Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
||This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015)|
|Carl XVI Gustaf|
The King in 2009
|King of Sweden|
|Reign||15 September 1973 – present|
|Enthronement||19 September 1973|
|Predecessor||Gustaf VI Adolf|
|Heir apparent||Crown Princess Victoria|
30 April 1946 |
|Spouse||Silvia Sommerlath (m. 1976)|
|Crown Princess Victoria
Prince Carl Philip
|Father||Prince Gustaf Adolf|
|Religion||Church of Sweden|
|Swedish Royal Family|
HM The King
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus [ˈkɑːɭ ˈɡɵstɑːv ˈfɔlˌkɛ hɵbɛˈʈɵs], born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden. On 15 September 1973, he succeeded his grandfather Gustaf VI Adolf. He is the only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, and Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
The King's heir apparent, upon passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture (the first such law passed in European history), is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Youth and education
- 3 Reign
- 4 Regnal name
- 5 Official duties
- 6 Personal interests
- 7 Marriage and family
- 8 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 9 Patronages
- 10 Ancestry
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Carl Gustaf was born in Haga Palace in Solna, Stockholm County. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Uppsala, Erling Eidem. His godparents were the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark (his paternal uncle and aunt), the Crown Prince of Norway, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the King of Sweden (his patrilineal great-grandfather), the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (his maternal uncle), the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Sweden (his paternal grandfather and stepgrandmother), and Count Folke and Countess Maria Bernadotte af Wisborg.
Youth and education
||This section of a biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. (September 2013)|
Prince Carl Gustaf was the youngest of five children and the only son of Sweden's Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sibylla. His father's death had left the nine-month-old Prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather, then Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. When his great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the four-year-old Prince became the heir apparent of Sweden.
The young Crown Prince Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his father's death, and he expressed his feelings about growing up without knowing his father in a speech in 2005.
After graduating from high school, the Crown Prince completed two and a half years of education in the Royal Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, and the Royal Swedish Air Force. He received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968, and he eventually rose to the rank of captain (in the army and air force) and lieutenant (in the navy), before he ascended to the throne. He has also completed his academic studies in history, sociology, political science, tax law, and economics at Uppsala University and Stockholm University.
To prepare for his role as the Head of State, Crown Prince Carl Gustaf followed a broad program of studies on the court system, social organizations and institutions, trade unions, and employers' associations. In addition, he closely studied the affairs of the Riksdag, Government, and Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Crown Prince also spent time at the Swedish Mission to the United Nations and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), worked at a bank in London, at the Swedish Embassy in London, at the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in France, and at the Alfa Laval Company factory in France.
On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf. He was invested as King, at the Hall of State of the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 19 September 1973. King Gustaf VI Adolf was the last who used the style "By the Grace of God King of the Swedes, the Goths/Geats and the Wends" (med Guds Nåde Sveriges, Götes och Wendes Konung; Latin: Dei Gratia Suecorum, Gothorum et Vandalorum Rex). This traditional title had been in use since the establishment of the hereditary monarchy in 1544. Carl XVI Gustaf instead chose the plain and simple title "King of Sweden" (Sveriges Konung), thereby ending a centuries-old tradition.
In the 16th century, Johannes Magnus construed a mythical line of Swedish kings, beginning with Magog, the son of Japheth, in an attempt to substantiate the antiquity of the Swedish throne. Based on that list, King Charles IX (reigned 1604 to 1611) adopted an ordinal not much supported by any accurate historical sources. Previous monarchs named Charles (Karl in Swedish) have traditionally been numbered by counting backwards from Charles IX, and subsequent monarchs by counting forward from him, though there were only two before him. Thus the current King of Sweden proclaimed himself Carl XVI Gustaf even though he is only the tenth Swedish monarch by the first name.
The King's duties are, according to the 1974 Instrument of Government, only of a representative and ceremonial nature. The 1974 document stripped the King of most of his formal political powers while retaining him as head of state, thus codifying actual practices dating from the definitive establishment of parliamentary government in 1917. Previously, the King formally appointed the Prime Minister, though in practice he was almost always the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Riksdag. Since the adoption of the current Instrument, that prerogative is now exercised by the Speaker of the Riksdag on the behalf of the Riksdag. Additionally, bills passed by the Riksdag do not need his signature to become law.
He pays State Visits abroad and receives those to Sweden, opens the Annual Session of the Riksdag, chairs the Special Council held during a change of Government, holds regular Information Councils with the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, chairs the meetings of the Foreign Affairs Council, and receives Letters of Credence of foreign ambassadors to Sweden and signs those of Sweden to foreign nations. As this type of figurehead, he also voluntarily abstains from voting in Swedish elections.
