List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

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Starved peasants during the Holodomor disaster

This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.

Wars and armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are 1,000,000 or more

These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Duration (years) Notes, See also
74,330,344[2] 65,000,000[3] 85,000,000[4] World War II Worldwide 1939 1945 6 years and 1 day World War II casualties (includes worldwide Holocaust and concentration camps deaths). Estimates include the Second Sino-Japanese War.
44,721,360 20,000,000[5] 100,000,000[6][7][8] Taiping Rebellion China 1851 1864 14 Inspired by Hong Xiuquan; see also Dungan Revolt, a Muslim rebellion.
37,947,332 36,000,000[9] 40,000,000[10] Three Kingdoms War China 184 280 96 End of the Han dynasty
34,641,016 30,000,000[11] 40,000,000[12] Mongol conquests Eurasia 1206 1368 163 Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire
34,047,026 8,400,000[13] 138,000,000[14] European colonization of the Americas Americas 1492 1691 199 Death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which might never be accurately determined.[lower-alpha 1]
25,000,000 25,000,000[19] 25,000,000 Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming dynasty China 1618 1683 65 Qing dynasty
20,770,000 20,770,000 20,770,000 Dungan Revolt Gansu and Shaanxi, China 1862 1877 15 Du Wenxiu Rebellion
18,384,776 13,000,000[12] 36,000,000[20] An Lushan Rebellion China 755 763 9 Medieval warfare
17,748,239 15,000,000[21] 21,000,000 World War I Worldwide 1914 1918 4 years, 3 months, 1 week World War I casualties
Does not include worldwide Spanish flu deaths.
17,000,000 17,000,000 17,000,000 Conquest of Timur Central, East and South Asia 1400s 1500s 35 17 Million people or 5% of the world's population at the time.[22][23]
8,000,000 8,000,000[24] 8,000,000 Chinese Civil War China 1927 1949 22 List of civil wars
6,708,204 5,000,000[citation needed] 9,000,000[25] Russian Civil War Russia 1917 1921 5 Russian Revolution, List of civil wars
8,000,000 3,000,000[citation needed] 11,500,000[26] Thirty Years' War Holy Roman Empire, Europe 1618 1648 30 Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants, became a general European political war. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.
4,949,747 3,500,000
[citation needed]
7,000,000[27] Napoleonic Wars Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean 1803 1815 13 Napoleonic Wars casualties
4,582,576 3,000,000[28] 7,000,000[28] Yellow Turban Rebellion China 184 205 22 Part of Three Kingdoms War
3,674,235 2,500,000[29] 5,400,000[30] Second Congo War Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2003 6 First Congo War
2,828,427 2,000,000 4,000,000[31] French Wars of Religion France 1562 1598 37 Largely a religious war between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants)
2,754,995 2,300,000[32] 3,300,000[33] Hundred Years' War Western Europe 1337 1453 116 Edwardian War (1337–1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–53)
1,732,051 1,500,000[12] 2,000,000[34] Shaka's conquests Southern Africa 1816 1828 13 Ndwandwe–Zulu War
1,732,051 1,500,000[35] 2,000,000[35] War in Afghanistan Afghanistan 1979 2000 22 Soviet–Afghan War, Taliban era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M).
1,732,051 1,000,000 3,000,000[citation needed] Nigerian Civil War Nigeria 1966 1970 4 Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.
1,732,051 1,000,000[36] 3,000,000[37] Crusades Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 197 Christian military excursions against the Muslim Conquests.
1,549,193 800,000[38] 3,000,000[39] Vietnam War Southeast Asia 1955 1975 21 Cold War and First Indochina War
1,520,691 1,250,000[40] 1,850,000 Punic Wars Mediterranean 264 BC 146 BC 118 Carthage, Roman Republic
1,414,214 1,000,000[41] 2,000,000 Second Sudanese Civil War Sudan 1983 2005 23 First Sudanese Civil War
1,341,641 1,200,000 1,500,000 Warring States period China 475 B.C. 221 B.C. 255 [42][43]
1,200,000 1,200,000[44] 1,200,000[44] Korean War Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 4 Categorized as part of the Cold War.
1,095,445 600,000[35] 2,000,000[35] Soviet–Afghan War Afghanistan 1980 1988 9 Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.
1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Japanese invasions of Korea Korea 1592 1598 7 [45]
1,000,000 890,000[citation needed] - Du Wenxiu Rebellion China 1856 1873 18
1,000,000 500,000[46] 2,000,000[46] Mexican Revolution Mexico, United States 1911 1920 10 Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.
948,683 900,000[citation needed] 1,000,000 Gallic Wars France 58 BC 50 BC 9 Roman Empire
724,569 350,000 1,500,000 Algerian War Algeria 1954 1962 7 Years, 4 Months, 2 Weeks, and 4 Days [47]
707,107 500,000 1,000,000 Spanish Civil War Spain 1936 1939 4
600,000 300,000[48] 1,200,000[49] Paraguayan War South America 1864 1870 7 Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
585,423 272,000[50] 1,260,000[50][51][52] War on Terror Worldwide 2001 2013 12 Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.
564,041 289,220 1,100,000 Iran-Iraq War Iran-Iraq border 1980 1988 Over 8 Years Iran claims: 123,220 KIA + 11,000 civilians

Iraq claims: 105,000 KIA + 50,000 in Kurdish Genocide

Others claim 600,000 Iranians killed and 500,000 Iraqis

279,285 26,000 3,000,000 Bangladesh Liberation War East Pakistan 1971 1971 1 See Bangladeshi Genocide casualties
800,000 650,000 1,000,000 American Civil War Southeastern United States 1861 1865 4 Years United States

Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass ethno/religious persecution

Skulls from Rwandan genocide

Event that entail the intentional mass murder of individuals on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or race, or death caused by the forced eviction of individuals on the basis of race, religion or ethnicity.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
13,684,700 13,684,700 13,684,700 Nazi Genocide of Soviet Slavs Nazi occupied Europe and Russia 1939 1945 The Nazi Regimes extermination of Slavic peoples and citizens of the USSR. Figure given is both as intentional genocide and overall civilian war casualties.
11,000,000 11,000,000 11,000,000 Nazi Ethnic Holocaust Nazi occupied Europe 1939 1945 Nazi Holocaust against Jews, Poles, Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs and Jehovah's Witnesses.
5,143,928 4,200,000[53] 6,300,000[54][55] Ha Shoah Nazi occupied Europe 1941 1945 The main systematic and bureaucratic genocide against European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.



