Coronavirus disease 2019

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Coronavirus disease 2019
(COVID-19)
File:Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (cropped).png
Symptoms
Pronunciation /kəˈrnəˌvrəs dɪˈzz/
Specialty Acute respiratory infection [1]
Synonyms
  • 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease
  • Novel coronavirus pneumonia[2]
  • Wuhan pneumonia[3][4][5][6]
Symptoms Fever, cough, shortness of breath[7]
Causes SARS-CoV-2
[[[d:Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 863: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).|edit on Wikidata]]]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2,[8] a virus closely related to the SARS virus.[9][10][11] The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak.[12][13] It passes from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing.[14][15] Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days.[16][17] Hand washing, maintaining distance from people who are coughing, and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are recommended to prevent the disease.[18] It is recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a bent elbow when coughing.[18]

People may have few symptoms or develop fever, cough, and shortness of breath.[7][19][20] Cases can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure.[12][13] There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care, and experimental measures.[21] The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%.[22][23]

The World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend those who suspect that they are carrying the virus wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than directly visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection. Masks are not recommended for the general public.[24][25] The WHO has declared the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).[26][27] As of 29 February, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.[28][29]

Signs and symptoms

Those infected may either be asymptomatic or develop symptoms including fever, cough or shortness of breath.[7][19][20] Diarrhea or upper respiratory symptoms (e.g. sneezing, runny nose, sore throat) are less frequent.[30] Cases can progress to pneumonia, multi-organ failure, and death.[12][13]

The incubation period ranges from 1 to 14 days with an estimated median incubation period of 5 to 6 days according to the World Health Organization.[31][32]

A WHO review of 55,924 laboratory-confirmed cases in China indicated the following typical signs and symptoms: fever (87.9% of cases), dry cough (67.7%), fatigue (38.1%), sputum production (33.4%), shortness of breath (18.6%), sore throat (13.9%), headache (13.6%), myalgia or arthralgia (14.8%), chills (11.4%), nausea or vomiting (5.0%), nasal congestion (4.8%), diarrhea (3.7%), hemoptysis (0.9%) and conjunctival congestion (0.8%).[33] Another study of of 1,099 Chinese patients found that CT scans showed ground-glass opacities in 56% of patients, but 18% had no radiological findings. 5% of patients were admitted to intensive care units, 2.3% needed mechanical support of ventilation, and 1.4% died.[34]

Cause

File:SARS-CoV-2 49531042877.jpg
Scanning electron microscope image of SARS-CoV-2 (centre, yellow)

The disease is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).[10] It is primarily spread between people via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes.[35]

The virus is thought to have an animal origin.[36] An epidemiological study of the first 72,314 cases released by the Chinese government suggested that there may have been a "continuous common source" of the outbreak in December 2019, which would imply that several animal to human zoonotic events occurred at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. According to this theory, the primary source of infection became human-to-human transmission in early January 2020.[37]

Pathology

Histopathological examinations of post-mortem lung samples showed diffuse alveolar damage with cellular fibromyxoid exudates in both lungs. Viral cytopathic changes were observed in the pneumocytes. The lung picture resembled acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).[38]

Diagnosis

CDC laboratory test kit for COVID-19[39]

The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.[40][41] Testing uses real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).[42] The test can be done on respiratory samples.[43] Results are generally available within a few hours to days.[44][45] Blood tests can be used, but these require two blood samples taken two weeks apart and the results have little immediate value.[46] Chinese scientists were able to isolate a strain of the coronavirus and publish the genetic sequence so that laboratories across the world could independently develop PCR tests to detect infection by the virus.[12][47][48][49] COVID-19 testing can also be done with nucleic acid-based tests and antibody test kits.[50]

Diagnostic guidelines released by Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University suggested methods for detecting infections based upon clinical features and epidemiological risk. These involved identifying patients who had at least two of the following symptoms in addition to a history of travel to Wuhan or contact with other infected patients: fever, imaging features of pneumonia, normal or reduced white blood cell count, or reduced lymphocyte count.[51]

Prevention

Global health organisations have published preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection. Recommendations are similar to those published for other coronaviruses: staying home, avoiding travel and public activities, frequent washing of hands with soap and water; not touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands; and practicing good respiratory hygiene.[52][53]

The use of masks by healthy members of the public is not recommended outside of China.[54][55][56]

To prevent transmission, the CDC recommends that infected individuals stay at home except to get medical care; call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider; wear a facemask (especially in public); cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue; regularly wash hands with soap and water; and avoid sharing personal household items.[57]

