Charles I, Duke of Brittany

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Charles of Blois Châtillon
CarlosIdebritania.jpg
Duke of Brittany
Reign 30 April 1341 – 29 September 1364
Predecessor John III
Successor John IV
Born c. 1319
Blois (France)
Died 29 September 1364 (aged 44–45)
Auray
Spouse Joanna, Duchess of Brittany
Issue John I of Blois-Châtillon
Guy
Henry
Marie, Lady of Guise
Marguerite, Countess of Angoulême
Full name
His Royal Highness The Duke of Anjou Charles Chatillon
House House of Blois
Father Guy I of Blois-Châtillon
Mother Margaret of Valois
Saint Charles de Chatillon
Duke of Britanny
Patron of Europe
Died Auray
Venerated in Roman Catholicism
Beatified 1904 by Pie X
Canonized 1364 by Pope Urban V
Feast 29 September (General Roman Calendar)
Patronage -Army soldiers
-Agricultural workers

Charles of Blois Châtillon (1319 – 29 September 1364), "The Saint", claimed the title Duke of Brittany from 1341 to his death. Charles de Châtillon canonized as a Saint of the Roman Catholic church for his devotion to religion. This canonization was later annulled denying him the Church designation of Saint; he remains "the Blessed".

Charles Chattilon de Blois was the nephew of the new King of France Philip VI of Valois, chosen by the Peerage of France against the claims of Edward III, by virtue of the Salic law. He also inherited the rights to the Duchy of Brittany by the House of Penthièvre.

Charles Chattilon was born in Blois, son of Guy de Chatillon, count of Blois, by Margaret of Valois, a sister of king Philip VI of France. He was a devout man, who took piety to the extreme of mortifying his own flesh. It is said that he placed pebbles in his shoes, wore ropes tight with knots near his flesh and confessed every night in fear of sleeping in a state of sin. He was nevertheless an accomplished military leader, who inspired loyalty by his religious fervour.

On 4 June 1337 in Paris, he married Joanna of Penthièvre, heiress and niece of duke John III. Together, Charles and Joanna de Châtillon fought the House of Montfort in the Breton War of Succession (1341–1364), with the support of the crown of France. Despite his piety, Charles did not hesitate in ordering the massacre of 2000 civilians after the siege of Quimper. After initial successes, Charles was taken prisoner by the English in 1347. Thomas Dagworth was the official captor of Charles of Blois.[1] He was released nine years afterwards against a ransom of about half a million ecús, and resumed the war against the Montforts.

Family

By his marriage to Joanna, he had five children:

Death and legacy

Charles de Châtillon died in 1364 in the Battle of Auray, which determined the end of the Breton War of Succession with the victory of the Montforts.

Charles de Châtillon was canonized as a Saint of the Roman Catholic church for his devotion to religion. The canonization process was nullified by Pope Gregory XI at the request of Duke John IV of Brittany, Charles' final opponent in the Breton War of Succession and the recognized Duke of Brittany under the first Treaty of Guerande.

Subsequently, in 1904, Charles de Châtillon was beatified and therefore may be referred to as the Blessed Charles of Blois. His Roman Catholic Feast Day is 30 September.[lower-alpha 1]

See also

Notes

  1. See the Franciscan Description of the Blessed Charles of Blois

References

  1. Historical Note Vagabond by Bernard Cornwell 2002 pg 405

External links

Charles I, Duke of Brittany
Born: 1319 Died: 1364
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John III
Duke of Brittany jure uxoris
1341–1364
With: Joan
disputed by John of Montfort and John IV
Succeeded by
John IV
Preceded by
Guy
Count of Penthièvre jure uxoris
1337–1364
With: Joan
Succeeded by
Jean de Blois