Ukrainian Genocide

Soviet famine of 1932–33
Ukraine 1932


Ukrainian Genocide usually refers to the man made famine of 1932 through 1933 called the Holodomor in which the grain of Ukrainians were confiscated to the point where Ukrainians could not survive off the amount of grain they had and were also restricted from fleeing their villages to find food under threat of execution or deportation into a Gulag camp. The term also refers to the killing of Ukrainian intelligentsia during the Great Purge especially the Orthodox Church. The main advocate for this view was Raphael Lemkin creator of the word genocide. First death toll is famine and second death toll is combined body count of famine and executions of Ukrainians and uses data from after the opening of the soviet archives. (2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 0.3 million during the purge and 0.011 million from Law of Spikelets.)[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]
2,770,000 2,770,000 2,770,000 Nazi Holocaust against ethnic Poles Nazi occupied Poland 1941 1945 Genocide of Christian Poles during the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany.
2,171,381 1,386,734[64] 3,400,000[65] Khmer Rouge Killing Fields Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 The arbitrary torture, execution, starvation and enslavement of the population Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge for the sake of achieving Agrarian socialism, and the genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.
Ottoman Empire Holocaust Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 A collective term to refer to the various genocides and Ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks. Death toll is the combined death tolls of the Armenian Genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian Genocide (150,000 to 300,000), and Greek Genocide (289,000 to 750,000), and other death toll is the genocides combined with the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon which some also consider part of the same genocidal policy.
1,234,190 905,000 1,595,000 Hutu and Tutsi
Burundi, Rwanda and Zaire 1959 1997 Combined death toll of all genocides and other massacres between the Hutus and the Tutsis.
1,224,745 1,000,000 1,500,000 Population transfer in the Soviet Union Soviet Union 1920 1951 May include casualties of decossackization.
1,224,745 500,000 3,000,000 The Ethnic Cleansing of Germans Eastern Europe 1945 1950 Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.
1,095,445 800,000 1,500,000 Armenian Genocide / Medz Yeghern / Aghet Ottoman Empire 1914 1918 The first genocide of the 20th century to kill over 1,000,000 people, this event was conducted by the Young Turks government of the Ottoman Empire under the administration of Talaat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha.
1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Hakka Genocide by Qing Empire China Unclear but a single month between 1850 and 1867 Unclear but a single month between 1850 and 1867 After the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom the Qing government cracked down on the Hakka ethnic group for allying with the kingdom slaughtering 30,000 per day. The death toll of the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars is estimated to be 1,000,000 and there was also a mass execution during the Taiping Rebellion that killed 1,000,000. It is unclear whether these events refer to the Qing crackdown. If this death toll is applied to the estimated death rate, the massacre likely took place over the course of a month.[66][67][68]
829,819 628,000 1,100,000 Turkish and Kurdish massacres by the Russian Empire Russian Empire 1914 1916 Hundreds of thousands to over a million Turkish and Kurdish civilians are alleged to have been massacred by forces loyal to the Russian Empire during World War I including half a million in Central Asia according to Arnold Toynbee and another 128 to 600 thousand perished during the Caucasus Campaign.[69][70]

+thousands to millions more in forced labor and unnumbered wars and massacres in Latin America
(Both Americas)

+Siege of Fort Pitt victims
(U.S. only)

+thousands to millions more in forced labor and unnumbered wars and massacres in Latin America
(Both Americas)

+Siege of Fort Pitt victims
(U.S. only)

+thousands to millions more in forced labor and unnumbered wars and massacres in Latin America
(Both Americas)

+Siege of Fort Pitt victims
(U.S. only)

"Native American Genocide" North and South America 1492 Any Time Past 1492 While the overall death toll of man made deaths of Native Americans (from both Americas) is unknown, a few events in which many Native Americans (from both Americas and across all centuries) perished. The combined death toll is the one used in this table.
United States

Trail of Tears-2,000 to 6,000[71][72][73][74][75]
Indian Massacres-7,193[76]
American Indian Wars-30,000 to 45,000[77]
Overall 39,193 to 58,193
Canadian Residential Schools-6,000[78] to 50,000[citation needed]
Guatemalan Genocide-35,000[79] to 170,000[80]
Caste War of Yucatán-200,000[81]
+ Unknown number of Apache killed for bounty
Native Brazilian Genocide-235,000 to 800,000[82]
Conquest of the Desert-1,300[83]
Encomienda-?Thousands ? Millions?
Spanish colonization of the Americas-?Thousands ? Millions?
Selknam genocide-2,500[84] to 3,900[85]

