A cenotaph is an "empty tomb" or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. The word derives from the Greek: κενοτάφιον = kenotaphion (kenos, one meaning being "empty", and taphos, "tomb"). Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.
Sir Edwin Lutyens' cenotaph in Whitehall, London influenced the design of many other war memorials in Britain and the British sectors of the Western Front, as well as those in other Commonwealth nations.
The Church of Santa Engrácia, in Lisbon, Portugal, turned into a National Pantheon since 1966, holds six cenotaphs, namely to Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Henry the Navigator.
Among Asian countries, the Cenotaph in Central of Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong, the Cenotaph in George Town, Penang, the Cenotaph in Kuala Lumpur, the Cenotaph in Singapore and the Cenotaph in Colombo were erected as memorials to the war dead of World War I.
A monument which has come to be known to as the "Cenotaph" was erected in Plaza San Martín, in downtown Buenos Aires, to commemorate the Argentinian soldiers who died during the Falklands War, in 1982. The monument consists of a series of plaques of black marble with the names of the fallen, surrounding a flame, and during the day is guarded by two soldiers.
In Australia, Anzac Day commemorations are usually held at all of the nation's many war memorials, but not all of them are cenotaphs. The Sydney Cenotaph is in Martin Place and the Hobart Cenotaph is in the Queens Domain. An Anzac Day commemoration is held in the regional city of Bendigo at the cenotaph which is located in Charing Cross.
In Canada, major cenotaphs commemorating the nation's war dead in World War I and later conflicts include the National War Memorial (a cenotaph surmounted by a bronze sculpture entitled "The Response") in Ottawa; Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, Victoria, St. John's, Halifax, and the Victory Square Cenotaph, in Vancouver, British Columbia.
A cenotaph is the focal point of the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria, South Africa. It is situated below the other main point of interest, a marble Historical Frieze in the Hall of Heroes, and is visible through a round opening in the floor. The Hall of Heroes itself has a dome from the summit of which one can view the interior of the monument. At noon on 16 December each year the sun shines through another opening in the dome onto the middle of the cenotaph, where the words Ons vir Jou, Suid-Afrika (from Die Stem van Suid-Afrika; Afrikaans for "We for Thee, South Africa") are inscribed. The ray of sunshine symbolises God's blessing on the lives and endeavours of the Voortrekkers. 16 December is the date in 1838 that the Battle of Blood River was fought.
Port Elizabeth, South Africa, has a cenotaph. Located on the edge of St George's Park in Rink Street, it was designed by Elizabeth Gardner to commemorate the men who died in the First World War (1914 - 1918) and was erected by the monumental mason firm of Pennachini Bros. On either side of the central sarcophagus are statues by Technical College Art School principal, James Gardner, who served in the trenches during the war. One depicts St George and the Dragon, the other depicts the sanctity of family life. Surrounding the sarcophagus are a number of bas-relief panels depicting scenes and people during World War One. It was unveiled by Mrs W F Savage and dedicated by Canon Mayo on 10 November 1929. A surrounding memorial wall commemorates the men and women killed during the Second World War.
A cenotaph in the UK that stands in Whitehall, London, was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and replaced Lutyens' identical wood-and-plaster cenotaph erected in 1919 for the Allied Victory Parade, and is a Grade I listed building. It is undecorated save for a carved wreath on each end and the words "The Glorious Dead," chosen by Lloyd George. It was intended to commemorate specifically the victims of the First World War, but is used to commemorate all of the dead in all wars in which British servicemen and women have fought. The dates of the First World War and the Second World War are inscribed on it in Roman numerals. The design was used in the construction of many other war memorials throughout the British Empire.
There is another Cenotaph that stands on Victoria Square in Aberdare Glamorgan, also designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.
The Cenotaph in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is located in the grounds of Belfast City Hall and is set within a Garden of Remembrance. It is about 9.5 metres (31 ft) high and presents several carvings including laurel wreaths, symbolising victory and honour. The Cenotaph is the site of the annual Northern Ireland memorial held on Remembrance Sunday, the closest Sunday to 11 November (Armistice Day).
In the United States, a cenotaph in Yale University's Hewitt Quad (or Beinecke Plaza) honours men of Yale who died in battle. The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas is often described as a cenotaph.
The Battle Monument in Baltimore, Maryland commemorates the Battle of Baltimore, the Battle of North Point on 12 September 1814, the Bombardment of Fort McHenry on 13–14 September, and the stand-off on Loudenschlager's Hill (now Hampstead Hill in Patterson Park). It has an Egyptian Revival cenotaph base, surmounted by a fasces bound together with ribbons bearing the names of the dead. It was designed by French émigré architect Maximilian Godefroy in 1815, and construction was completed in 1827. It is considered[who?] the first war memorial in America, and an early example of a memorial to individual soldiers. The Monument appears on the Seal and the Logo of the City of Baltimore, and serves as a symbol for any agencies of the municipal government.