In early 2020, the WHO said it was not expected that a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 could be available in less than 18 months.[58]

Management

There are no specific antiviral medications approved for this disease. Symptoms are managed with supportive care.[59] Both the WHO and Chinese National Health Commission have published detailed treatment recommendations for hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when a SARS-CoV-2 infection is suspected.[60][61] WHO advices against the use of steroids and methylprednisolone unless the disease is complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome.[62] The WHO also recommended volunteers take part in randomized controlled trials for testing the effectiveness and safety of potential treatments.[63]

Bruce Aylward, an assistant director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), has stated "there is only one drug right now that we think may have real efficacy and that's remdesivir." It was reported on 25 February 2020 that clinical trials for this drug were in progress, with results possibly available within weeks.[64]

The Beijing branch of China's National Health Commission suggested the use of lopinavir/ritonavir as part of treatment plans in the absence of an approved drug for this indication.[65] The lopinavir/ritonavir combination and interferon can now be claimed for via health insurance in some countries.[66]

Chloroquine was being trialed in China in February 2020, with preliminary results that seemed quite positive.[67] The drug was enrolled in treatment guidelines.[67]

Psychological

Infected individuals may experience distress from quarantine, travel restrictions, side effects of treatment, or fear of the infection itself. To address these concerns, the National Health Commission of China published a national guideline for psychological crisis intervention on 27 January 2020.[68][69]

Alternative medicine

Chinese health authorities recommend the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in addition to standard medical supportive care to prevent or treat the disease. On 22 January, National Health Commission put TCM into the third issue of the COVID diagnostic and treatment plan.[70] On 2 February, Wuhan officials ordered all patients to be put on a specific TCM treatment.[71][72] On 14 February, Wuhan opened a TCM-oriented temporary hospital.[73] The efficacy and safety of TCM has not been established in coronavirus infections.[74][75]

Prognosis

According to WHO, based on analysis of 44,000 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei province, around 80% of people have a mild form of the disease, 14% developed more severe disease such as pneumonia, 5% have critical disease, and 2% of cases are fatal.[76]

Among those who died, many had preexisting conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease,[77] and the median time from initial symptoms to death was 14 days (range 6–41 days).[78] Males had a death rate of 2.8% while females had a death rate of 1.7%.[79] In those under the age of 50 the risk of death is less than 0.5% while in those over the age of 70 it is more than 8%.[79] No deaths had occurred under the age of 10 as of February 26, 2020.[79]

Epidemiology

Overall mortality and morbidity rates due to infection are not well established; while the case fatality rate changes over time in the current outbreak, the proportion of infections that progress to diagnosable disease remains unclear.[80][81] However, preliminary research has yielded case fatality rate numbers between 2% and 3%;[22] in January 2020 the WHO suggested that the case fatality rate was approximately 3%,[82] and 2% in February 2020 in Hubei.[83] An unreviewed preprint study by Imperial College London among 55 fatal cases noted that early estimates of mortality may be too high as asymptomatic infections are missed. They estimated a mean infection fatality ratio (the mortality among infected) ranging from 0.8% when including asymptomatic carriers to 18% when including only symptomatic cases from Hubei province.[84] Pauline Vetter, in an editorial in British Journal of Medicines notices that mortality outside of Hubei province seems to be lower than within Hubei.[62]

Research

Vaccine

Many organizations are using published genomes to develop possible vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.[85][86] Bodies developing vaccines include the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention,[87][88] the University of Hong Kong,[89] and Shanghai East Hospital.[89] Three vaccine projects are being supported by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), including projects by the biotechnology companies Moderna and Inovio Pharmaceuticals and another by the University of Queensland.[90] The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) is cooperating with Moderna to create an RNA vaccine matching a spike of the coronavirus surface, and intends to start human trials by May 2020.[85] Inovio Pharmaceuticals is developing a DNA-based vaccination and collaborating with a Chinese firm, planning human clinical trials in the summer of the Northern Hemisphere of 2020.[91] In Australia, the University of Queensland is investigating the potential of a molecular clamp vaccine that would genetically modify viral proteins in order to stimulate an immune reaction.[90] In Canada, the International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, are working on a vaccine,[92] aiming to start animal testing in March 2020 and human testing in 2021.[92]