707,107 500,000 1,000,000 The 100 Days of Rwandan genocide Rwanda April 7, 1994 July 15, 1994 Regarded as the most efficient genocide of the 20th century, the Rwandan genocide was the disorganized communal mass murder of Tutsis, by their rival tribe the Hutu through the Rwandan government and Hutu Power militias such as the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi.
707,107 500,000 1,000,000 French conquest of Algeria Algeria 1827 1875 [86]
632,456 200,000 2,000,000 Genocidal Massacres of the Indian Partition India 1947 1957 In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between Hindus and Muslims.[87][88][89]
536,656 480,000 600,000 Dzungar genocide Dzungar Khanate 1755 1758 The mass extermination of Dzungar mongols by the Qing dynasty under the order of the Qianlong Emperor.
465,564 289,000 750,000 Greek genocide Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 Violent Ethnic cleansing of Greeks from their historical homeland of Anatolia.
447,214 400,000 500,000 Ethnic cleansing of Circassians Circassia 1864 1867 Deaths from mass expulsion of Circassians after Russian conquest.
447,214 200,000[90] 1,000,000[90] Albigensian Crusade Languedoc, France 1209 1229 Raphael Lemkin, well known as the coiner of the term genocide, referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[91]
(Geometric mean of all numbers listed to the right)
1,247,000 +/- 3,000
3,000,000[103] The Genocide of Bangladeshis in Eastern Pakistan during Operation Searchlight East Pakistan March
433,590 235,000 800,000 Genocide of Native Brazilians Brazil 1900 1985 [82]
415,692 144,000[104] 1,200,000[105] The Chinese Occupation of Tibet Tibet 1950 ongoing In 1960 the western-based nongovernmental International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) gave a report titled Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic to the United Nations. The report was prepared by the ICJ's Legal Inquiry Committee, composed of eleven international lawyers from around the world. This report accused the Chinese of the crime of genocide in Tibet, after nine years of full occupation, six years before the devastation of the cultural revolution began. The ICJ also documented accounts of massacres, tortures and killings, bombardment of monasteries, and extermination of whole nomad camps. Declassified Soviet archives provides data that Chinese communists, who received a great assistance in military equipment from the USSR, broadly used Soviet aircraft for bombing monasteries and other punitive operations in Tibet.[106]
rough estimate:[107]
? ? Ethnic cleansing of Hazara by the Durrani Empire Afghanistan 1888 1893 Over 60% of the Hazara population were either massacred or displaced in Abdur Rahman Khan's crackdown of the Hazaras.
387,896 379,000 397,000 The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia Independent State of Croatia 1941 1945 Genocide of Serbs, Jews, and Romani by the Ustaše including 322 to 340 thousand Serbs, 25 thousand Roma and 32 thousand Jews.[108][109]
346,410 300,000 500,000 decossackization Former Russian Empire 1917 1933 Violent class purge, Ethnic cleansing, and mass murder of Cossacks, especially Kuban and Don Cossacks, by the Bolshevik party.
331,662 220,000 500,000 Porajmos Nazi occupied Europe 1941 1945 The genocide of Romani by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.
273,861 150,000 500,000 Polish Genocide by the Soviet Union Poland 1939 1946 [110]
219,943 215,000[111] 225,000 Chinese Genocide under Khmer Rouge Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 More than half of the Chinese population of Cambodia were slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge.[112]
212,132 90,000[111] 500,000[113] Cham Genocide under Khmer Rouge Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 The genocide slaughtered over 70% of the Cham Muslim population in Cambodia according to themselves, and Cham were according to Ben Kiernan subjected to the most brutal treatment of those persecuted by the Khmer Rouge and subjected to the slaughter of 36% of their population according to Samuel Totten.
212,132 150,000 300,000 Assyrian genocide Ottoman Empire 1914 1918 Mass murder and forced relocation of Assyrians in conjunction with the Greek and Armenian genocides.
209,762 200,000 220,000[114] Hutu Refugee Massacres during the First Congo War Zaire 1996 1997 During the First Congo War, Rwanda was able to destroy refugee camps, which the génocidaires had been using as their safe-bases, and forcibly repatriate Tutsi to Rwanda. During this process, Rwandan and aligned forces committed multiple atrocities, mainly against Hutu refugees. The true extent of the abuses is unknown because the AFDL and RPF carefully managed NGO and press access to areas where atrocities were thought to have occurred[115] however Amnesty International claimed as many as 200,000 Rwandese Hutu refugees were massacred by them and the Rwandan Defence Forces and aligned forces.[116] The United Nations similarly documented mass killings of civilians by Rwandan, Ugandan and the ADFL soldiers in the DRC Mapping Exercise Report.
200,000 200,000 200,000 Wu Hu and Jie Genocide Northern China 350 351 Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. People with racial characteristics such as high-bridged noses and bushy beards were killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.[117]
200,000 200,000 200,000 Cromwellian conquest of Ireland Ireland 1649 1653 The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland.[118] The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians[119] argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists; these claims have been challenged by others.[120]
200,000 200,000 200,000 Caste War of Yucatán Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico 1847 1901 The Caste War of Yucatán (approx. 1847–1901) against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote: Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."[81]
193,649 150,000[121] 250,000[122] Destruction of the Carthaginians Tunisia 149 BC 146 BC This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.
168,375 (Non-government estimates)
54,772 (government estimates)

10,000 (Sudan's)

300,000 (U.N.'s)
Darfurian Genocide Darfur, Sudan 2003 Ongoing The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.[127][128] The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.[129]
165,831 110,000 250,000 Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38) Soviet Union 1937 1938 The operation from 1937 to 1938 to eliminate the Polish minority in the Soviet Union.
154,919 80,000 300,000 Hamidian Massacres Ottoman Empire 1894 1896 Mass murder of Armenian (and other Christian) civilians under Sultan Abdul Hamid II that foreshadowed the Armenian Genocide
135,941 60,000[130] 308,000[131] East Timorese Genocide East Timor 1974 1999 The civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness[132] resulted in an enormous proportional loss of life upon the island some estimating as high as 13% up to almost a third to almost 44% of the population.[131][133][134]
134,164 60,000[135][136][137] 300,000[138] The Volhynian Slaughter of Poles Volhyn and Eastern Galicia 1943 1944 Genocide[139][140] of Polish civilian population in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).[141][142][143][144][145]
129,615 80,000 210,000 Burundian genocide of Hutus during 1972 Burundi 1972 1972 Communal mass murder of Hutus by their rival tribe the Tutsi in Burundi.
115,039 52,000 254,500 Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire Russian Empire 1903–06 1917–22 The massacres of Jews in the Russian Empire reached their peak in the early 20th century, through the killing of thousands from 1903 to 1906[146] and tens to hundreds of thousands from 1917 to 1922.[147]
100,000 100,000 100,000 Deportation of the Crimean Tatars Soviet Union 1944 1945 Event is often considered an Ethnic cleansing, and the Ukraine considers the event genocide.
100,000 100,000 100,000 Rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari Present day Peru 1780 1782 The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia)."[148]
95,394 50,000[149] 182,000[150] Al-Anfal campaign Baathist Iraq 1986 1989 The Kurdish genocide led by Ali Hassan al-Majid under the order of Saddam Hussein
86,603 50,000[151] 150,000[151] Atrocities against Harkis after the Algerian War Algeria 1962 1962 The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.
81,068 70,273 93,521 Aktion T4 Nazi Germany 1939 1941 A euthanasia program in Nazi Germany used to purge those deemed genetically deficient.
77,136 35,000 170,000 Guatemalan genocide Guatemala 1960 1996 According to the Historical Clarification Commission 140,000 to 200,000 were killed or disappeared and least 42,275 were killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War of which 93% were from officially sanctioned government terror and 83% of the victims were Maya.
50,000 Hutus
and tens of thousands of
50,000 Hutus
and tens of thousands of
50,000 Hutus
and tens of thousands of
Rwandan Revolution Burundi
1959 1962 [152]
73,485 27,000 200,000 1948 Massacre in Hyderabad Hyderabad State, India 1948 1948 [153][154]
64,807 60,000 70,000 Cannibalism and Murder of Pygmy peoples during Great War of Africa Democratic Republic of Congo 1998 2003 Pygmy peoples were murdered en masse as they were regarded as subhumans.
56,000 49,000 64,000 American Indian Wars of the United States Now the United States 1511 1890 From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894): "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate..."
54,772 50,000 60,000[155][156][157] Warsaw Uprising Occupied Poland 5 August 1944 12 August 1944 Polish fatalities in district Wola and Ochota committed during Warsaw Uprising
50,000 50,000 50,000 Burundian genocide of Tutsis during 1993 Burundi 1993 1993 Communal mass murder of Tutsis by their rival tribe the Hutu in Burundi.
48,990 24,000 100,000 Herero genocide German South-West Africa 1904 1907 Part of the Herero and Namaqua genocide during the Herero Wars.
44,721 20,000 100,000 Witch trials in the early modern period Europe 1400 1800 [158]
37,444 34,764[159] 40,330[160][161] Ethnic cleansing and Genocide from all sides of the Bosnian War Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1995 All civilians killed in the Bosnian War including events such as the Srebrenica Massacre, Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing, Žepa Massacre, and other atrocities. 69.8% to 82% of civilian victims of the Bosnian War were Bosniak.
31,623 10,000
Great Fire of Smyrna Smyrna, Ottoman Empire September 9, 1922 September 24, 1922 Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the massacre of their populations. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.
28,460 3,000 270,000 Urkun Russian Empire, Krygyzstan 1916 1916 In 1916 there was an uprising and crackdown of Krygyzstanis against and by Tsarist Russia in what is now known as the Urkun.

