Daraa offensive (March–April 2016)

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Daraa offensive (March–April 2016)
Part of the Syrian Civil War and the
Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War
Date 21 March – 8 April 2016
(2 weeks and 4 days)
Location Daraa Governorate, Syria
Result

Rebel victory[5]

Belligerents
Free Syrian Army[1]
Islamic Front[1]
Alwiya al-Furqan[2]
al-Nusra Front[1]
al-Murabitin Brigade[3][4] (since 28 March)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Commanders and leaders
Abu Salah al-Masalma [1][7]
(al-Nusra general commander of Daraa Governorate)
Abu Adham [8]
(al-Nusra commander of Tasil)
Abu Kinan al-Sharif
(commander of the Yarmouk Army)[9]
Hussin Massaid[10]
(Southern Front field commander)
Abu Abdullah al-Madani[5][11]
(Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade emir)
Abu Tahrir [12]
(Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade field commander)
Unknown Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade commander [13]
23x15px Abu Ayyub[4]
(Muthanna Movement emir)
23x15px Muhammad Refa`ie [14]
(Muthanna Movement general commander)
23x15px Abu Umar [15]
(Muthanna Movement field commander)
23x15px Abu Obeid Sheikh Saad [2]
(Muthanna Movement field commander)
23x15px Abu Abdul Karim  (POW)[3][4]
(Muthanna Movement commander in Daraa city)
Units involved

Southern Front[16]

Islamic Front[1]

Jasim Military Council[25]
Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade[8]
23x15px Islamic Muthanna Movement[1][17]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Ansar al-Aqsa[11]
Strength
60+ (al-Murabitin Brigade)[26] c. 100 in Inkhil[27]
Casualties and losses
93 fighters killed on both sides
(per pro-Syrian gov. source)[28]
25 civilians killed[29][30] (several executed by ISIL)[1]
8,200 civilians displaced[31]

The Daraa offensive (March–April 2016) was a military operation of two Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant-affiliated groups, the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the Islamic Muthanna Movement, against Syrian opposition forces in the Daraa Governorate.[1]

Background

The Muthanna Islamic Movement was accused of kidnappings of Daraa officials and FSA commanders, which the Movement denied. Several of the prisoners were freed by the Yarmouk Army later. Muthanna was also alleged to have cooperated with the Islamic State.[32]

In midst of the Second Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin in 23 January 2016, against the Syrian Armed Forces, conflict erupted between the Muthanna Movement and the Yarmouk Army after the Movement blocked the road leading to the town.[33] The Syrian Army was able to capture the town two days later.

The offensive

First major clashes between ISIL and opposition forces already broke out a week before the offensive.[1]

On 21 March 2016, the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the Islamic Muthanna Movement, both of which are Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant affiliates, stormed the towns of Tasil and Adwan after several hours-long fierce battles with the al-Nusra Front, Ahrar ash-Sham and the Martyr Raed al-Masri Brigade of the Free Syrian Army.[1][21] At least two important al-Nusra military commanders were killed during the clashes: Abu Salah al-Masalma, general commander of Daraa Governorate,[1][7] and Abu Adham, commander of Tasil.[8] After suffering many casualties, opposition forces were eventually forced to retreat to Nawa.[8] ISIL fighters went on to execute a number of residents in the captured towns, and broadcast an appeal over the local mosques' loudspeakers for the rebels to choose between “allegiance, surrendering their arms, or staying home.”[1][34][35] In response to the ISIL takeover, many Tasil residents fled into the countryside.[29] Afterwards, the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade erected earth mounds around Tasil in order to fortify the town against rebel counter-attacks,[35] and advanced further along the main road from Tasil to Nawa.[21] ISIL forces also began to besiege al-Nusra Front and Ahrar ash-Sham troops in the villages of Sahem al-Jolan and Heit al-Latin. Subsequently, large numbers of opposition reinforcements were sent to southwestern Daara in order to halt the ISIL incursions.[1] On the same day, ISIL forces detonated a suicide car bomb in Kherab Shahen,[36] and targeted Tel Jomo with heavy machine guns and mortars.[35] However, while the Islamic Muthanna Movement's western main branch aligned itself with ISIL forces, its eastern branch in Daraa city pledged only to fight the government.[4] Nevertheless, family members of al-Nusra leader Abu Salah al-Masalma attacked vehicles of the eastern branch after hearing of his death.[7]

