop – died 560)
- Saint Humilis of Bisignano (1582–1637)
- Saint Nicodemus of Mammola (900-990)
- Saint Nicola Saggio (born 1650 Longobardi - died 1709 Rome)
- Saint Nilo of Rossano (910-1005, founded the monastery of Grottaferrata)
- Salvatore Petruolo (painter)
- Salvatore Pisani (sculptor)
- Santo Versace (President and Co-CEO of Versace Group)
- Sergio Cammariere (jazz singer-songwriter)
- Silvio Vigliaturo (glassfusion maestro)
- Simone Borrelli (actor, director, singer-songwriter & musician)
- Stefano Rodotà (jurist, politician, academic & author)
- Stesichorus (ancient poet)
- Tatiana Trouvé (contemporary visual artist & sculptor)
- Teresa Macrì (art critic, curator & writer)
- Theagenes of Rhegium (ancient literary critic)
- Timaeus of Locri (pythagorean philosopher)
- Tisicrates of Croton (ancient athlete)
- Tito Minniti (Italian Royal Air Force Hero of World War 2)
- Tobia Giuseppe Loriga (Italian & IBF International Light Middleweight Boxing Champion)
- Tommaso Campanella (16th-century Renaissance philosopher, theologian, astrologer & poet)
- Tony Gaudio (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie "Anthony Adverse")
- Tony Nardi (actor, playwright, director and producer)
- Uluj Ali (16th-century Ottoman admiral)
- Umberto Boccioni (20th-century futurist, painter and sculptor)
- Vincenzo Di Benedetto (classical philologist)
- Vincenzo Iaquinta (footballer)
- Vincenzo Lauro (Italian Papal diplomat, Bishop & Cardinal)
- Vincenzo Milione (painter)
- Vincenzo Musolino (actor, director, producer & screenwriter)
- Vincenzo Scaramuzza (international pianist and music teacher)
- Vincenzo Talarico (screenwriter and film actor)
- Vincenzo Valente (composer and writer)
- Vittoria Belvedere (Italian film and television actress)
- Zaleucus (devised the western world's first code of law)
- "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
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- van Dijk, J.P., Bello, M., Brancaleoni, G.P., Cantarella, G., Costa, V., Frixa, A., Golfetto, F., Merlini, S., Riva, M., Toricelli, S., Toscano, C., and Zerilli, A. (2000, a); A new structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc. Tectonophysics, 324, 267-320.
- Argand, E. (1922); La tectonique de l'Asie. Comptes Rendus 3rd Int. Geol. Congr., Liège (Be), 1922, 1, 171-372.
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- Limanowski, Miesislas (1913); Die grosse kalabrische Decke. Bull. Int. Acad. Sc. Cracovie, Cl. Sc. Math. Nat., S.A., (6A), 370-385.
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- Caire, André, Glangeaud, L., and Grandjaquet, C. (1960); Les grand traits structureaux et l'évolution de territoire calabro-sicilien (Italie méridionale). Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., ser. 7, v. 2, 915-938.
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- Burton, A.N. (1971); Carta Geologica della Calabria alla scala di 1:25.000, Relazione generale. Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, Servizio Bonifiche, Roma (It.), I.G.M. Firenze, 120 pp., 1971, 120 pp.
- Amodio-Morelli, L., Bonardi, G., Colonna, V., Dietrich, D., Giunta, G., Ippolito, F., Liguori, V., Lorenzoni, S., Paglionico, A., Perrone, V., Piccaretta, G., Russo, M., Scandone, P., Zanettin Lorenzoni, E., and Zuppetta, A. (1976); L'Arco calabro-peloritano nell'orogene appenninico-maghrebide. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 17, 1-60.
- Dubois, Roland (1976); La suture calabro-apenninique Cretacee-Eocene et l'ouverture Tyrrhenienne neogene: etude petrographique et structurale de la Calabre centrale. These, Univ. de Paris, 1976, 567 pp.
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The ancient Greek colonies from Naples south had been completely latinized, but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by invasions. This Greek culture of South Italy was known in medieval England because of England’s ties to the Norman masters of Sicily. Large parts of Calabria, Lucania, Apulia, and Sicily were still Greek-speaking at the end of the Middle Ages. Even nineteenth-century travelers in Calabria reported finding Greek villages where they could make themselves understood with the modern language, and a few such enclaves are said to survive still.
- Vasil’ev, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1971). History of the Byzantine Empire. 2, Volume 2. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 718. ISBN 978-0-299-80926-3.
half of the thirteenth century Roger Bacon wrote the Pope concerning Italy, “in which, in many places, the clergy and the people were purely Greek.” An old French chronicler stated of the same time that the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek.
- Weiss, Roberto (1977). Medieval and Humanist Greek. Antenore. pp. 14–16.
The zones of south Italy in which Greek was spoken during the later Middle Ages, were eventually to shrink more and more during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Some small areas were, however, able to remain Greek even after the Renaissance period. In Calabria, for instance, Greek may till be heard today at Bova, Condofuri, Roccaforte, Roghudi, and in a few isolated farms here and there. One hundred years ago, it was still spoken also at Cardeto, Montebello, and San Pantaleone; and the more we recede in time the larger are these areas. And what took place in Calabria happened also in Apulia, where many places which were still Greek-speaking as late as 1807 are now no longer so. The use of the Greek language in such areas during the later Middle Ages is shown by..
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