A public commission in Kyrgyzstan called the crackdown of 1916 that killed 100,000 to 270,000 Kyrgyzstanis a genocide though Russia rejected this characterization.[166] Russian sources put the death toll at 3,000.[167]

25,495 10,000 65,000 Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam Canara 1784 1799 The Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam (1784–1799) was a 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore
25,000 25,000 25,000 1988 Burundian Hutu Massacre Burundi 1988 1988 [168]
22,249 22,000 22,500+see List of massacres of Indigenous Australians Australian frontier wars Australia 1788 1934 War between Indigenous Australians and settlers in which about 20,000 aboriginal were massacred along with 2–2.5 thousand settlers dying in combat.
21,817 17,000 28,000 Ethnic cleansing of Georgians Abkhazia and Georgia 1992 1993 The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia',[169][170][171][172]

[173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180] also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia"[181][182] and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia"[183] — refers to ethnic cleansing,[184] massacres[185] and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians.

17,429 7,594 40,000 Dersim Massacre Dersim, Turkey 1937 1937 The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish people (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province.[186][187][188][189][190][191][192] The massacre occurred after a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkification policies of the Turkish government.[193] As a result of the Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Zazas[194] died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.
17,321 10,000 30,000 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom Nigeria May 29, 1966 October 1966 [195]
17,320 6,000[196][197] 50,000[198][199] Canadian Indian residential school system Canada 1876 1996 Schools aboriginal Canadians were sent to away from their parents in order to integrate them into Canadian culture that resulted in widespread physical abuse and disease.
16,349 16,349 16,349+ See List of Indian massacres Indian Massacres Now the United States 1511 1890 It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.[76]
12,247 1,000 150,000[200][201] Massacres of Biharis by Bengali mobs Bangladesh 1971 1971 Most extreme episode of the Persecution of Biharis in Bangladesh
10,607 3,750[202] 30,000[203] Gukurahundi Zimbabwe 1983 1987 Ethnic cleansing and executions of members of the Ndebele by the Robert Mugabe's Fifth Brigade.
10,000 10,000[111] 10,000 Vietnamese Genocide by Khmer Rouge Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 100% of the Vietnamese in Cambodia were slaughtered during the genocide according to Samuel Totten.
10,000 10,000 10,000 Namaqua genocide German South-West Africa 1904 1907 Part of the Herero and Namaqua genocide during the Herero Wars.
8,000 8,000 8,000 Thai Genocide by Khmer Rouge[111] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 40% of Thai in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian Genocide according to Samuel Totten.
7,746 2,000 30,000 1946 Bihar riots Bihar, British India October 30, 1946 November 7, 1946 [204] However, By 3 November, the official estimate put the figure of death at only 445.[205]
7,071 5,000 10,000 Noakhali riots Noakhali Region, Bengal, British India October 1946 November 1946 The Noakhali riots, also known as the Noakhali genocide or the Noakhali Carnage, were a series of massacres, rapes, abductions and forced conversions of Hindus and looting and arson of Hindu properties, perpetrated by the Muslim community in the districts of Noakhali in the Chittagong Division of Bengal in October–November 1946, a year before India's independence from British rule. It affected the areas under the Ramganj, Begumganj, Raipur, Lakshmipur, Chhagalnaiya and Sandwip police stations in Noakhali district and the areas under the Hajiganj, Faridganj, Chandpur, Laksham and Chauddagram police stations in Tipperah district, a total area of more than 2,000 square miles.
6,775 1,020 45,000 Algerian Massacres by the French Algeria 1945 1945 [206]



Tasmanian Extinction
Black War
Australia 1803

Mid 1820s

After the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith there were no non-mixed raced Tasmanians left in the world.
6,325 2,000 20,000 Zanzibar Revolution Zanzibar 1964 1964 Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution
5,640 5,590 5,690+ 1964 East Pakistan riots East Pakistan January 1964 January 1964 Khulna 200–300[207]
Dhaka 1,000[208]

Narayanganj 3,500[209]
Bhulta 267[210]
Golkandli 623
Almost 100% of Hindu population of Mainam ?
100s or 1000s more?

5,477 5,000[211] 6,000[212][213] Simele massacre Simele, Kingdom of Iraq August 7, 1933 August 11, 1933 The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.[214]
5,000 5,000[215] 5,000+ Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL Sinjar, Iraq and Syria 2014 ongoing Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Yazidis by ISIL
4,818 + 3? 4,803 + 3? 4,833 + 3? 1950 Barisal Riots East Bengal February 1950 March 1950 Kalshira?