King Carl Gustaf (ceremonially) holds the highest ranks in the three branches of the Swedish Armed Forces; this is due to the fact that he was, as stipulated by the 1809 Instrument of Government in effect at the time of his accession to the throne in 1973, the Commander in Chief of the armed forces of Sweden (§ 14) and therefore he was promoted ex officio from his earlier ranks of captain and lieutenant, to general and admiral. Under the provisions of the Instrument of Government of 1974, which became effective on 1 January 1975, King Carl Gustav no longer holds this constitutionally-mandated position of commander-in-chief, but he kept his ranks à la suite since he no longer has any military command authority, except over his military staff at his court.
Worldwide, Carl XVI Gustaf is probably best known as the presenter of the Nobel Prizes each year. He also hands over the Polar Music Prize. The King holds honorary doctoral degrees from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the Royal Institute of Technology, the Stockholm School of Economics and from the Åbo Akademi University in Finland.
The King is passionate about the environment, technology, agriculture, trade, and industry. Like many members of the Swedish royal family, the King has a keen interest in automobiles. He owns several Porsche 911s – a car model which is said to be a particular favourite of the King – as well as a vintage Volvo PV444, a Ferrari 456M GT, an authentic AC Cobra and other cars. The first pictures taken of him and his future wife were of them sitting in his Porsche 911. In the summer of 2005 he was involved in a traffic accident in Norrköping. The accident was described as a "fender bender", with no serious personal injuries claimed. Nevertheless, the incident caused national headlines.
The King is the Honorary Chairman of the World Scout Foundation, and often participates in Scout activities both in Sweden and abroad. He regularly visits World Scout Jamborees, for instance the 1979 Dalajamb World Jamboree International Encampment hosted by Sweden, the 2002 World Jamboree held in Sattahip, Thailand, and the 100th Anniversary of World Scouting 2007 World Jamboree held in Hylands Park, England. He also attended the 1981 National Scout Jamboree in Virginia, United States, and was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, in 1982. He also attended the 22nd World Scout Jamboree. He gave a speech on 6 August 2011 at the closing ceremony with more than 40,000 people watching. The band Europe also performed for him singing "The Final Countdown". King Carl Gustaf made an appearance at the 2013 Boy Scouts of America National Jamboree in West Virginia.
Marriage and family
The King married Silvia Sommerlath, whose father was German and whose mother was Brazilian, and who had grown up in both countries. They met at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, where she was an interpreter and host. The wedding was held on 19 June 1976, at the Stockholm Cathedral, and the ceremony was performed by the Archbishop of Uppsala, Olof Sundby. The wedding was preceded, the evening before, by a Royal Variety Performance, where the Swedish musical group ABBA performed "Dancing Queen" for the very first time, as a tribute to Sweden's future queen. The King and his family moved to Drottningholm Palace west of Stockholm in 1980. He and the Queen have maintained their business offices at the Royal Palace of Stockholm.
King Carl Gustav and Queen Silvia have three children and three grandchildren:
- Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland (born 14 July 1977). On 19 June 2010, she married Daniel Westling, now Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland. The couple have a daughter, Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland (born 23 February 2012).
- Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland (born 13 May 1979). Crown Prince in 1979. On 13 June 2015, he married Sofia Hellqvist, now Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland.
- Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland (born 10 June 1982). On 8 June 2013, she married Christopher O'Neill, who has no royal title. The couple have a daughter, Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland (born 20 February 2014), and a son, Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland (born 15 June 2015).
Prince Carl Philip was born the heir apparent. However, a constitutional reform, which was already under way at the time of his birth, made his older sister, Victoria, the heir apparent and Crown Princess of Sweden on 1 January 1980, according to the principles of absolute primogeniture, which Sweden was the first recognized monarchy to adopt. King Carl Gustaf objected after the reform, not to the succession by females but to the fact that his son lost the position and title which he had had since birth.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Title and styles
- 30 April 1946 – 7 June 1946: His Royal Highness Prince Carl Gustaf of Sweden
- 7 June 1946 – 29 October 1950: His Royal Highness The Duke of Jämtland
- 29 October 1950 – 15 September 1973: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Sweden, Duke of Jämtland
- 15 September 1973 – present: His Majesty The King of Sweden
On his creation as Duke of Jämtland, Carl XVI Gustaf was granted an achievement of arms which featured the arms of Jämtland in base (these arms can be seen on his stallplate as knight of the Danish Order of the Elephant at Frederiksborg Palace). Since his accession to the throne, he has used the greater coat of arms of Sweden although he is still associated with the ducal title of Jämtland.
