Death of George Floyd

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Death of George Floyd
160px
A frame from a video of the event taken by an onlooker
Time c. 8:00–8:30 pm (CDT)[1]
Date May 25, 2020; 2 years ago (2020-05-25)
Location Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
Coordinates Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Filmed by Darnella Frazier[2]
Participants
  • Derek Chauvin
  • Tou Thao
  • Thomas Lane
  • J. Alexander Kueng
Deaths 1 (George Floyd)
Suspect(s) Derek Chauvin
Charges Third degree murder and manslaughter
Hennepin County Minnesota Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Minneapolis Highlighted.svg
Location of Minneapolis, where the incident took place, in Hennepin County and in the state of Minnesota.

The death of George Floyd occurred on May 25, 2020, when Derek Chauvin, a white Minneapolis police officer, knelt on Floyd's neck for at least seven minutes. During at least three of those minutes Floyd was handcuffed,[3] lying face down on the road, and pleading for his life.[4] Chauvin continued to kneel on Floyd's neck for around four minutes after he stopped moving.[5][6]

The incident occurred during Floyd's arrest in Powderhorn, a neighborhood south of downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, and was recorded on cell phone video by several bystanders.[7] The arrest was conducted after Floyd, an African-American, allegedly "physically resisted" when ordered to exit his vehicle, a claim that has been contradicted by available video recordings.[2][5] The video recordings of the arrest, showing Floyd repeatedly saying "I can't breathe", were widely circulated on social media platforms and broadcast by the media.[7]

The four officers involved were fired the next day.[8] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is conducting a federal civil rights investigation into the incident at the request of the Minneapolis Police Department. The Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) is also investigating possible violations of Minnesota statutes.[9] On May 29, Chauvin was arrested and charged with murder for Floyd's death, with Hennepin County attorney Michael O. Freeman stating he anticipated charges to be brought against the other three officers at the scene of Floyd's death.[10][11]

After Floyd's death, demonstrations and protests in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area were initially peaceful, but later turned violent as windows were smashed at a police precinct, two stores were set on fire, and other stores were looted and damaged.[12] Law enforcement responded by shooting tear gas and rubber bullets into the crowds.[13][14] Despite being unknown prior to his death, Floyd has increasingly been sanctified by politically correct organizations and activists and has become a dominant culture as the icon of a secular religion.

Floyd's death has been compared to the 2014 death of Eric Garner, an unarmed black man who also repeated "I can't breathe" eleven times after being placed in a choke hold by a New York police officer during an arrest.[4][15]

People involved

George Floyd

File:George Floyd.png
George Floyd

George Floyd was a 46-year-old African-American man.[4] A native of Houston, Texas, he attended Yates High School as a multi-sport athlete and graduated in 1993.[16] He was a rapper associated with the Houston-based hip hop group Screwed Up Click and freestyled under the alias "Big Floyd" on mixtapes released by DJ Screw.[17] Floyd moved to Minnesota around 2014. He lived in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, and had worked in nearby Minneapolis as a restaurant security guard for five years.[18][19] He had recently lost his job at the time of his death due to Minnesota's stay-at-home order during the COVID-19 pandemic.[20] Floyd was the father of two daughters, aged 6 and 22, who remained in Houston.[21][22]

Police officers

Derek Chauvin

Derek Michael Chauvin, aged 44, was identified as the officer who pinned Floyd to the ground by kneeling on his neck. He had been an officer in the Minneapolis Police Department since around 2001.[23] Chauvin had 18 complaints on his official record, two of which ended in discipline from the department including official letters of reprimand.[24] He had been involved in three police shootings, one of which was fatal.[23][25][26] On May 29, Derek Chauvin was arrested and taken into custody.[27] He was charged with third degree murder and manslaughter.[28]

Others

Officer Tou Thao went through the police academy in 2009 and was hired to a full-time position in 2012. In 2017, Thao was a defendant in an excessive use of force lawsuit that was settled out of court for $25,000.[23]

Two other officers present were identified as Thomas Lane and J. Alexander Kueng.[9][29] Neither had prior complaints on their records.[24]

All four officers were fired after the incident.[30]