70–100 Nachole
215 Dhaka
2,500 Barisal
Chittagong ?
Sylhet ?
Rajshahi 17
Mymensingh 2,000
Jessore 1

4,733 2,800 8,000 1984 Sikh Massacre India October 31, 1984 November 3, 1984 A series of pogroms against sikhs primarily done by members of the Indian National Congress party due to the assassination of the prime minister.
4,681 2,191 10,000 Nellie massacre Assam, India Six hours on February 18, 1983 Six hours on February 18, 1983 [216]
4,000 4,000 4,000 Laotian Genocide by Khmer Rouge[111] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 40% of Laotians in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian Genocide according to Samuel Totten.
4,000 4,000 4,000 Direct Action Day India August 16, 1946 August 18, 1946 Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
3,873 3,000 5,000 1804 Haiti massacre Haiti Early February 1804 April 22, 1804 Genocide of white people in Haiti.[217]
3,464 2,000 6,000 Trail of Tears United States 1830 1850 The forced relocation of various Native American tribes under the order of Andrew Jackson.
3,122 2,500[84] 3,900[85] Selknam genocide Tierra del Fuego, Chile Late 1800s Early 1900s Genocide of Selknam Native Chilean tribe.
2,580 547 12,166 Parsley Massacre Dominican Republic October 2, 1937 October 8, 1937 Genocidal massacre of people who say perejil(Spanish for parsely) in a French accent in order to determine if they're Afro-Haitian or Afro-Dominican.
1,763 1,044 2,977[218] 2002 Gujarat riots Gujarat, India February 2002 March 2002 Minimum death toll inlcludes 790 Muslim death toll. Both death tolls include 254 Hindu deaths and maximum death toll includes 223 presumed mixing as dead and 2,500 Muslim higher death toll.
1,700 1,700[219] 1,700+ Genocide of Shias by ISIL Iraq, Syria 2014 ongoing Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Shiass by ISIL
1,300 1,300 1,300 Conquest of the Desert Argentina Mid 1870s 1884 The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples, killing more than 1,300.[220]
1,000 1,000[221] 1,000+ Genocide of Christians by ISIL Iraq, Syria, and Libya 2014 ongoing Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Christians by ISIL
? ? ? Biological Warfare at the Siege of Fortt Pitt Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1763 1763 The death toll resulting from the event is unknown but here are some statistics that may allow for some extrapolations: The Fort Pit outbreak hit the Lenni Lenape and Shawnee.[222] The population of these two groups in 2008 were 16,000 and 14,000 respectively.[223][224] The US's population in 2008 was likely about 305 million as it was 281,421,906 in 2000 and grew by 1.9 million each year afterwards, meaning the two tribes were likely about one ten thousandth of the population. The population of the aforementioned tribes is unknown but the non-native population of the United States in 1760 was 1,593,625 and in 1770 was 2,148,076,.[225] Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860, but in 2010 Native Americans made up about 0.7% of the U.S. population.[226][227] The native populations grow at slower rates then non-native and sometimes even decreased. The mortality rates of disease on indigenous people can be as high as 90%.[228] There is also widespread intermarriage between the natives and non-natives.

Political purges and repressions (politicides)

Partial view of a plaque with photos of victims of the Great Purge who were shot in the Butovo firing range near Moscow. The photos were taken after the arrest of each victim.

This section includes events that entail the mass killings of political opposition (such as those of certain ideology, class or just someone protesting the government) in what are sometimes called "Red" or "White" Terrors depending on who's committing them and the type of opposition they target (Red=Communist, White=Anti-Communist/Nationalist). Another term used to refer to these types of killing is politicide. This list is incomplete please help by adding to it. see also Red Terror (disambiguation), White Terror, and Politicide.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
4,732,864 800,000 28,000,000 Landlord Classicide under Mao Zedong People's Republic of China 1946 1949 [229]
Millions of landlords were murdered during land reforms before the formation of the People's Republic of China because they were seen as class enemies.
See Struggle session
2,000,000 400,000[230] 10,000,000[231] The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution People's Republic of China 1966 1976 The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society.

See Struggle session
1,325,000 1,325,000 1,325,000 Cambodian Autogenocide Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 [111]
Some have referred to the mass killing of ethnic Khmer people under the Khmer Rouge as a genocide despite the fact the mass killings were committed by fellow Khmer and the Khmer were killed less in proportion to their population, according to Samuel Totten, then other victims of the Khmer Rouge making it more of a politicide. These killings have been described as autogenocide or civil genocide. The death toll used here is the combined death of rural and urban Khmer according to Samuel Totten. Note this is not the total number of people killed in the Cambodian genocide just the number of ethnic Khmers killed.
1,193,315 712,000[232] 2,000,000[233] Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries in China People's Republic of China 1950 1951 The Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (Chinese: 镇压反革命; pinyin: zhènyā fǎn gémìng; literally: "suppressing counterrevolutionaries" or abbreviated as Chinese: 鎮反; pinyin: zhènfǎn) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.[232]
1,077,850 681,692[234] 1,704,230[235] Great Purge in the Soviet Union Soviet Union 1936 1938 The Great Purge or Great Terror was a period of intense political repression in the Soviet Union including execution (especially through open air shootings) and forced labor through the Gulag system.
485,283 78,500[236] 3,000,000[237] 1965 & 66 Indonesian Politicide Indonesia 1965 1966 Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.[238]
300,000 300,000 300,000[239] White Terror (Russia) Former Russian Empire 1917 1923 White movement equivalent to the Red Terror.
244,949 150,000[240] 400,000[241] Francoist Repression Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War 1936 1945 In Spain, the White Terror (also known as la Represión Franquista, the "Francoist Repression") was the series of acts of politically motivated violence, rape, and other crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939) and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship (1 October 1936 – 20 November 1975)[242]
150,000 30,000 750,000[243] Qey Shibir People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1977 1978 Violent purge of those deemed Anti-Communist in Ethiopia.

Death Toll Sources:[244][245][246][247][248]

141,421 100,000[249] 200,000[250] Bodo League Massacre Korea Summer 1950 Summer 1950 Massacre of communist and suspected communist during the Korean War.
126,491 80,000[251] 200,000[251] Holocaust of the Freemasons Nazi occupied territory 1933 1945 The Nazis targeted Freemasons for their killings as they saw them as collaborators in a Jewish Conspiracy.