|Arms of Carl Gustaf as Duke of Jämtland from 1950 to his accession|
|Arms of Carl XVI Gustaf used since his accession to the throne.|
- Sweden: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
- Sweden: Sovereign Commander Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of the Sword
- Sweden: Sovereign Commander Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of the Polar Star
- Sweden: Sovereign Commander Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Vasa
- Sweden: Sovereign Knight of the Royal Order of Charles XIII (Knight by birth, however not worn as he is not a freemason)
- Sweden: High Protector (and Honorary Knight) of the Order of Saint John in Sweden
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Grand Star
- Belgium: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold
- Brazil: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross
- Brunei: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei
- Bulgaria: Grand Cross of the Order of Stara Planina
- Denmark: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Elephant
- Denmark: Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog
- Estonia: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, Special Class
- Estonia: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Star, Special Class
- Finland: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
- Germany: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Special Class
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- Iceland: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Falcon
- Empire of Iran: Recipient of the Commemorative Medal of the 2,500 year Celebration of the Persian Empire
- Italy: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Japan: Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
- Jordan: Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
- Latvia: Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Three Stars
- Lithuania: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Vytautas the Great, Special Class
- Luxembourg: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau
- Malaysia: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of the Crown of the Realm
- Mexico: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the House of Orange
- Netherlands: Knight Commander of the Order of the Golden Ark, 1st Class
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of St. Olav
- Poland: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle
- Portugal: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword
- Portugal: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Prince Henry
- Romania: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
- Slovakia: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Double Cross
- South Africa: Grand Cross of the Order of Good Hope
- Spain: 1,183rd Knight with Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- Spain: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Charles III
- Thailand: Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
- Thailand: Member of the Order of Ramkeerati
- Turkey: Member of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey, 1st Class
- Tunisia: Grand Cross of the Order of the Republic
- Ukraine: Member of the Order of Liberty
- Ukraine: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
- United Kingdom: 967th Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter
- United Kingdom: Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain
- United Kingdom: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
- Yugoslavia: Grand Cross of the Order of the Yugoslav Star, Great Star
- Philippines 15px: Mount Makiling Award
- 25px World Organization of the Scout Movement: Bronze Wolf Award
Honorary military positions
- African Medical and Research Foundation Sweden (AMREF)
- Allmänna Idrottsklubben (AIK)
- Barnens Dags Riksförbund
- Centralföreningen för Idrottens Främjande i Sverige
- Djurgårdens Hembygdsförening
- Friends of the Nationalmuseum
- Friends of the Swedish Museum of Natural History
- Föreningen Svenska Atheninstitutets Vänner
- Föreningen Konstnärernas Vänner
- Föreningen för Svenskar i Världen
- Gastronomiska Akademien
- Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna (IFK)
- Kulturen i Lund
- Kungl. Automobil Klubben
- Kungl. Motorbåt Klubben
- Kungl. Svenska Aeroklubben
- Kungl. Svenska Segel Sällskapet
- Riksföreningen mot Cancer
- Royal Physiographic Society in Lund
- Royal Society of Sciences and Letters in Gothenburg
- Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
- Royal Swedish Academy
- Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry
- Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
- Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
- Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities
- Royal Swedish Academy of Music
- Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
- Royal Swedish Society of Naval Sciences
- Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences
- Save the Visby Ringwall Campaign
- Stiftelsen Det Naturliga Steget
- Stiftelsen Drottningholmsteaterns Vänner
- Stiftelsen Håll Sverige Rent
- Stiftelsen Stockholm Water Foundation
- Stiftelsen Svenska Flaggan
- Stiftelsen Svensk Våtmarksfond
- Stockholms Konserthusstiftelse
- Stockholms Studentsångarförbund
- Svea Orden
- Svenska Arkeologiska Samfundet
- Svenska Blå Stjärnan
- Svenska Djurskyddsföreningen
- Svenska Jägareförbundet
- Svenska Kennelklubben
- Svenska Livräddningssällskapet - Simfrämjandet
- Svenska Motionsdagen (Korpen Svenska Motionsidrottsförbundet)
- Svenska Rominstitutets Vänner
- Svenska Turistföreningen
- The Guides and Scouts of Sweden
- Svenska Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi
- Sverige-Amerika Stiftelsen
- Sveriges Allmänna Konstförening
- Sveriges Hembygdsförbund
- Sveriges Skogsvårdsförbund
- Swedish Bible Society
- Swedish Colonial Society
- Swedish Lions
- Swedish Red Cross
- Swedish Rotary
- Swedish Sports Confederation
- Sångsällskapet Orphei Drängar
- The American-Scandinavian Foundation
- Wilhelm Peterson-Berger Society
- World Scout Foundation
- World Wide Fund for Nature Sweden (WWF)
- Östasiatiska Museets Vänner
- Swedish Royal Family
- Carl XVI Gustaf's ancestors
- List of state visits made by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
- List of national leaders
- (Swedish) Ordenskalender 1969 & 1975, Riksmarskalksämbetet, Stockholm.