Prior contact

According to former club owner Maya Santamaria, Floyd and Chauvin both worked as security guards and had overlapping shifts at the Latin nightclub, El Nuevo Rodeo. She stated Chauvin had worked there for 17 years and Floyd had worked at about a dozen events. She said it was not clear if they knew each other but that she did not believe so.[31][32]

Events

Initial statements from the police and paramedics

Shortly after 8:00 p.m. on May 25, Memorial Day, Minneapolis Police Department officers responded to a "forgery in progress" on Chicago Avenue South in the Powderhorn neighborhood of Minneapolis. According to WCCO, the implication was that Floyd "tried to use forged documents at a nearby deli". According to a co-owner of Cup Foods, Floyd attempted to use a $20 bill that a staff member identified as counterfeit.[33] According to police, Floyd was in a nearby car and "appeared to be under the influence". A spokesman for the police department said the officers ordered him to exit the vehicle, at which point he "physically resisted". This claim is contradicted by all video evidence thus far released of the encounter.[2][5]

According to the Minneapolis police, officers "were able to get the suspect into handcuffs and noted he appeared to be suffering medical distress", and called for an ambulance. No weapons were used in the arrest, according to a statement from the Minneapolis police.[2]

According to the Minneapolis Fire Department, paramedics moved Floyd from the location and were doing chest compressions and other lifesaving measures on an "unresponsive, pulseless male".[34] Floyd was taken to Hennepin County Medical Center, where he was pronounced dead.[35]

Video of the arrest filmed by bystander

Part of the arrest was filmed by a bystander and streamed to Facebook Live.[2][36][37] This video went viral.[38]

When the video starts, Floyd is already pinned chest down to the ground, and Officer Chauvin is kneeling on his neck.[4][7][39] Floyd repeatedly tells Chauvin: "Please" and "I can't breathe", while also moaning, groaning, and sobbing.[2][39][40] A bystander tells the police: "You got him down. Let him breathe."[41]

Another bystander says: "One of my homies died the same way", and after Floyd responds: "I'm about to die the same",[37] Chauvin tells Floyd to relax.[39] The police ask Floyd: "What do you want?" Floyd answers: "I can't breathe."[40] Floyd states: "Please, the knee in my neck, I can't breathe."[39] Someone tells Floyd to "get up and get in the car" (which Agence France Presse, CBS News and WVLT-TV identify as one of the officers,[2][42][43] while Buzzfeed News says it is "unclear" whether it was an officer speaking),[44] to which Floyd replies: "I will ... I can't move."[45] Floyd cries out, "Mama!"[40] Floyd states: "My stomach hurts, my neck hurts, everything hurts", and requests water.[40] The police do not audibly respond to Floyd.[40] Floyd begs: "Don't kill me."[46]

One bystander points out that Floyd is bleeding from the nose.[2] Another tells the police that Floyd is "not even resisting arrest right now".[4] The police tell the bystanders that Floyd was "talking, he's fine"; a bystander replies that Floyd "ain't fine".[2][6] The bystander protests that the police were preventing Floyd from breathing, urging them: "Get him off the ground ... You could have put him in the car by now. He's not resisting arrest or nothing. You're enjoying it. Look at you. Your body language."[2]

Floyd goes silent and motionless, but Chauvin does not lift his knee from Floyd's neck.[7][39] The bystanders protest that Floyd is "not responsive", and repeatedly ask the police to check Floyd's pulse.[2][4] A bystander questions: "Did they fucking kill him?"[19]

An ambulance eventually arrives, and Chauvin does not move his knee until emergency medical services put Floyd's unresponsive body on a stretcher. George Floyd was initially found pulseless by HCMC Paramedics, however, CPR was not initiated by the paramedic crew. The patient is loaded into the ambulance, and taken away to 36th Street and Park avenue, according to an incident report by the Minneapolis Fire Department.[47][2][46][6][48] A male bystander says that the police "just really killed" Floyd.[2][39] Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for at least seven minutes, including around four minutes after Floyd stopped moving.[3][6][49]

Medics in the ambulance checked Floyd's pulse several times, but found none. He was pronounced dead at the hospital.[48]