See Suppression of Freemasonry

122,474 10,000[252] 1,500,000[253] Red Terror during the Russian Civil War Former Russian Empire during Russian Civil War 1918 1922 Political repression by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.
67,082 25,000 180,000 1991 uprising in Iraq Iraq March the 1st, 1991 April the 5th, 1991 The death toll of the uprising against Saddam Hussein's government during 1991 was high throughout the country. The rebels killed many Ba'athist officials and officers. In response, thousands of unarmed civilians were killed by indiscriminate fire from loyalist tanks, artillery and helicopters, and many historical and religious structures in the south were deliberately targeted under orders from Saddam Hussein. Saddam's security forces entered the cities, often using women and children as human shields, where they detained and summarily executed or "disappeared" thousands of people at random in a policy of collective responsibility. Many suspects were tortured, raped, or burned alive.[254]
63,246 50,000 80,000[255] Operation Condor South America 1975 1983 A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States
52,432 38,000[256] 72,344[257] Spanish Communist Politicide Spain during the Spanish Civil War 1936 1939 The Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo)[258] is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".[259]
51,962 13,500[260] 200,000[261] North Vietnamese Land Reform North Vietnam 1954 1956 Some view the land reforms as a class purge.
25,923 16,000 42,000 The Reign of Terror France during the French Revolution 1793 1794 The Reign of Terror, was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".
20,000 10,000 40,000 1982 Hama Massacre Hama, Syria February 2, 1982 February the 28th 1982 The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government
20,000 10,000 40,000[262] 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre El Salvador January 22, 1932 July 11, 1932 Many of the victims were Indigenous people
17,320 10,000 30,000 February 28 Incident Taiwan 1947 1947 Crackdown by the Kuomintang government that ushered in the White Terror (Taiwan) era.
16,432 9,000[263] 30,000[264] Dirty War Argentina 1976 1983 At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).
11,650 11,650 11,650 Red and White Terrors of the Finnish Civil War Finland 1918 1918 Both sides of the Finnish Civil War used Terrors where 10,000 were killed in the White Terror and 1,650 were killed in the Red Terror.[265]
11,596 4,482 30,000 1988 Iranian P.O.C. Massacre Iran 1988 1988
(5 months after starting of executions.)
Massacre of Prisoners of Conscience (P.O.C.s) in Iran.
3,464 3,000 4,000 White Terror (Taiwan) Taiwan 1949 1987 An era of martial law in Taiwan in which 140,000 where imprisoned and 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang
1,960 1,200 3,200 Chilean Politicide Chile 1974 1990 1,200 to 3,200 alleged communist were executed, 80,000 were forcibly interned and 30,000 were tortured under the reign of Augusto Pinochet.[269][270][271]
850 241 3,000 Massacre of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Tiananmen Square, People's Republic of China 1989 1989 Crackdown of anti-government protest in the People's Republic of China.

Forced labor, slavery, internment/extermination camps, and slave trades

A 19th-century European engraving of Arab slave-trading caravan transporting African slaves across the Sahara during Arab slave trade.

Includes deaths caused by the poor labor conditions of the systems, executions for not performing the labor satisfactorily, and killing from trying to accumulate the work force.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
32,863,353 22,500,000 48,000,000 Maafa Middle East, North Africa, the Congo and the Horn of Africa 650s 1900s The summation of all those killed in Slave Trades and forced labour systems under both Europeans and Arab:

5.5 to 15 million Atlantic Trade
14 to 20 million Arab Trade
3 to 13 million Congo Holocaust under Leopold II

20,124,610 15,000,000[272] 27,000,000 Laogai
"reform through labor" System
People's Republic of China 1945 1976 Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which once took up more than half of the world's slaves.[citation needed] Laogai is different from laojiao, or re-education through labor, which was an administrative detention for a person who was not a criminal but had committed minor offenses, and was intended to reform offenders into law-abiding citizens.[273] Persons detained under laojiao were detained in facilities that were separate from the general prison system of laogai. Both systems, however, involved penal labor.
16,733,201 14,000,000 20,000,000 Slave Trade of Africans by Arabs Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa 650s 1900s [274][275]
10,868,533 10,500,000[276][277] 11,250,000 European enslavement under the Ottoman Turks Southern Europe, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Grand Duchy of Moscow 1450 1800 Slave raids carried out by Muslims from Ottoman Empire on European nations.

There is no concrete number for the number of people killed due to the Barbary Slave Trade. The method many people use such as Matthew White is to estimate the mortality rate of slave raids and multiply them by the number people took as slaves. White estimates 3 people were killed for every 1 slave abducted.
(Includes Barbary Slave Trade)

9,082,951 5,500,000 15,000,000 Atlantic Slave Trade Africa, the Americas, and across the Atlantic 1600s 1800s [275]

The transatlantic slave trade resulted in a vast and as yet still unknown loss of life for African captives both in and outside America.

6,244,998 3,000,000[lower-alpha 2] 13,000,000[279] Congolese Holocaust Congo Free State 1885 1908 Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[280] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[281]
1,702,101 1,053,829 2,749,163[282] Gulag Labor System Soviet Union 1930s 1950s Gulag is an acronym for the organization that administered the forced labor system in the Soviet Union that became a colloquialism in the west for the camps themselves. The system was used to punish genuine criminals, political dissidents, and prisoners of war.
1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 Forced Labor in North Korea North Korea 1972 ongoing [283]
1,095,445 800,000 1,500,000 Auschwitz-Birkenau Oświęcim, Poland 1940 1945 [284][285]
836,660 700,000 1,000,000 Treblinka Treblinka, Poland 1942 1943 [286][287]
590,419 173,000 2,015,000 Peonage and Chattel Slavery In Mexico Mexico 1900 1920 R.J. Rummel coiner of the word "Democide" estimated the mortality rate for Mexican Peonage a form of debt labor by comparing it to similar forced labor systems such as the Soviet Gulag, and then applying and reducing it accordingly to the population of Mexico at the time coming up with an annual death rate of 69,000.
536,656 480,000 600,000 Bełżec Bełżec, Poland 1942 1943 [288][289][290]
467,654 270,000 810,000 Forced Labor of Koreans by Imperial Japan Korea and Manchuria 1939 1945 [291]

13,000,000(Alleged population decline by Andre Gide's Politics : Rebellion and Ambivalence)

13,000,000(Alleged population decline by Andre Gide's Politics : Rebellion and Ambivalence)

13,000,000(Alleged population decline by Andre Gide's Politics : Rebellion and Ambivalence)
French Colonial Slavery French colonial empire 1900 1940 [292]
325,000 325,000 325,000 Portuguese Forced Labor Portuguese Empire 1900 1925 [293]
264,575 100,000 700,000 Jasenovac Croatia 1941 1945 [294][295][296]
254,951 130,000 500,000 Kolyma Gulag Kolyma, Soviet Union 1932 1954 [297]
250,000+ 250,000+ 250,000+ Amazonian Rubber Slavery Amazon, Brazil 1900 1912 [298]
102,621 102,621[299] 102,621[299] Construction of Burma Railway Burma 1943 1947

