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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Theobroma
Species: T. grandiflorum
Binomial name
Theobroma grandiflorum
(Willd. ex Spreng.) K.Schum.

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao.[1] Common throughout the Amazon basin, it is widely cultivated in the jungles of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru and in the north of Brazil, with the largest production in Pará, followed by Amazonas, Rondônia and Acre.[1]

Cupuaçu trees usually range from 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in height, though some can reach 20 m (66 ft). They have brown bark and leaves are 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) long and 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) across, with 9 or 10 pairs of veins. As they mature, the leaves change from pink-tinted to green, and eventually they begin bearing fruit. Cupuaçu fruits are oblong, brown, and fuzzy, 20 cm (7.9 in) long, 1–2 kg (2.2–4.4 lb) in weight, and covered with a thick 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in), hard exocarp.[1]


The white pulp of the cupuaçu has an odour described as a mix of chocolate and pineapple and is frequently used in desserts, juices and sweets.[1] The juice tastes primarily like a pear, with a hint of banana.


Cupuaçu flavors derive from its phytochemicals, such as tannins, glycosides, theograndins, catechins, quercetin, kaempferol and isoscutellarein.[2]

It also contains caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline as found in cacao, although with much lower content of caffeine.[3]

Cupuaçu butter

Cupuaçu butter (manteiga de cupuaçu)

Cupuaçu butter is a triglyceride composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, giving the butter a low melting point (approximately 30 °C) and texture of a soft solid, lending its use as a confectionary resembling white chocolate.[1] Main fatty acid components of cupuaçu butter are stearic acid (38%), oleic acid (38%), palmitic acid (11%) and arachidic acid (7%).[4]

Cupuaçu fruit opened


Cupuaçu supports the butterfly herbivore lagarta verde, Macrosoma tipulata (Hedylidae), which can be a serious defoliator.[5]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Giacometti DC (1998). "Cupuaçu. In: Neglected Crops: 1492 from a Different Perspective, J.E. Hernándo Bermejo and J. León (eds.). Plant Production and Protection Series No. 26. FAO, Rome, Italy. p. 205-209". Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, W. Lafayette, IN, USA.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  3. Lo Coco F, Lanuzza F, Micali G, Cappellano G (2007). "Determination of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in by-products of cupuaçu and cacao seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography". J Chromatogr Sci. 45 (5): 273–5. PMID 17555636. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Cohen, K. de O. & Jackix, M. de N. H. (2009). "Características químicas e física da gordura de cupuaçu e da manteiga de cacau" (pdf). Documentos / Embrapa Cerrados (in Portuguese) (269): 1–22. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

External links