Other videos

A second bystander video, taken from inside a vehicle, shows Floyd being removed from his vehicle. Vice describes that Floyd "doesn't appear to be resisting – just standing next to his car".[50][51] The Independent wrote: "The video shows two policemen pulling Mr. Floyd from his car without any apparent resistance."[52]

A six-minute video from a security camera of a nearby restaurant was provided to the news media. It shows two officers removing a man from a vehicle. The man is handcuffed and brought to a sidewalk, where he sits down. A third officer arrives. Later, an officer helps the man stand up again, and two officers bring the man to a police vehicle, where the man falls onto the ground.[53] While police initially claimed that Floyd had resisted arrest, this surveillance video "shows officers calmly detaining him", according to CBS News.[54] The surveillance video "does not support police claims that George Floyd resisted arrest", wrote CNN.[55]

A video of the incident from a different angle showed "three officers have Floyd pinned on the ground, while another stands over him", reported CBS Evening News.[48] The Wall Street Journal described it as "three officers are seen sitting on" Floyd.[56]

Minneapolis Park Police (MPP) – a different agency than the Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) – had one officer at the location of Floyd's detainment. The MPP released the officer's body-cam footage on May 28. The footage showed the MPP officer reassuring two passengers from Floyd's car that an ambulance would arrive at the scene, and telling them to "stay put".[57] CNN noted the officer was "not facing the direction of the incident when it happened".[55]

Aftermath

On May 26, Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo announced that the officers were placed on leave.[58] Later in the day, the four responding officers were fired.[8]

That day, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) announced it was reviewing the incident.[7] Footage from the officers' body cameras was turned over to the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension.[59] Civil rights attorney Benjamin Crump is representing Floyd's family.[9]

On May 27, misinformation targeting Chauvin began to circulate on social media. Particularly prominent were claims that Chauvin was the subject of a photo wearing a "Make Whites Great Again" hat and that Chauvin was onstage with President Donald Trump at a political rally; both claims were later shown to be false.[60][61][62]

On May 28, the United States Department of Justice released a joint statement with the FBI saying they had made the investigation into Floyd's death "a top priority". They said they had assigned experienced prosecutors and FBI criminal investigators to the matter, and outlined the investigation's next steps: A "comprehensive investigation will compile all available information and thoroughly evaluate evidence and information obtained from witnesses ... If it is determined that there has been a violation of federal law, criminal charges will be sought."[63][64][24] The Wall Street Journal said it was a notably strong statement from the Justice Department, "which often takes a more muted tone in describing continuing investigations".[24]

Charges

Derek Chauvin was arrested on May 29, 2020.[65] Hennepin County attorney Mike Freeman charged him with third-degree murder and manslaughter.[66]

Memorials, protests, and riots

File:George Floyd Memorial 2020-05-27.jpg
A makeshift memorial near the bus stop where the incident occurred, photographed on May 27

In the wake of community outrage in Minneapolis, the bus stop at the site of Floyd's death on Chicago Avenue became a makeshift memorial to him during the day on May 26, with many placards as tributes to him and referencing the Black Lives Matter movement.[68] As the day progressed, more people showed up to demonstrate against Floyd's death. The crowd, estimated to number hundreds of people,[69][70][71][72] then marched to the 3rd Precinct of the Minneapolis Police.[71] Participants used posters and slogans with phrases such as "Justice for George", "I Can't Breathe", and "Black Lives Matter".[73]

The protest attracted hundreds and began peacefully, but gradually turned violent, culminating in the precinct being vandalized by spray paint and rocks thrown through the windows of police vehicles by protesters.[74] Following the march from Chicago Avenue South to the 3rd Precinct, a small group of protesters broke off from the initial crowd and vandalize the 3rd Precinct building and squad cars, believing the officers worked there.[75] Around 8:00 pm, police in riot gear fired beanbag rounds and chemical agents into the crowd.[76]

The protests continued on May 27, including at Chicago Avenue South. Demonstrators also protested outside the precinct vandalized the evening prior. Starting at about 6 pm, police began deploying chemical irritant and shot at numerous protesters with rubber bullets at the precinct. Numerous videos on social media showed some number of protesters breaking the precinct's windows and throwing objects at police.[77] By later in the evening, the AutoZone on East Lake Street had been set ablaze, and videos began to circulate on social media of extensive looting taking place at a nearby Target.[78] Other fires were set in the streets and to a housing complex construction site, the latter of which was completely destroyed.[79]

