Corporate social responsibility

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate conscience, corporate citizenship or responsible business)[1] is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a self-regulatory mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards and national or international norms. With some models, a firm's implementation of CSR goes beyond compliance and engages in "actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law."[2][3] The aim is to increase long-term profits and shareholder trust through positive public relations and high ethical standards to reduce business and legal risk by taking responsibility for corporate actions. CSR strategies encourage the company to make a positive impact on the environment and stakeholders including consumers, employees, investors, communities, and others.

Proponents argue that corporations increase long-term profits by operating with a CSR perspective, while critics argue that CSR distracts from businesses' economic role. A 2000 study compared existing econometric studies of the relationship between social and financial performance, concluding that the contradictory results of previous studies reporting positive, negative, and neutral financial impact, were due to flawed empirical analysis and claimed when the study is properly specified, CSR has a neutral impact on financial outcomes.[4]

Critics[5][6] questioned the "lofty" and sometimes "unrealistic expectations" in CSR.[7] or that CSR is merely window-dressing, or an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations.

Political sociologists became interested in CSR in the context of theories of globalization, neoliberalism and late capitalism. Some sociologists viewed CSR as a form of capitalist legitimacy and in particular point out that what began as a social movement against uninhibited corporate power was transformed by corporations into a 'business model' and a 'risk management' device, often with questionable results.[8]

CSR is titled to aid an organization's mission as well as serve as a guide to what the company represents for its consumers. Business ethics is the part of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR. Public sector organizations (the United Nations for example) adhere to the triple bottom line (TBL). It is widely accepted that CSR adheres to similar principles, but with no formal act of legislation.


The term "corporate social responsibility" became popular in the 1960s and has remained a term used indiscriminately by many to cover legal and moral responsibility more narrowly construed.[9]

Business Dictionary defines CSR as "A company’s sense of responsibility towards the community and environment (both ecological and social) in which it operates. Companies express this citizenship (1) through their waste and pollution reduction processes, (2) by contributing educational and social programs and (3) by earning adequate returns on the employed resources."[10]

A broader definition expands from a focus on stakeholders to include philanthropy and volunteering.[11]

Consumer perspectives

Most consumers agree that while achieving business targets, companies should do CSR at the same time.[12] Most consumers believe companies doing charity will receive a positive response.[13] Somerville also found that consumers are loyal and willing to spend more on retailers that support charity. Consumers also believe that retailers selling local products will gain loyalty.[14] Smith (2013)[15] shares the belief that marketing local products will gain consumer trust. However, environmental efforts are receiving negative views given the belief that this would affect customer service.[14] Oppewal et al. (2006) found that not all CSR activities are attractive to consumers.[16] They recommended that retailers focus on one activity.[17] Becker-Olsen (2006)[18] found that if the social initiative done by the company is not aligned with other company goals it will have a negative impact. Mohr et al.(2001)[19] and Groza et al. (2011)[20] also emphasise the importance of reaching the consumer.


CSR Approaches

Some commentators have identified a difference between the Canadian (Montreal school of CSR), the Continental European and the Anglo-Saxon approaches to CSR.[21] It is said that for Chinese consumers,[22] a socially responsible company makes safe, high-quality products; for Germans it provides secure employment; in South Africa it makes a positive contribution to social needs such as health care and education.[23] And even within Europe the discussion about CSR is very heterogeneous.[24]

A more common approach to CSR is corporate philanthropy. This includes monetary donations and aid given to nonprofit organizations and communities. Donations are made in areas such as the arts, education, housing, health, social welfare and the environment, among others, but excluding political contributions and commercial event sponsorship.[25]

Another approach to CSR is to incorporate the CSR strategy directly into operations. For instance, procurement of Fair Trade tea and coffee.

Creating Shared Value, or CSV is based on the idea that corporate success and social welfare are interdependent. A business needs a healthy, educated workforce, sustainable resources and adept government to compete effectively. For society to thrive, profitable and competitive businesses must be developed and supported to create income, wealth, tax revenues and philanthropy. The Harvard Business Review article Strategy & Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility provided examples of companies that have developed deep linkages between their business strategies and CSR.[26] CSV acknowledges trade-offs between short-term profitability and social or environmental goals, but emphasizes the opportunities for competitive advantage from building a social value proposition into corporate strategy. CSV gives the impression that only two stakeholders are important - shareholders and consumers.

Many companies employ benchmarking to assess their CSR policy, implementation and effectiveness. Benchmarking involves reviewing competitor initiatives, as well as measuring and evaluating the impact that those policies have on society and the environment, and how others perceive competitor CSR strategy.[27]

Cost-benefit analysis

In competitive markets cost-benefit analysis of CSR initiatives, can be examined using a resource-based view (RBV). According to Barney (1990) "formulation of the RBV, sustainable competitive advantage requires that resources be valuable (V), rare (R), inimitable (I) and non-substitutable (S)."[28][29] A firm introducing a CSR-based strategy might only sustain high returns on their investment if their CSR-based strategy could not be copied (I). However, should competitors imitate such a strategy, that might increase overall social benefits. Firms that choose CSR for strategic financial gain are also acting responsibly.

RBV presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. This imperfect mobility can produce competitive advantages for firms that acquire immobile resources. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) examined CSR activities and attributes as a differentiation strategy. They concluded that managers can determine the appropriate level of investment in CSR by conducting cost benefit analysis in the same way that they analyze other investments.

Reinhardt (1998) found that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy could only sustain an abnormal return if it could prevent competitors from imitating its strategy.[30]


Initially, CSR emphasized the official behavior of individual firms. Later, it expanded to include supplier behavior and the uses to which products were put and how they were disposed of after they lost value.

Supply chain

Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse pushed companies to consider how the behavior of their suppliers impacted their overall impact on society. Irresponsible behavior reflected on both the misbehaving firm, but also on its corporate customers. Supply chain management expanded to consider the CSR context. Wieland and Handfield (2013) suggested that companies need to include social responsibility in their reviews of component quality. They highlighted the use of technology in improving visibility across the supply chain.[31]


CSR may be based within the human resources, business development or public relations departments of an organisation,[11] or may be a separate unit reporting to the CEO or the board of directors.

Engagement plan

An engagement plan can assist in reaching a desired audience. A corporate social responsibility individual or team plans the goals and objectives of the organization. As with any corporate activity, a defined budget demonstrates commitment and scales the program's relative importance.

Accounting, auditing and reporting

Social accounting is the communication of social and environmental effects of a company's economic actions to particular interest groups within society and to society at large.[32]

Social accounting emphasizes the notion of corporate accountability. Crowther defines social accounting as "an approach to reporting a firm’s activities which stresses the need for the identification of socially relevant behavior, the determination of those to whom the company is accountable for its social performance and the development of appropriate measures and reporting techniques."[33] Reporting guidelines and standards serve as frameworks for social accounting, auditing and reporting:

  • AccountAbility's AA1000 standard, based on John Elkington's triple bottom line (3BL) reporting
  • The Prince's Accounting for Sustainability Project's Connected Reporting Framework[34]
  • The Fair Labor Association conducts audits based on its Workplace Code of Conduct and posts audit results on the FLA website.
  • The Fair Wear Foundation verifies labour conditions in companies' supply chains, using interdisciplinary auditing teams.
  • Global Reporting Initiative's Sustainability Reporting Guidelines
  • Economy for the Common Good's Common Good Balance Sheet[35]
  • GoodCorporation's standard[36] developed in association with the Institute of Business Ethics
  • Synergy Codethic 26000[37] Social Responsibility and Sustainability Commitment Management System (SRSCMS) Requirements — Ethical Business Best Practices of Organizations - the necessary management system elements to obtain a certifiable ethical commitment management system. The standard scheme has been build around ISO 26000 and UNCTAD Guidance on Good Practices in Corporate Governance.The standard is applicable by any type of organization.;
  • Earthcheck Certification / Standard
  • Social Accountability International's SA8000 standard
  • Standard Ethics Aei guidelines
  • The ISO 14000 environmental management standard
  • The United Nations Global Compact requires companies to communicate on their progress[38] (or to produce a Communication on Progress, COP), and to describe the company's implementation of the Compact's ten universal principles.[39]
  • The United Nations Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) provides voluntary technical guidance on eco-efficiency indicators,[40] corporate responsibility reporting,[41] and corporate governance disclosure.[42]
  • The FTSE Group publishes the FTSE4Good Index, an evaluation of CSR performance of companies.
  • EthicalQuote (CEQ) tracks reputation of the world’s largest companies on Environmental, Social, Governance (ESG), Corporate Social Responsibility, ethics and sustainability.
  • The Islamic Reporting Initiative (IRI) is a not-for-profit organization which leads the creation of the IRI framework; the guiding integrated CSR reporting framework based on Islamic principles and values.[43]

In nations such as France, legal requirements for social accounting, auditing and reporting exist, though international or national agreement on meaningful measurements of social and environmental performance has not been achieved. Many companies produce externally audited annual reports that cover Sustainable Development and CSR issues ("Triple Bottom Line Reports"), but the reports vary widely in format, style, and evaluation methodology (even within the same industry). Critics dismiss these reports as lip service, citing examples such as Enron's yearly "Corporate Responsibility Annual Report" and tobacco companies' social reports.

In South Africa, as of June 2010, all companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) were required to produce an integrated report in place of an annual financial report and sustainability report.[44] An integrated report reviews environmental, social and economic performance alongside financial performance. This requirement was implemented in the absence of formal or legal standards. An Integrated Reporting Committee (IRC) was established to issue guidelines for good practice.


