Silver Citation Star
The Silver Citation Star is a Department of the Army device which was first established by the United States Congress on July 9, 1918 (Bulletin No. 43, War Dept. 1918). The "Citation Star" was a 3/16" silver star "placed" on the suspension ribbon and service ribbon of the World War I Victory Medal to denote a Citation (certificate) for "Gallantry In Action" was awarded to a soldier or to a Marine attached to the Army's Second Division (2nd Infantry Division), American Expeditionary Forces after he was officially cited in orders (General Order Number). The "Citation Star" is authorized retroactively to denote being cited for gallantry in action back to the American Civil War.
General Jervey, Office of the Chief of Staff, in a letter dated February 26, 1926, wrote:
The Secretary of War directs as follows - The following is the amended version of paragraph 187 of Army Regulation: "No more than one Medal of Honor or one Distinguished Service Cross or one Distinguished Service Medal shall be issued to any one person, but for each succeeding or act sufficient to justify the award of a Medal of Honor or Distinguished Service Cross or Distinguished Service Medal, respectively, a bronze oak leaf cluster, shall be issued in lieu thereof; and for each citation of an officer or enlisted man for gallantry in action, published in orders from headquarters of a force commanded by a general officer, not warranting the issue of a Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross or Distinguished Service Medal, he shall wear a silver star, 3/16 inch in diameter, as prescribed in Uniform Regulations."
In, Army Regulation 600-40 specified that the "Citation Star" would be worn above a campaign clasp on the suspension ribbon of the medal and to the wearer's right of the bronze service stars on the service ribbon.
Authorized Army Citation Stars may be worn on the following service medals:
- World War I Victory Medal
- Civil War Campaign Medal
- Indian Campaign Medal
- Spanish Campaign Medal
- Philippine Campaign Medal
- China Campaign Medal
- Mexican Service Medal
On July 19, 1932, the United States Secretary of War approved the Silver Star Medal to replace the Citation Star. Second and subsequent Citation Stars were replaced by oak leaf cluster devices for the Silver Star medal.
The Navy also authorized a 3/16" silver star for those individuals commended by the Secretary of the Navy named the Navy Commendation Star (Navy Letter of Commendation Star) which also was to be placed on the World War I Victory Medal for each citation. The two silver star devices were not considered equivalent, however, and the Navy Commendation Star could not be converted to the Silver Star Medal.
At the start of the Second World War, the Navy Commendation Star was declared obsolete and none were issued after 1941 (in 1943 a Navy Commendation Ribbon was authorized). Starting in the 1950s, the Department of the Navy began accepting applications from eligible World War I veterans who were authorized the Navy Commendation Star to be reissued the Navy Commendation Ribbon with Metal Pendant which in 1960 was renamed the Navy Commendation Medal, (and which in turn became the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal in 1994).
- United States military award devices
- MilitaryTimes Hall of Valor, Valor awards (Silver Star Citations, WW1)