Charles Frederick Carter

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Professor Sir Charles Frederick Carter (15 August 1919 – 27 June 2002) was an academic known primarily for his role as the founding Vice-Chancellor of Lancaster University.

Carter was born in Rugby to a father who was an electrical engineer and the developer of the Carter coefficient, and a mother who was an active member of the Society of Friends. He was educated at Rugby School and St John's College, Cambridge, where he read Mathematics and Economics and attained a First.

In World War II Carter refused to fight, being a conscientious objector, and because he refused to accept any conditions for his exemption he spent three months in Strangeways Prison, Manchester. When released, he joined the Friends' Relief Service, where he met Janet Shea, whom he married in 1944.

In 1945 he returned to Cambridge, where he became a lecturer in statistics and, from 1947, a fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He remained at Cambridge until 1952, when he took the Chair of Applied Economics at Queen's University, Belfast. Whilst in Northern Ireland he became a student of The Troubles, and concluded that a Protestant monopoly on power was unacceptable and could not be sustained. He also chaired the Northern Ireland Economic Development Council. In 1959 he moved to the Stanley Jevons chair in Manchester, remaining there for four years.

As an economist he was a follower of G.L.S. Shackle, and was concerned about the impact of expectations in human decisions.

In 1963 he became the founding Vice-Chancellor of the new University of Lancaster. He managed to admit the first 264 students in 1964, a year ahead of schedule, by utilising disused buildings as temporary accommodation and teaching facilities. Carter's vision was for Lancaster to be a university for the whole North West, commenting that the people of Lancashire thought of it as their university. He refused "discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, politics or any other thing" and established links with various Higher Education Colleges, thus pre-empting the drive for widening participation forty years later.

His tenure at the University of Lancaster ended in 1979, the same year he was knighted. He retired to Seascale, Cumbria, and continued to work on projects he deemed to be worthwhile.


  • Carter, C. F. (1950). "Expectations in economics". Economic Journal. 60: 92–105.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Carter, C. F. (1953). "A revised theory of expectations". Economic Journal. 63: 811–820.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Carter, C. F. (1956). "Review of uncertainty in economics and other reflections, by G. L. Shackle". Economic Journal. 66: 700–701.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Carter, C. F.; Ford, J. L. (1972). Uncertainty and expectations in economics: essays in honour of G.L.S. Shackle. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 9780631141709.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


Academic offices
Preceded by
Vice-Chancellors of Lancaster University
Succeeded by
Philip Reynolds