Corporate social responsibility and its resulting reports and efforts should be verified by the consumer of the goods and services. The accounting, auditing and reporting resources provide a foundation for consumers to verify that their products are socially sustainable. Due to an increased awareness of the need for CSR, many industries have their own verification resources.[45] The include organizations like the Forest Stewardship Council (paper and forest products), International Cocoa Initiative, and Kimberly Process (diamonds). The United Nations also provides frameworks not only for verification, but for reporting of human rights violations in corporate supply chains.

Ethics training

The rise of ethics training inside corporations, some of it required by government regulation, has helped CSR to spread. The aim of such training is to help employees make ethical decisions when the answers are unclear.[46] The most direct benefit is reducing the likelihood of "dirty hands",[47] fines and damaged reputations for breaching laws or moral norms. Organizations see increased employee loyalty and pride in the organization.[48]

Common actions

Common CSR actions include:[49]

  • Environmental sustainability: recycling, waste management, water management, renewable energy, reusable materials, 'greener' supply chains, reducing paper use and adopting Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) building standards.[50][51][52]
  • Community involvement: This can include raising money for local charities, providing volunteers, sponsoring local events, employing local workers, supporting local economic growth, engaging in fair trade practices, etc.[53][54]
  • Ethical marketing: Companies that ethically market to consumers are placing a higher value on their customers and respecting them as people who are ends in themselves. They do not try to manipulate or falsely advertise to potential consumers. This is important for companies that want to be viewed as ethical.

Social license

“Social license” refers to a local community’s acceptance or approval of a company. Social license exists outside formal regulatory processes. Social license can nevertheless be acquired through timely and effective communication, meaningful dialogue and ethical and responsible behavior.

Displaying commitment to CSR is one way to achieve social license, by enhancing a company’s reputation.[55]

Potential business benefits

A large body of literature exhorts business to adopt measures non-financial measures of success (e.g., Deming's Fourteen Points, balanced scorecards). While CSR benefits are hard to quantify, Orlitzky, Schmidt and Rynes[56] found a correlation between social/environmental performance and financial performance.

The business case for CSR[57] within a company employs one or more of these arguments:

Triple bottom line

"People, planet and profit", also known as the triple bottom line form one way to evaluate CSR. "People" refers to fair labour practices, the community and region where the business operates. "Planet" refers to sustainable environmental practices. Profit is the economic value created by the organization after deducting the cost of all inputs, including the cost of the capital (unlike accounting definitions of profit).[58][59]

This measure was claimed to help some companies be more conscious of their social and moral responsibilities.[60] However, critics claim that it is selective and substitutes a company's perspective for that of the community. Another criticism is about the absence of a standard auditing procedure.[61]

The term was coined by John Elkington in 1994.[59]

Human resources

A CSR program can be an aid to recruitment and retention,[62][63] particularly within the competitive graduate student market. Potential recruits often consider a firm's CSR policy. CSR can also help improve the perception of a company among its staff, particularly when staff can become involved through payroll giving, fundraising activities or community volunteering. CSR has been credited with encouraging customer orientation among customer-facing employees.[64]

Risk management

Managing risk is an important executive responsibility. Reputations that take decades to build up can be ruined in hours through corruption scandals or environmental accidents.[65] These draw unwanted attention from regulators, courts, governments and media. CSR can limit these risks.[66]

Brand differentiation

CSR can help build customer loyalty based on distinctive ethical values.[67] Some companies use their commitment to CSR as their primary positioning tool, e.g., The Co-operative Group, The Body Shop and American Apparel[68]

Some companies use CSR methodologies as a strategic tactic to gain public support for their presence in global markets, helping them sustain a competitive advantage by using their social contributions as another form of advertising.[69]

Reduced scrutiny

Corporations are keen to avoid interference in their business through taxation and/or regulations. A CSR program can persuade governments and the public that a company takes health and safety, diversity and the environment seriously, reducing the likelihood that company practices will be closely monitored.

Supplier relations

Appropriate CSR programs can increase the attractiveness of supplier firms to potential customer corporations. E.g., a fashion merchandiser may find value in an overseas manufacturer that uses CSR to establish a positive image—and to reduce the risks of bad publicity from uncovered misbehavior.

Criticisms and concerns

CSR concerns include its relationship to the purpose of business and the motives for engaging in it.