- "Kungl. Maj:ts kungörelse (1973:702) med anledning av konung Gustaf VI Adolfs frånfälle;" (in Swedish). 19 September 1973. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "The Royal Family: H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf". Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Kungafamiljen: H.M. Konung Carl XVI Gustaf" (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Karl". Nordisk familjebok (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Monarkens uppgifter" (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Enqvist, Victoria. "För Sverige - i bilen". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Swedish king crashes car". The Local. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "The King of Sweden at the Jamboree".[dead link]
- Wilkes, Collin (22 July 2013). "Jambopalooza, summit hikes – ‘experience of a lifetime’". The Herald-Sun. Durham, North Carolina: Paxton Media Group. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Retro Romance: Sweden's Dancing Queen Silivia". Retrieved 6 December 2010.[dead link]
- on YouTube
- SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronföljd, p.16.
- Peterson, Claes (24 November 2003). "Kungen: Grundlagen är lustig". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Mariage princier en Suède : dîner de gala au Palais royal" (in French). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 457. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "State visit of Sweden in Belgium 2001, Gala dinner, group photo". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "State visit of Lula da Silva in 2007, Photo of Presidential and Royal couples" (in Dutch). ANP Photo. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "State visit of President Georgi Parvanov of Bulgaria in Sweden 2007, Gala dinner group photo". Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Persondetaljer Hans Majestæt Carl XVI Gustaf" (in Danish). borger.dk. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Estonian State Decorations, Carl XVI Gustaf" (in Estonian). Website of the President of Estonia. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Estonian State Decorations, Carl XVI Gustaf" (in Estonian). Website of the President of Estonia. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Galamiddag för Estlands presidentpar på Kungliga slottet 1-6-7" (in Swedish). Swedish Royal Website. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Les souverains suédois reçoivent le président estonien" (in French). Noblesse et Royautés. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "State visit of President Johannes Rau in Sweden in 2003". theroyalforums.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "King's photo". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- King Carl XVI Gustaf wearing the Grand Cross ribbon bar at the birthday of his cousin, Prince Andreas, Hereditary Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
- "Galamiddag på Kungliga slottet" (in Swedish). 21 May 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Photo from State visit of Swedish Royal Family in Iceland". Seegers Press. Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "Order of the Falcon, search form" (in Icelandic). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "S.M. Carl XVI Gustaf il Re di Svezia - Decorato di Gran Cordone, Cavaliere di Gran Croce Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana" (in Italian). Italian Presidency website. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "State visit of Jordan in Sweden (2003) Group photo of Swedish and Jordanian sovereigns wearing reciprocal orders". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "State visit of Latvia in Sweden (2005), Gala dinner, Group photo". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?][not in citation given]
- "Galamiddag på Kungliga slottet 15/04/2008" (in Swedish). Swedish Royal website. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Visite d´Etat en Suède 15/04/2008" (in French). Cour Grand - Ducale de Luxembourg. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "State visit of Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg in Sweden". AMP Picture. Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "gala dinner on 15/04/2008". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "State Visit of Malaysian King in Sweden, 2005, King Carl XVI Gustav with order sash, close details". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "State Visit of Malaysian King in Sweden, 2005, King Carl XVI Gustav & Queen Silvia during gala dinner". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- Carl XVI Gustaf in the background wearing the Grand Collar insignia
- "Dîner de gala en l’honneur des souverains suédois" (in French). Noblesse et Royautés. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Orders search form : type "REI Carlos XVI" in "nome", then click "Pesquisar"" (in Portuguese). Portuguese Presidency Website. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "Recipients of Order of the Star of Romania" (ms xls). Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "State honours : 1st Class received in 2002 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)". Slovak Republic Website. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "1997 National Orders awards". Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Pinterest, Carl XVI Gustaf wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece Collar and the Star of Grand Cross w Collar of the order of Charles III
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- "State visit of Sweden in Thailand, 2003, Gala dinner". Retrieved 19 August 2012.[unreliable source?]
- Noblesse et Royautes (French), State visit of Turkey in Sweden, Gala dinner, March 2013
- Pinterest, Carl XVI Gustaf wearing the Order of the Garter Grand Cross and the Royal Victorian Chain
- The London Gazette: . 7 July 1975.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.|
- Ancestry of Queen Silvia of Sweden
- Royal Court of Sweden - Official site
- UNSG Ban Ki-Moon Lays Wreath Honouring Dag Hammarskjöld of 1 October 2009 and UN Secretary-General with King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI GustafBorn: 30 April 1946
Title last held byPrince Oscar
|Duke of Jämtland
Title next held byN/A
|Lines of succession|
|Crown Prince of Sweden
Title next held byCarl Philip
Gustaf VI Adolf
|King of Sweden