A cenotaph for the defenders of the Battle of the Alamo (March 1836) stands in front of the Alamo mission chapel in San Antonio, Texas. The cenotaph is empty because the remains of the fallen were cremated.
Atop War Memorial Chapel at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, there is a cenotaph honouring all Virginia Tech cadets who have been killed in battle. Inscribed upon the cenotaph are the names of the seven Virginia Tech Alumni who have been awarded the Medal of Honor.
In Livingstone there is a cenotaph at the Eastern Cataract of The Victoria Falls with the names of the men of Northern Rhodesia who died during the Great War 1914–18. It was unveiled by HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught on 1 August 1923.
There is also a cenotaph in Lusaka at Embassy Park, opposite the Cabinet Office along Independence Avenue, and commemorates those Zambians who fought and died in World Wars I & II. The cenotaph was commemorated in 1977.
Cenotaphs for the missing
Although most notable cenotaphs commemorate notable individuals buried elsewhere, many cenotaphs pay tribute to people whose remains have never been located, particular those lost at sea. Two such cenotaphs are dedicated to victims of the RMS Titanic, whose bodies were not recovered after the sinking. The cenotaph of Ida Straus serves as the gravestone for her husband Isidor Straus at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, and the striking cenotaph of Major Archibald Butt, aide to U.S. President William Taft, is located at Arlington National Cemetery.
In Inishmore, Aran Islands, Ireland, drowning was formerly such a common cause of death for island fishermen that each family had a memorial to those lost at sea. Known as leachtaí cuimhneacháin (memorial cairns). Most were erected in the 19th century, although some date back to the eighteenth. A modern memorial was erected in 1997.
In India, cenotaphs are a basic element of Hindu architecture, later used by Moghuls as seen in most of the mausoleums of Mughal Emperors which have two burial chambers, the upper one with a cenotaph, as in Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, or the Taj Mahal, Agra, while the real tomb often lies exactly below it, or further removed. The Chhatri(s) trace their origin at 2000 years ago at Fort Kangara. The term chhatri, used for these canopylike structures, comes from Hindustani word literally meaning umbrella, and are found throughout the northwestern region of Rajasthan as well as in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan, chhatris are built on the cremation sites of wealthy or distinguished individuals. Chhatris in Shekhawati may consist of a simple structure of one dome raised by four pillars to a building containing many domes and a basement with several rooms. In some places, the interior of the chhatri is painted in the same manner as the Haveli.
Cenotaphs have also been the subject of a number of illustrations including:
- The Cenotaph to Reynold's Memory (John Constable, c. 1833)
- Elevation for Newton's Cenotaph, Perspective (Etienne-Louis Boullée, c. 1785)
- The Cenotaph of Jean Jacques Rousseau (Hubert Robert, 1794)
In the Internet age, virtual cenotaphs are common in the game World of Warcraft. They have also been created in the augmented reality game Ingress in honour of the slain MIT police officer Sean Collier and in memory of the victims of the 1942 Struma disaster.
Cenotaph, Flesherton, Ontario, Canada
Cenotaph, Victoria Park, London, Ontario
Great War Memorial, Niagara Falls, Ontario
Étienne-Louis Boullée, fantasy sketch Cénotaphe a Newton (1784)
- Munstead Wood
- Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
- Tropaeum Traiani
- War memorial
- "Bermuda Cenotaph". Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Skelton & Gliddon – Lutyens and the Great War, published 2008, Pages 23–47 (also see external link below: Cenotaph of Sigismunda and Lutyen's Whitehall Cenotaph)
- "Buildings of outstanding or national architectural or historic interest."
- Dorsey, John & Dilts, James D., Guide to Baltimore Architecture (1997) p. 145–146. Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Maryland ISBN 0-87033-477-8
- The Zambian Freedom Trail Project, pamphlet phase 1 published with support by U.S. Embassy, Lusaka, Zambia
- Find A Grave. "Ida Straus". Retrieved 11 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Titanic Memorials: Archibald Butt Cenotaph, Arlington National Cemetery – Arlington, VA". Retrieved 11 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Leachtaí Cuimhneacháin (Stone Memorials for Dead)". Aran Islands. Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mike. "Have you been to Inis Mhór - the largest of the Aran Islands off County Galway? - Your Irish Heritage". Your Irish Heritage. Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Game Studies". Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- A Tribute to World of Warcraft Memorials. YouTube. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Scott Kirsner (24 April 2013). "In Google's Ingress augmented reality game, a ceasefire at MIT and a memorial to slain officer Sean Collier". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2 June 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Operation Struma". Retrieved 16 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Secret of the Cenotaph by Andrew Crompton, 1999
- Stilling the Pulse of Time by Bruce Cole, Wall Street Journal, 8 November 2013
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