In January 2020, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies began work on developing a vaccine, using the same technologies as for its experimental Ebola vaccine.[93] In the following month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) announced that it would collaborate with Janssen and, later, Sanofi Pasteur to develop a vaccine.[94][95] Sanofi has previously worked on a vaccine for SARS and it stated to expect to have a vaccine candidate within six months that could be ready to test in people within a year to 18 months.[94]

On February 26, 2020, a U.S. health official from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said that it will take "at least a year to a year and a half at best" to develop a vaccine for the coronavirus.[96]

Antiviral

No drug has yet been approved to treat coronavirus infections in humans.[97] Research into potential treatments for the disease was initiated in January 2020, and several antiviral drugs are already in clinical trials.[85][86] Although completely new drugs may take until 2021 to develop,[98] several of the drugs being tested are already approved for other antiviral indications, or are already in advanced testing.[97]

Antivirals being tested include chloroquine,[99] darunavir,[100] galidesivir,[97] interferon beta,[101][better source needed] the lopinavir/ritonavir combination,[86][99] the RNA polymerase inhibitor remdesivir,[101][102][103] and triazavirin.[104][better source needed] Umifenovir (Arbidol) and darunavir were proposed by the National Health Commission.[105][better source needed]

Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the coronavirus in vitro.[99]

Preliminary results from a multicentric trial, announced in a press conference and described by Gao, Tian, and Yang, suggested that chloroquine is effective and safe in treating COVID-19 associated pneumonia, "improving lung imaging findings, promoting a virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease course".[67]

Terminology

The process of naming the disease has been called "chaotic".[106]

The World Health Organization announced on 11 February 2020 that "COVID-19" will be the official name of the disease. World Health Organization chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said "co" stands for "corona", "vi" for "virus" and "d" for "disease", while "19" was for the year, as the outbreak was first identified on 31 December 2019. Tedros said the name had been chosen to avoid references to a specific geographical location (i.e. China), animal species, or group of people in line with international recommendations for naming aimed at preventing stigmatization.[107][108]