The next day, Islamic Muthanna Movement fighters blew up the bridge linking Jalin, their main base, and Muzayrib in order to hinder opposition reinforcements from attacking their core area. Rebel troops also unsuccessfully attempted to regain Adwan.[37]

By 23 March, the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade once again broke through rebel defenses, with Tafas and Muzayrib becoming contested.[27] One Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade commander was killed during these battles. On the same day, al-Nusra Front and other Islamist rebel reinforcements entered Zayzoun, Tal Shehab and Sahem al-Golan, and launched a counterattack on Tasil.[13] Around 100 isolated ISIL fighters,[27] belonging to the al-Nusra splinter group "Ansar al-Aqsa",[11] also entrenched themselves in Inkhil, in the northern part of Daraa Governorate.[27] Ansar al-Aqsa was soon expelled from Inkhil by the Hamza Division, the Mujahideen of Hawran Brigades and al-Nusra.[11]

The Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade continued its advance on 24 March, when it captured most of Saham al-Jawlan from the al-Nusra Front and Ahrar ash-Sham. Most of Ahrar ash-Sham's forces were killed or captured during the battle, with remainder fleeing the city.[38] Nevertheless, pockets of rebel troops continued their resistance in the city.[39] With Saham al-Jawlan mostly under their control, ISIL forces completely surrounded a large number of rebel troops in the nearby town of Hayt. Meanwhile, rebel forces managed to repel the attacks on Tafas and Muzayrib.[38] The Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade also targeted Nawa with heavy artillery strikes, killing many civilians.[40] In response to the ISIL offensive, several Southern Front units, among them the prominent Yarmouk Army, formed the "House of Justice" operations room to push ISIL out of the Daraa Governorate.[17][26] In the night from the 24 to 25 March, ISIL launched an assault against Hayt.[41]

The next day, the Military Council of Jasim declared it would prosecute any group or elements in the city that belong to the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade or the Islamic Muthanna Movement in response to the ISIL offensive. Suspects were given 12 hours to turn themselves in, while civilans were threatened with consequences if they harbored ISIL members.[25]

On 26 March, opposition forces launched a counter-attack. In the morning, Southern Front units recaptured the strategic hilltop of Tal Samin, which overlooks Tasil, from the Islamic Muthanna Movement.[16] The Yarmouk Army launched attacks on several positions of the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade.[18] Islamist rebel forces also shelled Tasil, while clashes continued around al-Tera and Shekh Sa’d. Rebel fighters attacked Jalin, which is under the Islamic Muthanna Movement's control. The Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade announced it would give remaining opposition forces in Saham al-Jawlan one day to retreat before destroying them.[39] Despite this, the rebel forces in the city, backed by the al-Nusra Front, continued to resist, causing ISIL forces to shell their positions with artillery.[42] In Tafas, a car-bomb by ISIL targeted the base of the al-Moutazz Billah Brigade, killing four of its fighters and injuring tens of others.[18] In A-Sheikh Saad, Islamic Muthanna Movement fighters fired upon and dispersed a civilian demonstration calling for an end of the fighting.[29]

On 28 March, clashes continued around Hayt, with the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the al-Nusra Front shelling each other's positions.[43][44] Ahrar ash-Sham units in Hayt announced they had successfully driven off a major ISIL attack on the town, killing "dozens" of enemy fighters.[45] One of those reportedly killed was a Muthanna Movement field commander, Abu Umar.[15] On the same day, the Islamic Muthanna Movement fragmented, as its eastern elements in Daraa city defected and formed the independent, pro-opposition "al-Murabitin Brigade". Disagreeing with their parent movement's military activity against other rebels, the new group announced that they had “decided to leave the militant group [ISIL] after its aggression against our people in the Horan region [Daraa province] which claimed the lives of a number of innocent civilians.” They consequently removed their pro-ISIL section commander, Abu Abd al-Karim, from power.[3][4] At least 60 Islamic Muthanna Movement fighters joined the new brigade.[26]