Forced labour was used in the construction of the Burma Railway. More than 180,000—possibly many more—Southeast Asian civilian labourers (Romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, estimates of Romusha deaths are little more than guesses, but probably about 90,000 died. 12,621 Allied POWs died during the construction. The dead POWs included 6,904 British personnel, 2,802 Australians, 2,782 Dutch, and 133 Americans.[299]

85,000 85,000 85,000 Stutthof Stutthof, Third Reich 1939 1945 Second World War
67,082 30,000 120,000 Construction of the Suez Canal Egypt, and Sudan 1859 1868 French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained many concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, in 1854–56, to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000,[300] but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue and disease, especially cholera.[301]
35,000 35,000 35,000 Forced Labor of Allied POWs In and around the Pacific 1939 1945 According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 27%).[302][303]
32,249 26,000 40,000 Concentration Camps during the Second Boer War South African Republic 1900 1902 116,000 Boer women and children; 26,370 died.

115,000 black people 15,000 died Second Boer War [304] 81% of the total fatalities in the camps were children Emily Hobhouse

30,972 12,790 75,000 Stara Gradiška Croatia 1941 1945 Primarily for women and children[305][306]
17,000 17,000 17,000 Tuol Sleng Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1975 1979 [307]
13,171 13,171 13,171 Camp Sumter Andersonville, Georgia, USA 1864 1865 [308]
12,000 12,000 12,000 Crveni Krst Niš, Serbia 1941 1941 [309]
2,963 2,963 2,963 Tammisaari Prison Camp Tammisaari, Finland 1918 1918
2,963 2,963 2,963 Elmira Prison Elmira, New York, USA 1864 1865 [310]
2,032 1,032 4,000[311] Shark Island Concentration Camp Luderitz, German South-West Africa 1905 1907 Minimum death toll is out of a camp population of 1,795 people and maximum is out of those in the Maximum includes those who died in the Luderitz area.
1,342 1,200 1,800 World Cup Migrant Labor Deaths Qatar 2013 ongoing [312]
Out of 100,000 laborers.

War Crimes and Ancient War Atrocities

The corpses of Nanking Massacre victims on the shore of the Qinhuai River with a Japanese soldier standing nearby

Massacre and unnatural death committed or caused by military, communal, terrorist, insurgent forces, or political entity that may or may not particularly target ethnic, religious, or political group but usually are part of either a morally bankrupt military strategy or is just an arbitrary act of sadism. Also try to only include events in which the majority of victims were civilians or is often referred to as an atrocity by significant mainstream scholarship.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
29,074,054 29,000,000 30,500,000 All atrocities against civilians during World War II

(Holocaust, Japanese War Crimes, Soviet Oppression such as Gulags and Population transfer in the Soviet Union, and Terror bombing)

Worldwide 1939 1945 See World War II casualties
6,480,741 3,000,000[313] 14,000,000[314] Asian Holocaust (By Japan) In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific 1895 1945 Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. These incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust[315] and Japanese war atrocities.[316][317][318] Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan, in 1945.
2,700,000 2,700,000 2,700,000 Three Alls Policy China during World War II 1940 1942 In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy(A scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China.), sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.
2,509,980 1,800,000 3,500,000[319] Chinese Civil War Atrocities against civilians from forced conscription and massacres China 1927–1936 1946–1950 During the war both the Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.[320]
2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 First and Second Sudanese War Atrocities against Civilians Sudan 1956–1972 1983–2005 [321]
1,303,840 850,000 2,000,000 Afghan Politicide Afghanistan 1979 1989 Some refer to the mass murder of civilians during the Soviet Invasion as a genocide, however those killed were on the basis of political alignment making it a politicide.
Death Toll Sources:


1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000[324] Yellow Tiger Massacre Sichuan, China 1644 1646 Bloody peasant revolt that massacred a large portion of Sichuan's population.
910,000 910,000 910,000 Warlord Era China China 1900 1927 [325]
632,456 200,000[326] 2,000,000[327] Mongol Destruction of Baghdad Baghdad January 29, 1258 February 10, 1258 Mass slaughter of civilians by the Mongols in Baghdad. Considered to be the end of the "Islamic Golden Age."
500,000 500,000 500,000 Angolan Civil War Atrocities against civilians Angola 1975 2002 The 27-year war can be divided roughly into three periods of major fighting – from 1975 to 1991, 1992 to 1994, and from 1998 to 2002 – broken up by fragile periods of peace. By the time the MPLA achieved victory in 2002, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced. The war devastated Angola's infrastructure, and severely damaged the nation's public administration, economic enterprises, and religious institutions.
481,664 400,000[328] 580,000[329] Biological Warfare and Human Experimentation by the Imperial Japanese Army Parts of Russia and China especially Manchuria 1931 1945 See Unit 731 and the Asian Holocaust
244,949 200,000[330] 300,000[330] La Violencia Colombia 1948 1958

La Violencia (Spanish pronunciation: [la βjoˈlensja], The Violence) was a ten-year period of civil war and violence in Colombia from 1948 to 1958, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the rural countryside.
Death toll may include non-civilian victims

223,607 200,000 250,000 Philippine-American War atrocities against civilians Philippines 1899 1902 (1913 Moro Rebellion) [331][332][333][lower-roman 1]
223,607 100,000 500,000 Manila Massacre Manila, Philippines 1945 1945 [334][335][336][337]
205,670 150,000 282,000 Iran-Iraq War Atrocities against civilians. Iran and Iraq 1980 1988 100,000[338] civilians killed on both sides plus 50 to 182 killed in Kurdish Genocide.
177,307 177,307 177,307 Colombian conflict atrocities against civilians Colombia 1964 ongoing [339]
170,461 155,923 186,355 Iraq War Atrocities against civilians Iraq 2003 2011 Numbers come from Iraq Body Count Project[340][341]
158,114 100,000[342][343] 250,000[344][345] War in the Vendée France during the French Revolution 1793 1796 Described as genocide by some historians[343] but this claim has been widely discounted.[346] See also French Revolution.
155,119 106,000 227,000 Viet Cong Atrocities Vietnam 1955 1975 [347]
151,186 125,000[348] 182,857+[349] Islamist Terrorism since 9/11 worldwide 2001 ongoing Death toll depends on how Terrorist attack is defined.
136,931 75,000 250,000 First and Second Chechen Wars Atrocities against civilians Chechnya 1994–1996 1999–2009 [350][351][352][353]