See also

References

  1. See SARS-CoV-2 for more.
  2. "国家卫生健康委关于新型冠状病毒肺炎暂命名事宜的通知". 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Belluz, Julia (20 January 2020). "Wuhan pneumonia outbreak: What we know and don't know". Vox. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Cheung, Elizabeth (17 January 2020). "Wuhan pneumonia: Hong Kong widens net for suspected cases but medical workers fear already overstretched hospitals will suffer". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yuan, Shuofeng; Kok, Kin-Hang; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Yang, Jin; et al. (15 February 2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster". The Lancet (published 24 January 2020). 395 (10223): 514–523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 31986261.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Wuhan designates hospitals for viral pneumonia treatment as cases rise". The Straits Times. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Symptoms". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it". www.who.int. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. World Health Organization (11 February 2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 22 (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Gorbalenya AE (11 February 2020). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group". bioRxiv: 2020.02.07.937862. doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.937862. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Coronavirus disease named Covid-19". BBC News. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, Ippolito G, Mchugh TD, Memish ZA, Drosten C, Zumla A, Petersen E. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 14;91:264–266. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. PMID 31953166.open access publication - free to read
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR (February 2020). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents: 105924. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924. PMID 32081636.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Advice for public". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. (February 2020). "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study". Lancet. 395 (10223): 507–513. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7. PMID 32007143.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. 20.0 20.1 Hessen MT (27 January 2020). "Novel Coronavirus Information Center: Expert guidance and commentary". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Wuhan Coronavirus Death Rate - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Report 4: Severity of 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. CDC (11 February 2020). "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Advice for public". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Mahtani S, Berger M, O'Grady S, Iati M (6 February 2020). "Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Areas with presumed ongoing community transmission of 2019-nCoV". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Christina Maxouris; Dakin Andone (29 February 2020). "First death from coronavirus in the United States confirmed in Washington state, officials say". CNN - Health. Retrieved 29 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. (February 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". Lancet. 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. PMID 31986264.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "WHO COVID-19 situation report 29" (PDF). World Health Organization. 19 February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19): How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (PDF). WHO. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 29 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Guan, Wei-jie; Ni, Zheng-yi; Hu, Yu; Liang, Wen-hua; Ou, Chun-quan; He, Jian-xing; Liu, Lei; Shan, Hong; Lei, Chun-liang; Hui, David S.C.; Du, Bin; Li, Lan-juan; Zeng, Guang; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Chen, Ru-chong; Tang, Chun-li; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ping-yan; Xiang, Jie; Li, Shi-yue; Wang, Jin-lin; Liang, Zi-jing; Peng, Yi-xiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Yong; Hu, Ya-hua; Peng, Peng; Wang, Jian-ming; Liu, Ji-yang; Chen, Zhong; Li, Gang; Zheng, Zhi-jian; Qiu, Shao-qin; Luo, Jie; Ye, Chang-jiang; Zhu, Shao-yong; Zhong, Nan-shan (28 February 2020). "Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China". New England Journal of Medicine. Massachusetts Medical Society. doi:10.1056/nejmoa2002032. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 32109013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. (23 January 2020). "Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin". bioRxiv: 2020.01.22.914952. doi:10.1101/2020.01.22.914952. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) - China, 2020" (PDF). China CDC Weekly. 2. 20 February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020 – via unpublished master.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. (PDF) https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. CDC (5 February 2020). "CDC Tests for 2019-nCoV". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Schirring L (16 January 2020). "Japan has 1st novel coronavirus case; China reports another death". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases: Interim guidance". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "Real-Time RT-PCR Panel for Detection 2019-nCoV". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Brueck H (30 January 2020). "There's only one way to know if you have the coronavirus, and it involves machines full of spit and mucus". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Curetis Group Company Ares Genetics and BGI Group Collaborate to Offer Next-Generation Sequencing and PCR-based Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Testing in Europe". GlobeNewswire News Room. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases". Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Undiagnosed pneumonia – China (HU) (01): wildlife sales, market closed, RFI Archive Number: 20200102.6866757". Pro-MED-mail. International Society for Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Cohen J, Normile D (January 2020). "New SARS-like virus in China triggers alarm" (PDF). Science. 367 (6475): 234–235. doi:10.1126/science.367.6475.234. PMID 31949058. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome". NCBI. Nature. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "China Makes Over 1.7 Million Covid-19 Testing Kits per Day, Official Says". Yicai Global.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, Cheng H, Deng T, Fan YP, et al. (February 2020). "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)". Military Medical Research. 7 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6. PMC 7003341. PMID 32029004.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Coronavirus | About | Prevention and Treatment | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Advice for public". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Australian Government Department of Health (21 January 2020). "Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 15 February 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "MOH | Updates on 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Local Situation". www.moh.gov.sg. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Australian Government Department of Health (21 January 2020). "Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 11 February 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. CDC (11 February 2020). "What to do if you are sick with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Grenfell R, Drew T (17 February 2020). "Here's Why It's Taking So Long to Develop a Vaccine For The New Coronavirus". Science Alert. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Kui L, Fang YY, Deng Y, Liu W, Wang MF, Ma JP, et al. (February 2020). "Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province". Chinese Medical Journal: 1. doi:10.1097/CM9.0000000000000744. PMID 32044814.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Cheng ZJ, Shan J (February 2020). "2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know" (PDF). Infection. doi:10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y. PMID 32072569. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. 