Over 30 businesses in Midtown, Minneapolis were damaged by Thursday morning. The owner of a pawnshop fatally shot a man he believed was burglarizing his business.[80][81] Looting also occurred at a Target store in nearby Saint Paul on May 28.[82] A Wendy's was set on fire, and other stores were looted and damaged in the surrounding areas, including a Target and Dollar Tree.[12] Looting took place in Midway, Saint Paul at a CVC Pharmacy, Discount Tire outlet and a Walgreens store.[83]

As night fell in Minneapolis on May 28, fires were lit in buildings surrounding the 3rd Precinct on two sides, and fire alarms were going off inside the building. Police used tear gas against protesters as the temporary fence surrounding the building was torn down. The Third Precinct building was later overrun by protestors while police evacuated. The protesters then set the building on fire.[84]

Shortly after 5 am. CT (6 a.m. ET), CNN reporter Omar Jimenez, along with several crew members, were arrested by police while conducting a live television report covering the protests. Police reportedly told the crew that they were being detained because they were not following instructions to move; however, live television coverage proved otherwise.[85] CNN released a statement stating that the crew were doing their jobs correctly and therefore the arrests were a clear violation of First Amendment rights.[86]

On May 29, Donald Trump posted on Twitter that he has sent the National Guard to Minneapolis in order to bring the riots under control.[87] This move follows Trump's tweet earlier that day, in which he criticized Minneapolis' "very weak Radical Left Mayor, Jacob Frey," and his lack of control of the riots.[88] Since May 27, over 100 Minneapolis businesses and over 30 St. Paul businesses have been damaged or destroyed.[83]

Affected neighborhoods

Minneapolis has eleven identified communities, each of which has a number of neighborhoods within them.

The 3rd Precinct Police Station is located on the eastern side of the Longfellow neighborhood. The destruction has since expanded to the West, in Phillips Community on north side of Lake Street, the Powderhorn Community on the south side of Lake Street, and St. Paul's Midway area.

George Floyd died in the Powderhorn Park neighborhood.

National protests and riots

Protests also took place in Los Angeles on May 27, where about 500 to 1,000 protesters held hands to block both directions of US-101 near downtown around 4 p.m. with similar signs and slogans to those from Minnesota before marching towards downtown. The protesters briefly delayed a California Highway Patrol vehicle as well before dispersing around 6:30 pm.[89] Smaller protests continued on May 28 outside the Los Angeles Police Department headquarters in downtown LA.[90]

Protests took place on May 28 and into the morning of the 29th in Columbus, Ohio by Capitol Square. Over 300 people were involved, and although protests were initially peaceful, violence and damage caused tear gas from police.[91] Later, the protests turned increasingly violent, with businesses, bus stops, and Ohio Statehouse windows damaged. Police arrested several protesters, and used pepper spray and flash grenades to further disperse them.[92] At around 7:00 pm., protesters blocked traffic on Interstate 25 near 15th Street. At around 9:00 protesters began throwing bottles, leading police to disperse pepper spray into the crowd. Some protesters threw the pepper spray back at police officers. Protesters then began throwing eggs, fireworks, smoke bombs, jugs of water, and shoes. Police were able to get the protesters back to N. High St. and State St. There, some protesters broke the windows of businesses and bus stops. They also smashed the front doors and windows of the Ohio Statehouse, with some obtaining entrance to the Statehouse. At N. High St. and Town St. some protesters they began breaking into businesses and looting from a local convenience store. Additionally, protesters tore trash cans and mailboxes from their mounts.[92][93][94][95] The Ohio Theater was also damaged. The Columbus Association for the Performing Arts estimated the damage at $15,000.[96]

Also on May 28, demonstrators in Denver, Colorado blocked highways while protesting the death of George Floyd. Police fired rubber bullets and shot gas canisters at the crowd.[97] One video appears to show a vehicle intentionally hitting a protester. The protester had gotten onto the hood of the car. According to the woman who filmed the incident, the man jumped on top of the vehicle before she began filming.[98]

