Cao Zhenyong

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Cao Zhenyong (Chinese: 曹振镛; pinyin: Cáo Zhènyōng; 1755–1835) was a Chinese statesman of the Qing dynasty. He served in a leading position in the Grand Council under the Daoguang Emperor. He is widely believed to be responsible for the formalized style of government, which was promoted under the Daoguang Emperor's reign and contributed to the emperor's failure to reform the increasingly corrupt administration of the Qing Empire.


  • Hummel, Arthur William, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912). 2 vols. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1943.