Nature of business

Milton Friedman and others argued that a corporation's purpose is to maximize returns to its shareholders and that obeying the laws of the jurisdictions within which it operates constitutes socially responsible behavior.[70]

While some CSR supporters claim that companies practicing CSR, especially in developing countries, are less likely to exploit workers and communities, critics claim that CSR itself imposes outside values on local communities with unpredictable outcomes.[71]

Better governmental regulation and enforcement, rather than voluntary measures, are an alternative to CSR that moves decision-making and resource allocation from public to private bodies.[72] However, critics claim that effective CSR must be voluntary as mandatory social responsibility programs regulated by the government interferes with people’s own plans and preferences, distorts the allocation of resources, and increases the likelihood of irresponsible decisions.[73]


A story of CSR promoted by Azim Premji Foundation in India[74]

Some critics believe that CSR programs are undertaken by companies to distract the public from ethical questions posed by their core operations. They argue that the reputational benefits that CSR companies receive (cited above as a benefit to the corporation) demonstrate the hypocrisy of the approach.[75]


Another concern is that sometimes companies use CSR to direct public attention away from other, harmful business practices. For example, McDonald's Corporation positioned its association with Ronald McDonald House as CSR[76] while its meals have been accused of promoting poor eating habits.[77]

Controversial industries

Industries such as tobacco, alcohol or munitions firms make products that damage their consumers and/or the environment. Such firms may engage in the same philanthropic activities as those in other industries. This duality complicates assessments of such firms with respect to CSR.[78]

The Kizhakkambalam takeover

Textile company Kitex has taken over the administration of an entire Indian village called Kizhakkambalam near Cochin by winning the local body elections. Environmentalists and mainstream politicians of India point out that this can lead to a dangerous precedent because the company got actively involved in CSR only after they were caught red-handed in polluting the village.[79]

Negative impact of corporate psychopathy

As corporate psychopaths have little or no conscience or care or empathy, it follows logically that they are not driven by any notion of social responsibility or commitment to employees or to the wider public.[80]

Stakeholder influence

One motivation for corporations to adopt CSR is to satisfy stakeholders.

Branco and Rodrigues (2007) describe the stakeholder perspective of CSR as the set of views of corporate responsibility held by all groups or constituents with a relationship to the firm.[81] In their normative model the company accepts these views as long as they do not hinder the organization. The stakeholder perspective fails to acknowledge the complexity of network interactions that can occur in cross-sector partnerships. It relegates communication to a maintenance function, similar to the exchange perspective.[82]

Ethical consumerism

The rise in popularity of ethical consumerism over the last two decades can be linked to the rise of CSR.[83] Consumers are becoming more aware of the environmental and social implications of their day-to-day consumption decisions and in some cases make purchasing decisions related to their environmental and ethical concerns.[84]

Socially responsible investing

Shareholders and investors, through socially responsible investing are using their capital to encourage behavior they consider responsible. However, definitions of what constitutes ethical behavior vary. For example, some religious investors in the US have withdrawn investment from companies that violate their religious views, while secular investors divest from companies that they see as imposing religious views on workers or customers.[85]

Creating shared value

Non-governmental organizations are also taking an increasing role, leveraging the media and the Internet to increase the visibility of corporate behavior. Through education and dialogue, the development of community awareness in pushing businesses to change their behavior is growing.[86]

Creating Shared Value (CSV) claims to be more community aware than CSR. Several companies are refining their collaboration with stakeholders accordingly.

Public policies

Some national governments promote socially and environmentally responsible corporate practices. The heightened role of government in CSR has facilitated the development of numerous CSR programs and policies.[87] Various European governments have pushed companies to develop sustainable corporate practices.[88] CSR critics such as Robert Reich argued that governments should set the agenda for social responsibility with laws and regulation that describe how to conduct business responsibly.


Fifteen European Union countries actively engaged in CSR regulation and public policy development.[88] CSR efforts and policies are different among countries, responding to the complexity and diversity of governmental, corporate and societal roles. Studies claimed that the role and effectiveness of these actors were case-specific.[87]

The variety among companies complicates regulatory processes.[89] Self-regulation allows each corporate actor to balance profits and social responsibility without cumbersome governmental involvement. Studies suggest that mandated CSR distorts the allocation of resources and increases the likelihood of irresponsible decisions.[90]

Bulkeley cited the Australian government's actions to avoid compliance with the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, over concerns of economic loss and national interest. The Australian government claimed that the pact would damage Australia more than any other OECD nation.[91] In November 2007, the new Prime Minister Kevin Rudd ratified the protocol.

Canada adopted CSR in 2007. Prime Minister Harper encouraged Canadian mining companies to meet Canada’s newly developed CSR standards.[92]

The ‘Heilbronn Declaration’ is a voluntary agreement of enterprises and institutions in Germany especially of the Heilbronn-Franconia region signed the 15th of September 2012. The approach of the ‘Heilbronn Declaration’ targets the decisive factors of success or failure, the achievements of the implementation and best practices regarding CSR. A form of responsible entrepreneurship shall be initiated to meet the requirements of stakeholders’ trust in economy. It is an approach to make voluntary commitments more binding.[93]


In the 1800s,the US government could take away a firm's license if it acted irresponsibly. Corporations were viewed as "creatures of the state" under the law. In 1819, the United States Supreme Court in Dartmouth College vs. Woodward established a corporation as a legal person in specific contexts. This ruling allowed corporations to be protected under the Constitution and prevented states from regulating firms.[94] Recently countries included CSR policies in government agendas.[88]