In New York City on May 28, nearly 100 protesters assembled in Union Square. At least 70 were arrested following altercations with police keeping the streets clear for traffic. In Manhattan, one protester punched an officer in the face according to authorities, while another allegedly threw a garbage can at an officer, striking him the head.[99] Protesters also threw bottles at police officers.[100]

Silent demonstrations of around 40 people in Memphis, Tennessee protesting the deaths of Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and Ahmaud Arbery led to "verbal confrontations" with Memphis police and two counter-protesters from the Facebook group "Confederate 901".[101] On May 27 protesters shut down Union Avenue near McLean Boulevard.[102]

In Louisville, Kentucky on May 28, protesters demanded justice for the death of Breonna Taylor. Some 500 to 600 demonstrators marched through the city that evening.[103] Later during the protest, seven people were shot by an unknown shooter or shooters, with one victim critically injured.[104]

In Chicago, Illinois protesters traffic at 38th Street and Chicago Avenue.[105]

Reactions

Family and friends

Floyd's cousin and two brothers were interviewed by CNN. His cousin, Tera Brown, criticized the police, saying: "They were supposed to be there to serve and to protect and I didn't see a single one of them lift a finger to do anything to help while he was begging for his life." One of his brothers echoed the sentiment, stating: "They could have tased him; they could have maced him. Instead, they put their knee in his neck and just sat on him and then carried on. They treated him worse than they treat animals."[106] Floyd's brother, Philonese, called for peace and stated: "Everybody has a lot of pain right now, that's why this is happening, I'm tired of seeing black people dying."[107]

Floyd's longtime friend, former professional basketball player Stephen Jackson, expressed his anger and sadness following the death, stating that the arrest video "just destroyed me".[108][109]

Floyd's girlfriend, Courtney Ross, asked for the community to respond to his death in a way that honors him. She said: "You can't fight fire with fire. Everything just burns, and I've seen it all day – people hate, they're hating, they're hating, they're mad. And he would not want that."[110]

Political

Minneapolis city councilor Andrea Jenkins, who represented Ward 8, where the incident occurred, was quoted as saying: "My heart is breaking for the tragic loss of life last night near 38th and Chicago. Our community continues to be traumatized again, and again and again. We must demand answers."[111]

The mayor of Minneapolis, Jacob Frey, stated: "Being black in America should not be a death sentence. For five minutes, we watched a white officer press his knee into a black man's neck ... When you hear someone calling for help, you're supposed to help. This officer failed in the most basic, human sense." The day after Floyd's death, the mayor called the termination of the responding officers "the right call".[9][7] Two days after Floyd's death, Mayor Frey highlighted the racial nature of Floyd's death, and called for Chauvin to be criminally charged: "If most people, particularly people of color, had done what a police officer did late Monday, they'd already be behind bars. That's why today I'm calling on Hennepin County Attorney Mike Freeman to charge the arresting officer in this case."[112][113] In an interview with CBS that evening, Frey was asked: "Do you think that was murder?" He replied: "I do."[48]

U.S. Representative Ilhan Omar of Minnesota's 5th congressional district (which includes Minneapolis) called for a federal investigation, saying: "It is sickening to watch this black man be killed while helplessly begging for help."[5] She later added: "The police officer who killed George Floyd should be charged with murder."[114] Senator Tina Smith and Governor Tim Walz also called for immediate action.[5]

Governor Tim Walz, in a press conference on the morning of May 29, said, "we have to restore order," before actions can be taken to serve justice and address the issues which caused Floyd's death. Walz also announced that he has activated the National Guard. [115]

Senator Amy Klobuchar reacted on the following day, saying: "We heard his repeated calls for help. We heard him say over and over again that he could not breathe. And now we have seen yet another horrifying and gut wrenching instance of an African American man dying." She called for the declaration on "a complete and thorough outside investigation into what occurred, and those involved in this incident must be held accountable."[116] However, as a former Hennepin County attorney, she was criticized for declining to press criminal charges against police during her eight years in that office, including against Chauvin; some called for her resignation from the Senate.[117][118][119]