62.0 62.1 Vetter, Pauline; Eckerle, Isabella; Kaiser, Laurent (19 February 2020). "Covid-19: a puzzle with many missing pieces". BMJ. 368: m627. doi:10.1136/bmj.m627. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32075791. Retrieved 29 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Nebehay S, Kelland K, Liu R (5 February 2020). "WHO: 'no known effective' treatments for new coronavirus". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. La Monica PR (25 February 2020). "Gilead Sciences drug remdesivir may help treat coronavirus symptoms, according to WHO". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "China names HIV drugs as part of treatment plan for Wuhan virus". The Japan Times Online. 26 January 2020. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Interferon, Kaletra to get insurance benefit for new coronavirus treatment - Korea Biomedical Review". www.koreabiomed.com (in 한국어). 4 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X (February 2020). "Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies". Bioscience Trends. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047. PMID 32074550.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Xiang YT, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, Ng CH (March 2020). "Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 7 (3): 228–229. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8. PMID 32032543.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX, et al. (March 2020). "The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 7 (3): e14. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X. PMID 32035030.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "新冠肺炎治疗:讲究实证的西医和自我定位的中药" [Treating the novel conoravirus: the empirical Western medicine and the self-positioning Chinese medicine]. BBC News (in 中文). 14 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "中医来了!8个防治"协定方" 辅助治疗新型冠状病毒感染肺炎" [Here comes Chinese medicine! 8 "agreed-on prescriptions" help prevent and treat the new coronavirus pneumonia]. CCTV News. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "武汉要求所有患者必须吃中药 网民质疑" [Wuhan wants all patients put on TCM; Netizens question]. Epoch Times (in 中文). 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Virus-hit Wuhan opens first TCM-oriented temporary hospital". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "Dispelling the myths around the new coronavirus outbreak". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Wee S (5 February 2020). "In Coronavirus, China Weighs Benefits of Buffalo Horn and Other Remedies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. (February 2020). "The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020". China CDC Weekly 2020. 2 (8): 113–122. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "WHO Director-General's statement on the advice of the IHR Emergency Committee on Novel Coronavirus". who.int.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F (April 2020). "Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China". Journal of Medical Virology. 92 (4): 441–447. doi:10.1002/jmv.25689. PMID 31994742.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 "Coronavirus Age, Sex, Demographics (COVID-19) - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Limited data on coronavirus may be skewing assumptions about severity". STAT. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Sparrow A. "How China's Coronavirus Is Spreading—and How to Stop It". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "WHOが"致死率3%程度" 専門家「今後 注意が必要」". NHK. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Boseley, Sarah (17 February 2020). "Coronavirus causes mild disease in four in five patients, says WHO". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "Report 4: Severity of 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. 85.0 85.1 85.2 Steenhuysen J, Kelland K (24 January 2020). "With Wuhan virus genetic code in hand, scientists begin work on a vaccine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. 86.0 86.1 86.2 Praveen Duddu. Coronavirus outbreak: Vaccines/drugs in the pipeline for Covid-19 February 2020/https://web.archive.org/web/20200219184512/https://www.clinicaltrialsarena.com/analysis/coronavirus-mers-cov-drugs/ Archived February 19, 2020 at the Wayback Machine. clinicaltrialsarena.com 19 February 2020.
  87. "China CDC developing novel coronavirus vaccine". Xinhua. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. "Chinese scientists race to develop vaccine as coronavirus death toll jumps". South China Morning Post. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. 89.0 89.1 Cheung E (28 January 2020). "Hong Kong researchers have developed coronavirus vaccine, expert reveals". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. 90.0 90.1 Devlin H (24 January 2020). "Lessons from SARS outbreak help in race for coronavirus vaccine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Mazumdar T (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Scientists race to develop a vaccine". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. 92.0 92.1 "Saskatchewan lab joins global effort to develop coronavirus vaccine". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. Mishra M (29 January 2020). "Johnson & Johnson working on vaccine for deadly coronavirus". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. 94.0 94.1 Branswell H (18 February 2020). "Sanofi announces it will work with HHS to develop coronavirus vaccine". STAT. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "HHS Engages Sanofi's Recombinant Technology for 2019 Novel Coronavirus Vaccine". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) (Press release). 14 February 2020. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. Deese K (26 February 2020). "Health official says coronavirus vaccine will take 'at least a year to a year and a half' to develop". TheHill. Retrieved 26 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. 97.0 97.1 97.2 Li G, De Clercq E (2020). "Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. doi:10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends. 28 Jan 2020. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01020
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. (February 2020). "Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro". Cell Research. doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0. PMID 32020029.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Lin S, Shen R, He J, Li X, Guo X (January 2020). "Molecular Modeling Evaluation of the Binding Effect of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Darunavir to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Proteases" (PDF). bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.01.31.929695.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. 101.0 101.1 Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS (January 2020). "Coronavirus Infections-More Than Just the Common Cold". JAMA. 323 (8): 707. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.0757. PMID 31971553.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. (January 2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". The New England Journal of Medicine: NEJMoa2001191. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. PMID 32004427.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Xu Z, Peng C, Shi Y, Zhu Z, Mu K, Wang X, Zhu W (28 January 2020). "Nelfinavir was predicted to be a potential inhibitor of 2019 nCov main protease by an integrative approach combining homology modelling, molecular docking and binding free energy calculation". bioRxiv: 2020.01.27.921627. doi:10.1101/2020.01.27.921627 – via www.biorxiv.org.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. "China to test Russian antiviral for battle against coronavirus". Washington post. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Are cocktail therapies for flu and HIV the magic cure for coronavirus?". South China Morning Post. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Enserink M (12 February 2020). "Update: 'A bit chaotic.' Christening of new coronavirus and its disease name create confusion". American Associaton for the Advancement of Science. Science Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "Novel coronavirus named 'Covid-19': WHO". TODAYonline. Retrieved 11 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "The coronavirus spreads racism against—and among—ethnic Chinese". The Economist. 17 February 2020. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Template:Scholia


Template:COVID-19