By 30 March, the ISIL offensive had been largely stalled by Syrian opposition groups, with the latter recapturing the al-Anfah checkpoint and the towns of Tel Kawkab and Tel Kharba.[34] Nevertheless, clashes between the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the al-Nusra Front continued around Tasil, resulting in several casualties on both sides.[46] The Islamic Muthanna Movement also captured Sheikh Saad after disrupting the town's defenses by bombing the local rebel headquarters. Abu Obeid Sheikh Saad, the Muthanna commander of the assault, was killed during the battle.[2] Meanwhile, the situation of the civilian population of the Yarmouk Basin became increasingly dire, as thousands fled into the countryside to avoid the fighting. According to local activists, the region is “on the brink of a humanitarian disaster.”[29][34]

On 31 March, Syrian opposition forces launched yet another counter-attack in an attempt to recapture Tasil and Sheikh Saad, suffering several casualties. At the same time, another ISIL attack on Hayt was beaten back by local rebel fighters.[47]

On 1 April, rebel forces managed to gain control of some parts of Tasil in course of a fierce battle with the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the Islamic Muthanna Movement. At the same time, opposition groups also launched an attack on Sheikh Saad, while rebel fighters in Hayt attempted to break the ISIL siege. The ISIL groups responded by attacking opposition-held areas in Lajat and Hosh Hammad in order to force opposition groups to divert their forces. Part of the latter attacks was a failed assassination attempt on Fares Adib al-Baydar, former leader of the FSA-affiliated Omari Brigades.[20]

The next day, rebel forces announced they had seized control of Jalin, the Islamic Muthanna Movement's headquarters, after a fierce battle,[48] which the latter denied the next day.[30] Opposition fighters also advanced on Tasil and Sheikh Saad.[48]

On 3 April, the combined forces of the al-Nusra Front, Ahrar ash-Sham, and several FSA groups broke through ISIL defenses at many parts of the front, capturing Sheikh Saad, al-Tairah, Nah and Al-A’jami and fully securing Jalin. They also broke the siege on rebel troops at Hayt, and killed dozens of ISIL fighters. Among those killed was Muhammad Refa`i.e., the general commander of the Islamic Muthanna Movement.[14] ISIL forces responded to the counter-offensive by targeting rebels in Jalin with two car bombs, killing two civilans and injuring dozens others.[30]

On 4 April, units of Jaysh al-Islam, Ahrar ash-Sham, and the Southern Front recaptured Adwan from ISIL forces.[24] In course of the battle, a prominent Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade commander was killed: Abu Tahrir, a Jordanian who had defected from the Syria Revolutionaries Front in 2015.[12] After the major rebel gains of the 3 and 4 April, the Islamic Muthanna Movement had lost most of its territory. The movement's remaining forces consequently retreated into areas held by the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade. In order to stall the rebel counter-offensive, ISIL reportedly began to resort on the mass use of suicide bombers.[23]

Two days later, ISIL fighters recaptured Adwan from the Free Syrian Army and Ahrar ash-Sham.[49] Afterwards, they hung dead opposition fighters on electricity poles around the town.[50] Still, on 7 April, rebel forces recaptured Sahem al-Jolan and Adwan once again,[51] and the next day, they were also able to push ISIL out of Tasil.[52]

Aftermath

After losing most of its territory and suffering from the defection of its eastern branch, the Islamic Muthanna Movement announced it would merge with the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade under the latter's leadership.[5] In late April, the rebels continued to advance against ISIL forces in the area and captured the Saham al-Jawlan lake.[53]