On 16 December 2008, the Danish parliament adopted a bill making it mandatory for the 1100 largest Danish companies, investors and state-owned companies to include CSR information in their financial reports. The reporting requirements became effective on 1 January 2009.[95] The required information included:

  • CSR/SRI policies
  • How such policies are implemented in practice
  • Results and management expectations

CSR/SRI is voluntary in Denmark, but if a company has no policy on this it must state its positioning on CSR in financial reports.[96]

In 1995, item S50K of the Income Tax Act of Mauritius mandated that companies registered in Mauritius paid 2% of their annual book profit to contribute to the social and environmental development of the country.[97] In 2014, India also enacted a mandatory minimum CSR spending law. Under Companies Act, 2013, any company having a net worth of 500 crore or more or a turnover of 1,000 crore or a net profit of 5 crore must spend 2% of their net profits on CSR activities.[98] The rules came into effect from 1 April 2014.[99]

Crises and their consequences

Crises have encouraged the adoption of CSR. The CERES principles were adopted following the 1989 Exxon Valdez incident.[47] Other examples include the lead paint used by toy maker Mattel, which required the recall of millions of toys and caused the company to initiate new risk management and quality control processes. Magellan Metals was found responsible for lead contamination killing thousands of birds in Australia. The company ceased business immediately and had to work with independent regulatory bodies to execute a cleanup. Odwalla experienced a crisis with sales dropping 90% and its stock price dropping 34% due to cases of E. coli. The company recalled all apple or carrot juice products and introduced a new process called "flash pasteurization" as well as maintaining lines of communication constantly open with customers.


Corporations that employ CSR behaviors do not always behave consistently in all parts of the world.[100] Conversely, a single behavior may not be considered ethical in all jurisdictions. E.g., some jurisdictions forbid women from driving,[101] while others require women to be treated equally in employment decisions.

UK retail sector

A 2006 study[102] found that the UK retail sector showed the greatest rate of CSR involvement. Many of the big retail companies in the UK joined the Ethical Trading Initiative,[103] an association established to improve working conditions and worker health.

Tesco (2013)[104] reported that their ‘essentials’ are ‘Trading responsibility’, ‘Reducing our Impact on the Environment’, ‘Being a Great Employer’ and ‘Supporting Local Communities’. J Sainsbury[105] employs the headings ‘Best for food and health’, ‘Sourcing with integrity’, ‘Respect for our environment’, ‘Making a difference to our community’, and ‘A great place to work’, etc. The four main issues to which UK retail these companies committed are environment, social welfare, ethical trading and becoming an attractive workplace.[106][107]

Top ten UK retail brands in 2013 based on Retail Week reports:[108]
Retailer Annual Sales £bn
Tesco 42.8
Sainsbury's 22.29
Asda 21.66
Morrisons 17.66
Mark and Spencer 8.87
Co-operative Group 8.18
John Lewis Partnership 7.76
Boots 6.71
Home Retail Group 5.49
King Fisher 4.34

Anselmsson and Johansson (2007)[109] assessed three areas of CSR performance: human responsibility, product responsibility and environmental responsibility. Martinuzzi et al. described the terms, writing that human responsibility is “the company deals with suppliers who adhere to principles of natural and good breeding and farming of animals, and also maintains fair and positive working conditions and work-place environments for their own employees. Product responsibility means that all products come with a full and complete list of content, that country of origin is stated, that the company will uphold its declarations of intent and assume liability for its products. Environmental responsibility means that a company is perceived to produce environmental-friendly, ecological, and non-harmful products.”[110] Jones et al. (2005) found that environmental issues are the most commonly reported CSR programs among top retailers.[111]

