Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken

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Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt
Caroline-Henriette of Hesse Darmstadt-f4578561.jpg
Portrait of Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Born 9 March 1721
Died 30 March 1774 (aged 53 years)
Spouse Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Issue Caroline, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Frederika Louisa, Queen of Prussia
Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse
Amelie, Hereditary Princess of Baden
Wilhelmina Louisa, Grand Duchess of Russia
Luise, Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Landgrave Frederick
Landgrave Christian
House Palatinate-Zweibrücken
Father Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
Mother Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken

Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise; 9 March 1721 – 30 March 1774) was wife of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt and one of the most learned women of her time.


Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken.

She married on 12 August 1741 in Zweibrücken, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, and she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler. She founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser.

Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She was befriended to several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished he had the power to make her Queen of Europa. She also had contact with Frederick II of Prussia, and she was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected. He called her once the Glory and Wonder of our century and after her death he sent to Darmstadt an urn with the text femina sexo, ingenio vir (A woman by sex, a man by spirit), which can still be seen today. Through her daughter she is an ancestor to the royal house of Prussia, Germany and the Netherlands.


Name Portrait Birth Death Notes
Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt.jpg 2 March 1746 18 September 1821 Married Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, had issue
Frederika Louisa
Queen of Prussia
Friederike Luise of Prussia 03.jpg 16 October 1751 25 February 1805 Married in 1769 Frederick William II of Prussia, had issue.
Louis I
Grand Duke of Hesse
Ludwik I, Wielki Książę Hesji-Darmstadt.JPG 14 June 1753 6 April 1830 Married in 1799 Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, had issue
Hereditary Princess of Baden
Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt.png 20 June 1754 21 June 1832 Married in 1775 Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden, had issue
Wilhelmina Louisa
Grand Duchess Natalia Alexeievna of Russia
Natalia Alexeievna of Russia by A.Roslin (1776, Hermitage).jpg 25 June 1755 15 April 1776 Married in 1773 the future Emperor Paul I of Russia, no surviving issue
Louisa Augusta
Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt, grand duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.jpg 30 January 1757 14 February 1830 Married in 1775 Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, had issue
1759 1802
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
ChristianHeDa.jpg 25 November 1763 17 April 1830 Died unmarried


Family of Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
16. Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
8. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
17. Duchess Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
4. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
18. John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
9. Countess Palatine Magdalene Catherine of Zweibrücken
19. Catherine de Rohan
2. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
20. Eberhard, Count of Rappoltstein
10. Johann Jakob, Count of Rappoltstein
21. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna of Salm-Kyrburg
5. Countess Katharina Agathe of Rappoltstein
22. Johann Kasimir, Count of Salm-Kyrburg
11. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna Claudia of Salm-Kyrburg
23. Countess Dorothea of Solms-Laubach
1. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
24. William Louis, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
12. Gustav Adolph, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
25. Margravine Anna Amalia of Baden-Durlach
6. Louis Crato, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
26. Crato V, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
13. Countess Eleonore Claire of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
27. Countess Palatine Sophie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
3. Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
28. Philip Ernest, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
14. Henry Frederick, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
29. Countess Anna Maria of Solms-Sonnenwalde and Pouch
7. Princess Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
30. Wolfgang George I, Count of Castell-Remlingen
15. Countess Juliana Dorothea of Castell-Remlingen
31. Countess Sophie Juliana of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach


  • Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005

External links

Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Cadet branch of the House of Wittelsbach
Born: 9 March 1721 Died: 30 March 1774
German royalty
Title last held by
Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Landgravine consort of Hesse-Darmstadt
17 October 1768 - 30 March 1774
Title next held by
Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt