Coffee production in Ethiopia

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Ethiopian Blessed Coffee brand bags in Takoma Park, Maryland. Coffee is one of Ethiopia's main exports.

Coffee production in Ethiopia is a longstanding tradition. Ethiopia is where Coffea arabica, the coffee plant, originates.[1] The plant is now grown in various parts of the world; Ethiopia itself accounts for around 3% of the global coffee market. Coffee is important to the economy of Ethiopia; around 60% of foreign income comes from coffee, with an estimated 15 million of the population relying on some aspect of coffee production for their livelihood.[1] In 2006, coffee exports brought in $350 million,[2] equivalent to 34% of that year's total exports.[3]


The coffee plant, Coffea arabica, originates in Ethiopia.[1] According to legend, the 9th-century goatherder Kaldi discovered the coffee plant after noticing the energizing effect the plant had on his flock, but the story did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.[4]


A training seminar for coffee tasters (cuppers) in 2003

Ethiopia is the world's seventh largest producer of coffee, and Africa's top producer, with 260,000 metric tonnes in 2006.[5] Half of the coffee is consumed by Ethiopians,[6] and the country leads the continent in domestic consumption.[7] The major markets for Ethiopian coffee are the EU (about half of exports), East Asia (about a quarter) and North America.[8] The total area used for coffee cultivation is estimated to be about 4,000 km2 (1,500 sq mi), the size is unknown due to the fragmented nature of the coffee farms.[9] The way of production has not changed much, with nearly all work, cultivating and drying, still done by hand.[6]

The revenues from coffee exports account for 10% of the annual government revenue, because of the large share the industry is given very high priority, but there are conscious efforts by the government to reduce the coffee industry's share of the GDP by increasing the manufacturing sector.[10]

The Coffee and Tea Authority, part of the federal government, handles anything related to coffee and tea,[9] such as fixing the price at which the washing stations buy coffee from the farmers. This is a legacy from a nationalization scheme set in action by the previous regime that turned over all the washing stations to farmers cooperatives.[11] The domestic market is heavily regulated through licenses, with the goal of avoiding market concentration.[11]

Regional varieties

Ethiopian Sidamo beans

Ethiopian coffee beans that are grown in either the Harar, Sidamo, Yirgacheffe or Limu regions are kept apart and marketed under their regional name.[7][12] These regional varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.[13]


"Ethiopia Sidamo" is a type of Arabica coffee of single origin grown exclusively in the Sidamo Province of Ethiopia. Like most African coffees, Ethiopia Sidamo features a small and greyish bean, yet is valued for its deep, spice and wine or chocolate-like taste and floral aroma. The most distinctive flavour notes found in all Sidamo coffees are lemon and citrus with bright crisp acidity. Sidamo coffee includes Yirgachefe Coffee and Guji Coffee. Both coffee types are very high quality.


Harar is in the Eastern highlands of Ethiopia. It is one of the oldest coffee beans still produced and is known for its distinctive fruity, wine flavour. The bean is medium in size with a greenish-yellowish colour. It has medium acidity and full body and a distinctive mocha flavour. Harar is a dry processed coffee bean with sorting and processing done almost entirely by hand. Though processing is done by hand, the laborers are extremely knowledgeable of how each bean is categorized.


Ethiopian coffee beans of the species Coffea arabica can be divided into three categories: Longberry, Shortberry, and Mocha. Longberry varieties consist of the largest beans and are often considered of the highest quality in both value and flavour. In some cases this is true but more often than not it is just a marketing pitch. Shortberry varieties are smaller than the Longberry beans but, are considered a high grade bean in Eastern Ethiopia where it originates. Also the Mocha variety is a highly prized commodity. Mocha Harars are known for their peaberry beans that often have complex chocolate, spice and citrus notes.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Thomas P. Ofcansky, David H. Shinn (29 Mar 2004). Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia. Scarecrow Press. p. 92.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 20 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 20 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Weinberg & Bealer 2001, pp. 3–4
  5. "Food and Agricultural commodities production". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 14 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cousin, Tracey L (June 1997). "Ethiopia Coffee and Trade". American University. Retrieved May 10, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Major coffee producers". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2010-05-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Keyzer, Merbis & Overbosch 2000, p. 33
  9. 9.0 9.1 Belda 2006, p. 77
  10. Belda 2006, p. 79
  11. 11.0 11.1 Keyzer, Merbis & Overbosch 2000, p. 35
  12. The coffee paradox: global markets ... - Google Books. Retrieved 2011-02-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Starbucks in Ethiopia coffee vow". BBC. June 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-21. Starbucks has agreed a wide-ranging accord with Ethiopia to support and promote its coffee, ending a long-running dispute over the issue.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>