See also



  1. D Wood, (1991) 16(4) Corporate Social Performance Revisited
  2. McWilliams, Abagail; Siegel, Donald (2001). "Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective". Academy of Management Review. 26: 117–127. doi:10.5465/amr.2001.4011987.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. McWilliams, Abagail; Siegel, Donald; Wright, Patrick M. (March 2006). "Corporate Social Responsibility: International Perspectives" (PDF). Working Papers (0604). Troy, New York: Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. McWilliams, Abagail; Siegel, Donald (6 April 2000). "Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: correlation or misspecification?". Strategic Management Journal. 21 (5): 603–609. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(200005)21:5<603::AID-SMJ101>3.0.CO;2-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Beatty, Jeffrey F.; Samuelson, Susan S. (2009). Introduction to Business Law. Cengage Learning.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Rosenberg, Matthew J. (1 April 2002). "Review of Misguided Virtue: False Notions of Corporate Social Responsibility". International Affairs.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Henderson, David (2001). Misguided Virtue: False Notions of Corporate Social Responsibility. Institute of Economic Affairs. p. 171. ISBN 0-255-365101.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Shamir, R. (2011). "Socially Responsible Private Regulation: World-Culture or World-Capitalism?". Law & Society Review. 45 (2): 313–336. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5893.2011.00439.x.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. De George 2011.
  10. "Definition of CSR". Retrieved September 4, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers". University of Edinburgh Careers Service. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Epstein-Reeves 2010.
  13. Somerville 2013.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Kardashian 2013.
  15. Smith, Nicola (2013). "Corporate social responsibility: Power to the people". Retrieved 28 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Oppewal, Alexander & Sulliwan 2006.
  17. Smith, Lopez & Read 2010.
  18. Becker-Olsen, K. L.; Cudmore B. A.; Hill R. P. "The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behaviour". Journal of Business Research.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Mohr, L. A.; Webb D. J. and Harris K. E. "Do Consumers Expect Companies to be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior". Journal of Consumer Affairs. 1. 35.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Groza, M. D.; Pronschinske M. R.; Walker M. "Perceived Organizational Motives and Consumer Responses to Proactive and Reactive CSR". Journal of Business Ethics. 102 (4).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Saether, Kim T.; Ruth V. Aguilera (2008). "Corporate Social Responsibility in a Comparative Perspective" (PDF). In Crane, A.; et al. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility (PDF)|format= requires |url= (help). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-921159-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Maverlinn and Vermander, B. "Corporate Social Responsibility in China: A Vision, an Assessment and a Blueprint, World Scientific (2013)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Knox, Simon (2007). Ramsden, J.J.; Aida, S. and; Kakabadse, A (eds.). Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Decision Making. Spiritual Motivation: New Thinking for Business and Management. Basingstoke:: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-54291-4.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Habisch et al. 2005.
  25. Tilcsik, A. & Marquis, C. (2013). "Punctuated Generosity: How Mega-events and Natural Disasters Affect Corporate Philanthropy in U.S. Communities." Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(1): 111-148.
  26. Porter & Kramer 2006.
  27. Hoessle, Ulrike. Ten Steps Toward a Sustainable Business (Walla Walla Solutions Series 1 Seattle 2013. ISBN 978-0-9898270-0-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Barney, J. (1991). "Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage". Journal of Management. 17: 99–120. doi:10.1177/014920639101700108.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). "A resource-based view of the firm". Strategic Management Journal. 5 (2): 171–180. doi:10.1002/smj.4250050207.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Siegel, Donald S. (2009). "Green Management Matters Only If It Yields More Green: An Economic/Strategic Perspective". 23 (3). Academy of Management Perspectives: 5–16. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B. (2013). "The Socially Responsible Supply Chain: An Imperative for Global Corporations. Supply Chain Management Review". 17 (5): 22–29. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Tilt, C. A. (2009). "Corporate Responsibility, Accounting and Accountants". Professionals' Perspectives of Corporate Social Responsibility. pp. 11–32. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02630-0_2. ISBN 978-3-642-02629-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Crowther, David (2000). Social and Environmental Accounting. Financial Times/Prentice Hall. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-273-65092-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. [1] Archived September 23, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  37. Synergy-gss. "Synergy". Retrieved 2013-04-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. What is a COP?
  39. United Nations Global Compact
  40. ITEIPC 20037
  41. ITETEB 20076
  42. ITETEB 20063
  43. Ajaz Ali. "Philanthropy, CSR and economic growth". Saudi Gazette.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "News Articles and Press & media releases - SAICA | The South African Institute of Chartered Accountants". SAICA. 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2013-04-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Resources for Verifying Sustainable Products - GSA Sustainable Facilites Tool". Retrieved 2016-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Tullberg, J.; Tullberg, S. (1996). "On Human Altruism: The Discrepancy between Normative and Factual Conclusions". Oikos. 75 (2): 327–329. doi:10.2307/3546259. JSTOR 3546259.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. 47.0 47.1 Grace & Cohen 2004.
  48. Thilmany, Jean (2007). "Supporting Ethical Employees". HR Magazine. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 2016-04-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. Jones, Tegan (2007-05-14). "Talent Management". The Business Value of Virtue: Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement. Retrieved 2013-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Matthews, Richard (2012-01-26). "The Green Market Oracle". Top Business Sustainability Trends for 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "Great Forest". Services. 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Environmental Leader". Top Sustainability Consultants Revealed. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2013-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Camden Community Empowerment Network". Camden Community Empowerment Network Jargon Buster. Retrieved 2013-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Workforce Management". Starbucks is Pleasing Employees and Pouring Profits. October 2003. pp. 58–59. Retrieved 2013-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. Social License to Operate: How to Get It, and How to Keep It
  56. Orlitzky, Marc; Frank L. Schmidt; Sara L. Rynes (2003). "Corporate Social and Financial Performance: A Meta-analysis" (PDF). Organization Studies. London: SAGE Publications. 24 (3): 403–441. doi:10.1177/0170840603024003910. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-07. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. Bhattacharya, Sen & Korschun 2011.
  58. Gopal K. Kanj, Parvesh K. Chopra |year=2010), |title=Corporate Social Responsibility in a Global Economy |publisher=Routledge
  59. 59.0 59.1 "Idea: Triple bottom line". The Economist. 2009-11-17. Retrieved 2016-01-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Moral Responsibility".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. De George 2011, p. 205.