President Donald Trump sent his condolences on Twitter, saying he requested the FBI do a thorough investigation, adding: "My heart goes out to George's family and friends. Justice will be served!"[120] Trump also described Floyd's death as "Sad and Tragic". Joe Biden, the presumptive Democratic 2020 presidential candidate, said on Twitter: "George Floyd deserved better and his family deserves justice. His life mattered ... The FBI should conduct a thorough investigation."[4]

Presidential candidate, Joe Biden, has spoken with Floyd's family, stating that Floyd's death is, "the latest addition to the endless list of stolen potential wiped out unnecessarily." Biden also criticized Trump's response to the rioting, "This is no time for incendiary tweets. It’s no time to encourage violence. This is a national crisis, and we need real leadership right now."[121]

Law enforcement

The local police union expressed support of the officers involved, saying: "The Police Officers Federation of Minneapolis will provide full support to the involved officers." They also urged the public to remain calm, saying: "Now is not the time to rush to judgement and immediately condemn our officers."[122][123] Fraternal Order of Police president Patrick Yoes said that authorities must ensure justice is served in Floyd's death, "whatever the consequences".

Police chief associations from across the country expressed dismay at the treatment of Floyd.[124] The Minnesota Chiefs of Police Association applauded Minneapolis Chief Arradondo's swift firing of the officers involved.[125] The heads of both the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the Major Cities Chiefs Association (MCCA) condemned what was seen on the video.[124] The MCCA, led by Houston police chief Art Acevedo, said: "The death of Mr. Floyd is deeply disturbing and should be of concern to all Americans. The officer's actions are inconsistent with the training and protocols of our profession and MCCA commends Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo for his swift and decisive action to terminate the employment of the officers involved."[124] The National Police Foundation president said: "These actions, and inaction, jeopardize the gains that have been made through the sacrifices and courage of many."[124]

Leaders of individual police departments from around the United States spoke out against the officer at the center of the video, with what The Washington Post called "disgust", and the Los Angeles Times called "blunt criticism".[124][126] The Los Angeles Times said: "It was a rare moment when police leaders were unequivocal in their public disdain for the conduct of one of their own."[126] Leaders condemning the officer's actions included the New York City Police Commissioner,[126] the Los Angeles County Sheriff,[126] and the Police Chiefs of Los Angeles,[124][126] Boston,[127] Miami,[124] Houston,[124][126] and Austin, Texas,[128] as well as a former Police Chief from Seattle.[125] Police chiefs of smaller cities spoke out as well: Chiefs of Police from Buffalo Grove, Illinois,[124] and Tucson, Arizona,[124] Round Rock, Texas,[128] the University of Texas at Austin,[128] Pflugerville, Texas,[129] and Omaha, Nebraska,[130] all issued statements against Floyd's treatment.

Experts on the use of force by police condemned Chauvin's actions. Mylan Masson, a longtime Minneapolis police officer and former director of the Hennepin Technical College's Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Center, which instructs approximately half of Minnesota's police officers, said a form of the technique seen in the video of Floyd's death was taught until at least 2016. He added: "Once the [officer] is in control, then you release. That's what use of force is: You use it 'til the threat has stopped."[125] George Kirkham, a former police officer and professor emeritus at Florida State University's College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, said: "It was outrageous, excessive, unreasonable force under the circumstances. We're dealing with a [suspected] property offender. The man was prone on the ground. He was no threat to anyone."[125]

Institutions

The University of Minnesota announced that it would be limiting ties with the Minneapolis Police Department, and would no longer contract the local police department for assistance at major events.[131][63]

Gallery

See also

References

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  3. 3.0 3.1 Montgomery, Blake (May 27, 2020). "Black Lives Matter Protests Over George Floyd's Death Spread Across the Country". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 28, 2020. Floyd, 46, died after a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin, kneeled on his neck for at least seven minutes while handcuffing him.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Murphy, Esme (May 26, 2020). "'I Can't Breathe!': Video Of Fatal Arrest Shows Minneapolis Officer Kneeling On George Floyd's Neck For Several Minutes". KSTP-TV. Retrieved May 26, 2020. While lying facedown on the road, Floyd repeatedly groans and says he can't breathe.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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External links

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