A complementary currency is used to supplement to a national currency.:3 It is an agreement to use a medium of exchange that is not usually legal tender.:2 The purpose may be to protect or stimulate a particular economy.:7 Another purpose may be to orientate the economy towards social, environmental or political aims.:7:4
The terms 'complementary currency', 'community currency' and 'local currency' have not been used consistently. According to Jérôme Blanc of Laboratoire d'Économie de la Firme et des Institutions, complementary currencies aim to protect, stimulate or orientate the economy. Community currencies aim to protect and strengthen a community and local currencies aim to protect and strengthen a territory.:4,7
Sometimes the term 'complementary community currency' is used. Local currency, describing a complementary currency which is limited to a single locality, is sometimes used interchangeably with 'complementary currency'.
Advocates in the 1960s, especially in Canada, promoted complementary currencies to supplement national currencies. Certain leaders of this movement were careful to use the term 'complementary'.[who?] They used it to emphasize the importance of working in cooperation with governments and the tax system, businesses and other established organisations.
Since the 1980s there has been a steady increase in the number of complementary currencies. In 1993 there was roughly 500, by 2003 there was over 4000.:24
Complementary currencies are often designed intentionally to address specific issues, for example to increase financial stability. Most complementary currencies have multiple purposes and/or are intended to address multiple issues. They can be useful for communities that do not have access to financial capital, and for adjusting peoples' spending behavior. The 2006 Annual Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems presented a survey of 150 complementary currency systems in which 94 respondents said that "all reasons" were selected, among cooperation, micro/small/medium enterprise development, activating the local market, reducing the need for national currency, and community development.
Aims may include:
- lifeboat currencies
- to increase financial stability.
- to reduce carbon emissions, by encouraging localisation of trade and relationships
- to encouraging use of under-used resources:2
- to recognise the informal economy
Types of complementary currencies
Complementary currencies describe a wide group of exchange systems, currencies or scrips designed to be used in combination with standard currencies or other complementary currencies. They can be valued and exchanged in relationship to national currencies but also function as media of exchange on their own. Complementary currencies lie outside the nationally defined legal realm of legal tender and are not used as such. Rate of exchange, scope of circulation and use in combination with other currencies differs greatly between complementary currency systems, as is the case with national currency systems.
Some complementary currencies incorporate value scales based on time or the backing of real resources (gold, oil, services, etc.). A time-based currency is valued by the time required to perform a service in hours, notwithstanding the potential market value of the service. Another type of complementary monetary systems is the barter, an exchange of specific goods or services is performed without the use of any currency.
In 1982, the most widespread auxiliary currency system – the Local Exchange Trading Systems was created. It regulates the exchange of goods and services between the members of the cooperative. Examples for an investment system of complementary currency are the Automatic Social Financial Network (ASFN) and the international crowdsourcing and crowd-funding community Evolution RA whose members use their own complementary virtual currency “Сyber-gold”. The introductory fee paid by the new association members is subsequently directed toward investments in a variety of commercial projects.
Some complementary currencies take advantage of demurrage fees, an intentional devaluation of the currency over time, like negative interest. This stimulates market exchanges in the devaluating currency, propagates new participation in the currency system and forces the storage of wealth (hoarding) ability usually reserved for currency into more permanent and better value holding tools like property, improvement, education, technology, health, equity securities, etc. – all of which are sheltered from the currency-based demurrage fees.
Other experimental complementary currencies use high interest fees to promote heavy competition between participants, and the removal of wealth from long term wealth holding structures (natural/material wealth, property, etc.) to aid in the process of rapid industrialization, mass production, automation and competitive innovation.
Monetary speculation and gambling are usually outside the design parameters of complementary currencies. Complementary currencies are often intentionally restricted in their regional spread, time of validity or sector of use and may require a membership of participating individuals or points of acceptance.
A community currency is a type of complementary currency that has the explicit aim to support and build more equal, connected and sustainable societies. A community currency is designed to be used by a specific group.
The Toronto dollar system is fully funded by (i.e. backed by) Canadian dollars. Participating merchants are free to exchange the Toronto dollars for Canadian dollars. The Toronto dollar has been supported by activists, clergy and a number of political leaders, including, several mayors.
Example of a fully digital complementary currency
Some complementary currency activists are Belgian ex-banker Bernard Lietaer, British economist Hazel Henderson, Dutch STRO-director Henk van Arkel that developed Cyclos, Qoin initiators Edgar Kampers and Rob van Hilten, Margrit Kennedy from Monneta, Local Exchange and TRading inventor Michael Linton, Time Banking inventor Edgar S. Cahn, Complementary Currency Resource Center coordinator Stephen DeMeulenaere and many others. Lietaer has argued that the world's national currencies are inadequate for the world's business needs, citing how 87 countries have experienced major currency crashes over a 20-year period, and arguing for complementary currencies as a way to protect against these problems. Lietaer has also spoken at an International Reciprocal Trade Association (IRTA) conference about barter.
List of complementary currencies
|Brixton Pound||Local currency||United Kingdom||Europe|
|Bristol Pound||Local currency||United Kingdom||Europe|
|BerkShares||Local Currency||United States||North America||2006 - present||http://berkshares.org|
|Baltimore BNote||United States||North America||baltimoregreencurrency.org|
|Calgary Dollar||Local currency||Canada||North America||1995|
|Exeter Pound||Local currency||United Kingdom||Europe||2015||http://exeterpound.org.uk|
|Fureai kippu||Sectoral currency||Japan||Asia||1995|
|Ithaca Hours||Local currency||United States||North America|
|Lewes Pound||Local currency||United Kingdom||Europe||2008|
- Robert Costanza et al., "Complementary Currencies as a Method to Improve Local Sustainable Economic Welfare", University of Vermont, Draft, Dec. 12th, 2003.
- Lietaer, Bernard; Hallsmith, Gwendolyn (2006). "Community Currency Guide" (PDF). Global Community Initiatives. Retrieved 18 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Blanc, Jérôme (2011). "Classifying 'CCs': Community, complementary and local currencies' types and generations" (PDF). International Journal of Community Currency Research. 15: 4–10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ahmed, Pepita Ould; Fare, Marie. "The complementary currency systems: a tricky issue for economists". hal.archives-ouvertes.fr. Retrieved 18 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- B. Rietaer, "Global Complementally Currency: Making Money Sustainable", Environmental Research Quarterly, Vol. 125, pp. 53–59, 2002.
- Lietaer, B., Ulanowicz, R., and Goerner, S. (2008) “Options for Managing a Systemic Bank Crisis”. S.A.P.I.EN.S. 1 (2)
- Jeremy Faludi, "Complementary Currency: For Bootstrapping, But Not For Everything", Worldchanging, Oct. 4th, 2005.
- 2006 Annual Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems
- S. DeMeulenaere, "2006 Annual Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems", International Journal of Community Currency Research, Vol. 11, pp. 23–35, 2007.
- "People Powered Money: designing, developing and delivering community currencies" (PDF). Community Currencies in Action. Retrieved 17 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Bernard Lietaer Urges the Growth of New Currency", Bank Technology News, Jul. 1st, 2004.
- "Barter and Cashless Trading Summit to Promote Collaboration of International Reciprocal Trade: IRTAs 26th Annual Conference Is The First of Its Kind", PRWEB, Jul. 22nd, 2005.