  62. Bhattacharya, C.B.; Sen, Sankar; Korschun, Daniel (2008). "Using Corporate Social Responsibility to Win the War for Talent". 49 (2). MIT Sloan Management Review: 37–44. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "The Good Company". The Economist. 2005-01-20. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. Korschun, D.; Bhattacharya, C. B.; Swain, S. D. (2014). "Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Orientation, and the Job Performance of Frontline Employees". Journal of Marketing. 78 (3): 20–37. doi:10.1509/jm.11.0245.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Eisingerich, A.B.; Ghardwaj, G. (2011). "Corporate Social Responsibility: Does Social Responsibility Help Protect a Company's Reputation?". MIT Sloan Management Review. 52 (March): 18–18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Kytle, Beth; Singh, Paramveer (2005). "Corporate Social Responsibility as Risk Management: A Model for Multinationals" (PDF). Social Responsibility Initiative Working Paper No. 10. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Paluszek, John (April 6–7, 2005). "Ethics and Brand Value: Strategic Differentiation" (PowerPoint). Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership Meeting. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Dr. Tantillo’s 30-Second 'How To': How To Brand CSR The American Apparel Way" Marketing Doctor Blog. March 28, 2008.
  69. Fry, Keim & Meiners 1982, p. 105.
  70. Friedman, Milton (1970-09-13). "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. c.f., Aquino, M.P., Nuestro Clamor por la Vida. Teología Latinoamericana desde la Perspectiva de la Mujer (San José, Costa Rica: Departamento Ecuménico de Investigaciones, 1992), et al.
  72. Ganguly, S (1999). "The Investor-State Dispute Mechanism (ISDM) and a Sovereign's power to protect public health". Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. 38: 113.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Armstrong, J. Scott; Green, Kesten C. (2013). "Effects of corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility policies" (PDF). Journal of Business Research.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. [2]
  75. McKibben, Bill (November–December 2006). "Hope vs. Hype". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2008-03-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "McDonald's Corporation CSR information". Retrieved 2014-01-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Judgment p264
  78. Halpern & Snider 2012, pp. 604–624.
  79. "A Corp's New Clothes". External link in |work= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Boddy, CR (2011), Corporate Psychopaths: Organizational Destroyers<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  81. Branco, M.C.; Rodrigues, L.L. (2007). "Positioning stakeholder theory within the debate on corporate social responsibility" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies. 12: 5–15. Retrieved 13 March 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Shumate, M; O'Conner, A. (2010). "The symbiotic sustainability model: Conceptualizing NGO-corporate alliance communication". Journal of Communication. 60 (3): 577–609. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01498.x.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. *Giesler, Markus; Veresiu, Ela (2014). "Creating the Responsible Consumer: Moralistic Governance Regimes and Consumer Subjectivity". Journal of Consumer Research. 41 (October): 849–867. doi:10.1086/677842.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Eisingerich, A.B.; Rubera, G.; Seifert, M.; Bhardwaj, G. (2011). "Doing Good and Doing Better Despite Negative Information? The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Consumer Resistance to Negative Information". Journal of Service Research. 14 (February): 60–75. doi:10.1177/1094670510389164.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. O’Laughlin, Bridget (November 2008). "Governing Capital? Corporate Social Responsibility and the Limits of Regulation". Development and Change. 39 (6): 945–957. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2008.00522.x.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Roux 2007.
  87. 87.0 87.1 Albareda, Laura; Lozano, Josep M.; Ysa, Tamyko (2007). "Public Policies on Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Governments in Europe". Journal of Business Ethics. 74 (4): 391–407. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9514-1. JSTOR 25075478.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 "Corporate Social Responsibility National Public Policies in the European Union - Compendium 2014 - Digital Single Market - European Commission". Digital Single Market. Retrieved 2016-04-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Sacconi 2004.
  90. Armstrong, J. Scott; Green, Kesten C. (1 December 2012). "Effects of corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility policies" (PDF). Journal of Business Research. Retrieved 28 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Bulkeley 2001, p. 436.
  92. Government, Canada. "Corporate Social Responsibility Building the Canadian Advantage: A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategy for the Canadian International Extractive Sector". Government Policy. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Retrieved 11 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. Stehr, Christopher; Jakob, Benjamin E. (September 2014). "Corporate Social Responsibility th rough Voluntary Commitment in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises – the Case of the 'Heilbronn Declaration'". European Journal of Sustainable Development. 3 (4): 135–150. doi:10.14207/ejsd.2014.v3n4p135.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Banerjee, S. B. (2008). "Corporate Social Responsibility: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly". Critical Sociology. 34 (1): 51–75. doi:10.1177/0896920507084623.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. Danish Centre for CSR's official website Archived July 3, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  96. "Home - CSRgov".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Yoganand Ramtohul. "Corporate Social Responsibility in Mauritius".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. "Implications of Companies Act, 2013 Corporate Social Responsibility" (PDF). Grant Thornton India LLP. Retrieved 7 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. "The Flag Off of CSR Rules: India Inc.'s To-Do List for Compliance to Section-135". Forbes. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Muller, Alan; Gail Whiteman (February 2009). "Exploring the Geography of Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response: A Study of Fortune Global 500 Firms". Journal of Business Ethics. 84 (4): 589–603. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9710-7. Retrieved 11 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Mohammed Jamjoom and Laura Smith-Spark, CNN (26 October 2013). "Saudi Arabia women defy authorities over female driving ban". CNN.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Oppewal 2006.
  103. "Ethical trading Initiative".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. "Tesco CSR report". Retrieved 24 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Sainsbury CSR Report". Retrieved 24 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Jones, P.; Wynn, M., Comfort, D. and Hillier, D. (2007). "Corporate Social Responsibility and UK Retailers". Issues in Social & Environmental Accounting. 1 (2).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. Whooley, Niamh (2003). "The corporate responsibility report". 1: 12. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "Retail-week: Top 10 UK retailers revealed".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. Anselmsson, Johan; Ulf Johansson (2007). "Corporate social responsibility and the positioning of grocery brands: an exploratory study of retailer and manufacturer brands at point of purchase". International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management (10): 849.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. Martinuzzi, André; Robert Kudlak; Claus Faber; Adele Wiman (2011). "CSR Activities and Impacts of the Retail Sector". RIMAS Working Papers. No.4: 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. Jones, Peter; Daphne Comfort; David Hillier (2005). "Corporate social responsibility and the UK's top ten retailers". International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. 33 (12): 882–892. doi:10.1108/09590550510634611.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>