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Abo Bakr al Haj Ali. "Islamic State raises flags over towns in Daraa after fierce battles". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Booby-trapped targeted the rebels before (IS) controls over the town of Sheikh Saad , Daraa". 30 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "ISIS deserters form new militia southern Syria". ARA News. 29 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (28 March 2016). "Defections from Harakat al-Muthanna in Deraa: Translation & Analysis". Retrieved 31 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Factions of Almuthana and martyrs of Yarmouk united after their losing in west of Daraa". Qasioun News. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Leith Fadel (1 April 2016). "Battle for Daraa takes a frightening turn as ISIS reaches the outskirts of the capital: map". Al-Masdar News.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Nusra Front Military Emir Killed in Daraa Countryside". The Syrian Observer. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Leith Fadel (21 March 2016). "ISIS affiliate captures key town in Daraa". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Aron Lund. "The Ten Most Important Developments in Syria in 2015". Syria Comment. Retrieved 6 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Opposition forces seize over Tsil and Defeat ISIS". Qasioun News. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (26 March 2016). "GUEST POST: The Fitna in Deraa and the Islamic State Angle". Jihadology. Retrieved 31 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 "The Military Commander of Shohadaa al-Yarmouk killed and six Elements Captured in Daraa". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Leader in Shuhada'a al-Yarmouk Brigade killed, and a convoy of tens of vehicles for Jabhat Al-Nusra and factions' members enter towns in the countryside of Daraa". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 14.0 14.1 Majd Fahd (3 April 2016). "ISIS overwhelmed by offensive in Daraa, 5 villages lost today – Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Ameer AL-Muthanna faction has reportedly killed due to clashes with Syrian opposition". Qasioun News. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 Leith Fadel (26 March 2016). "Rebels recapture Tal Samin in southwest Daraa". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 26 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 "Factions of the Southern Front set up an operations room under the "House of Justice" umbrella of Horan". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 "Casualties among opposition by ISIS-affiliated car bomb in Daraa's Tafas". Orient News. 26 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Aron Lund (21 March 2014). "Does the "Southern Front" Exist?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 14 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Clashes Renew between the rebels and (IS) Group Rural Daraa". 1 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 "" Shohadaa al-Yarmouk" storms the town of Tesil again Rural #Daraa". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "FSA Southern Front Declaration of Principles". National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. 23.0 23.1 "On the defensive in Daraa, reported Islamic State affiliates deploy 'unheard of' suicide bombings". Syria:direct. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. 24.0 24.1 "The rebels seize control of "Udwan" village in Daraa". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Military council in the city of Jassem vows to pursue elements of ISIS". 25 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 "Opposition frustrates ISIS-affiliated groups' offensive in Daraa countryside". Orient News. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Chris Tomson (23 March 2016). "ISIS snatches swaths of land from rebels in southern Syria". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "The 'Nimr' Tiger". Twitter.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 "Deadly rebel infighting in Daraa: 'What is happening is a war in every sense of the word'". Syria Direct. 29 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 "ISIS Blow Up Two Car-Bombs Near Jalen Checkpoint". Qasioun News. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Jordan | Syria SW Dar’a Displacement, Flash Update No. 1
  32. "Intra-rebel accusations compound tensions in south Syria arena". Syria:direct. 18 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Syrian Army resumes offensive in Sheikh Miskeen amid rebel disunity". Al Masdar News. 23 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Abo Bakr al Haj Ali (30 March 2016). "VIDEO: Fierce fighting rock southern Syria as Islamic State moves on rebels". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 30 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Albin Szakola (21 March 2016). "ISIS affiliate on the march in Daraa". NOW News. Retrieved 26 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Shohadaa al-Yarmouk battalion clashes with rebels in Dar'a". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Al-Muthana movement cuts the road in front of the opposition in Dara'a countryside". Qasioun News. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. 38.0 38.1 Chris Tomson (24 March 2016). "ISIS captures rebel stronghold of Saham al-Jawlan in Daraa". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. 39.0 39.1 "Violent clashes breakout in Dar'a countryside". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 26 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "Shuhadaa al-Yarmouk progress in Daraa countryside". Orient News. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Clashes in Dar'a countryside and Der-Ezzor city". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "Continued Clashes in Sahm al-Jolan". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 26 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "Clashes renewed in the western countryside of Daraa and the regime forces target outskirts of the capital Damascus". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "Continued clashes in western Dar'a". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Rebel factions to drive off the "supporters of IS" west of Daraa". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Casualties in Reef Dimashq and clashes breakout in Daraa". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 30 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Opposition Attacks ISIS Positions Western Dara'a". Qasioun News. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. 48.0 48.1 "Syrian Opposition Forces Seize Over Jalin Checkpoint Western Dara'a". Qasioun News. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. Leith Fadel (6 April 2016). "ISIS reclaims Adwan village in southwestern Daraa". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 6 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "Photos: Martyrs Yarmok Brigade Seize Over Adwan And Show Of Opposition Forces Bodies". Qasioun News. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "Rrbels recaptures 3 towns from ISIL in the south and north of Syria". aljazeera News. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Majd Fahd (8 April 2016). "Breaking: Rebels capture Tassil from ISIS in Daraa, Map-update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 9 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Rebels seize Saham al-Jawlan lake during massive counter-offensive in western Daraa – Map update