Journals and magazines

  • Baker, M. "Companies in Crisis- What to do when it all goes wrong". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bansal, P.; Roth, R. (2000). "Why Companies Go Green: A model of Ecological Responsiveness". The Academy of Management Journal. 43 (4): 717–736. doi:10.2307/1556363. ISSN 0001-4273. JSTOR 1556363.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fields, S. (2002). "Sustainable Business Makes Dollars and Cents". Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (3): A142–A145. doi:10.1289/ehp.110-a142. JSTOR 3455129.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fry, L. W.; Keim, G. D.; Meiners, R. E. (1982). "Corporate Contributions: Altruistic or for Profit?". The Academy of Management Journal. 25 (1): 94–106. doi:10.2307/256026. ISSN 0001-4273. JSTOR 256026.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • "How the Court Works". International Court of Justice.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Roux, M. (2007). "Climate conducive to corporate action: 1 All-round Country Edition". The Australian: 14.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Sacconi, L. (2004). "A Social Contract Account for CSR as Extended Model of Corporate Governance (Part II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity" (11). Journal of Business Ethics: 77–96. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Thilmany, J. (September 2007). "Supporting Ethical Employees". 52 (2). HR Magazine: 105–110. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  • Tullberg, S.; Tullberg, J. (1996). "On Human Altruism: The Discrepancy between Normative and Factual Conclusions". Oikos. 75 (2): 327–329. doi:10.2307/3546259. ISSN 0030-1299. JSTOR 3546259.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wei, K. C. John (July 2011). "Corporate Social Responsibility – A Comparison Between Vietnam and China". 1 (1). International Journal of Governance. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Smith, N. C.; Lopez, S; Read, D. (2010). "Consumer perceptions of corporate social responsibility: The CSR halo effect". 16. Faculty and Research Paper. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Carroll, Archie B. (1979). "A Three Dimensional Model of Corporate Performance". Academy of Management Review. 4 (4): 497–505. doi:10.5465/amr.1979.4498296.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lantos, Geoffrey P. (2001). "The Boundaries of Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility". Journal of Consumer Marketing. MCB UP. 18 (7): 595–632. doi:10.1108/07363760110410281. ISSN 0736-3761.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lantos, Geoffrey P.; Cooke, Simon (1 May 2003). "Corporate Socialism Unethically Masquerades as "CSR": The Difference between Being Ethical, Altruistic, and Strategic in Business". Strategic Direction. 19 (6): 31–35. doi:10.1108/02580540310472135. ISSN 0258-0543.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Oppewal, H.; Alexander, A.; Sulliwan, P. (2006). "Consumer Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility in town shopping centres and their influence on shopping evaluations". Journal of retailing and consumer services. 13 (4): 263–270. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2005.08.015.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


External links