127,232 57,000 284,000 Atrocities caused by South Vietnam during Diem era and Vietnam War Vietnam 1954 1975 [356]
100,000 100,000 100,000 Crimes of the Lord's Resistance Army Uganda, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo 1986 2009 Looking back at the LRA's (a rebel group and heterodox Christian cult which operates in northern Uganda, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) campaign of violence, The Guardian stated in 2015 that Kony's forces had been responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 people and the kidnapping of at least 60,000 children. Various atrocities committed include raping young girls and abducting them for use as sex slaves.
100,000 100,000 100,000 Crimes of the National Islamic Front Sudan 1964 1999 Alleged human rights abuses by the NIF regime included war crimes, ethnic cleansing, a revival of slavery, torture of opponents, and an unprecedented number of refugees fleeing into Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, Egypt, Europe and North America.[357]
100,000+ 100,000+[358] 100,000+[359] West Papua Atrocities West Papua 1963 Ongoing Since Indonesia has taken control of West Papua in 1963 they've been accused the population of West Papua has had over 100,000 unnatural deaths. The administration of West Papua has been called a police state.
87,899 81,426 94,886+ Ongoing Syrian Civil War Atrocities against civilians Syria 2011 ongoing See List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War
68,556+ 47,000[360] 100,000+[361] Kashmir Conflict Jammu and Kashmir, India 1947 ongoing See Human Rights Abuses in Jammu and Kashmir, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, List of massacres in Jammu and Kashmir
Death toll may include non-civilian victims
(All Victims)

(Civilian massacre victims)
(All Victims)

(Civilian massacre victims)
(All Victims)

(Civilian massacre victims)
The Rape of Nan(j/k)ing Nanking, China 1937 1938 The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.
See Death toll of the Nanking Massacre
68,784 61,007[365] 77,552 Internal conflict in Peru Peru 1980 2000 Internal conflict between the Peruvian Army and guerrilla fighters in Peru. The principal actors in the war were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved. All of the armed actors in the war (both terrorists and the Peruvian Army) deliberately targeted and killed civilians, making the conflict more bloody than any other war in Peruvian history since the European colonization of the country.
Death toll may include non-civilian victims
24,495 to 70,711 15,000 to 20,000[366] 40,000 to 250,000[367] Sheikh Said rebellion Turkey 1925 1925 Sheikh Said Rebellion (Kurdish:Serhildana Şêx Seîdê Pîran, Turkish: Şeyh Said İsyanı, was a rebellion to revive the Islamic Caliphate System and used elements of Kurdish nationalism to recruit.[368] It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers also known as Hamidiye soldiers. The rebellion was particularly of two Kurdish groups, the Zaza people and the speakers of the related Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish: it "was led specifically by the Zaza population and received almost full support in the entire Zaza region and some of the neighbouring Kurmanji-dominated regions".[369]
26,270 26,270 26,270 Amero-Afghan War Atocities against civilians Afghanistan 2001 2014 [370]
18,800 18,800 18,800+ Crimes of ISIL Iraq, Syria, sporadic terrorism worldwide 2011 ongoing Death toll from ISIL listed is only over the course of 2 years and occurred only in Iraq so death toll is certainly higher.[371]
16,733 7,000[372] 40,000[373] War Crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War Sri Lanka 2009 2009 There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.[374][375]

See Alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War

15,000 15,000 15,000[376] First Sack of Thessalonica Byzantine Empire 904 904 The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.
10,392 6,000 18,000 Child Soldierhood of Iran Iran 1980 1988 3% of 2 to 6 hundred thousand casualties.[377][378][379][380][381][382][383][384][385][386]
10,000 10,000 10,000 Algerian Civil War Massacres Algeria 1991 2002 [387][388]
7,628 7,628 7,628+ Balochistan conflict atrocities against civilians Balochistan, Pakistan 1937–1977,
ongoing [389][390][391]
5,477 5,000 6,000 Civilians killed by US Soldiers in Vietnam War Vietnam 1955 1975 [356]


3,800 3,800 3,800+ Civilians killed in Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War Syria September 2015 ongoing See Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War


2,977 2,977 2,977 9/11 Terrorist Attacks United States 9/11/2001 9/11/2001 [394]
2,000 2,000 2,000 Civilians killed in War in Donbass Donbass, Ukraine 2014 ongoing [395]
1,269 460[396] 3,500[397] Sabra and Shatila massacre West Beirut, Lebanon September 16, 1982 September 18, 1982 Massacre of a Palestinian refugee camp by Lebanese Christians.
365+ 138[398] 965[399] +/- hundreds more[400] Civilian casualties from US drone strikes Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen 2006 ongoing

List of dictatorships by death toll

And regime/empires, etc.

Infamous African dictator Idi Amin
Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
45,825,757 21,000,000[401] 100,000,000[402] Red Holocaust worldwide 1918 (Beginning with the Red Terror in Russia) ongoing (North Korea) The combined death toll of all communist regimes.
47,263,517 31,912,000 70,000,000[403] Mao Zedong Catastrophes People's Republic of China 1946 1976 Critics of Mao Zedong have argued Mao's China saw unprecedented losses of human life through inhuman economic policies such as the Great Leap Forward, slave labor through the Laogai, violent political purges such as the Cultural Revolution the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and class extermination through land reform. Minimum death toll is the minimum estimate of famine dead (15 million)[404] plus minimum estimate of land reform dead (0.8 million)[405] plus minimum estimate for Counterrevolutionaries dead (712,000)[232] plus minimum estimate for Cultural Revolution dead (400,000)[230] plus minimum estimate for Laogai dead (15 million).[272]
20,736,441 10,000,000 43,000,000[406][407] Stalinist Crimes against humanity and genocide(s) Soviet Union 1922 1953 The millions murdered by the regime of Joseph Stalin by famine, purges, labor camps, population transfer, deportations, and NKVD massacres. The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the USSR of those not killed in famine which range from 4 to 10 million.,[408][409][410] plus the minimum of those killed in famine which range from 6 to 8 million. Robert Conquest writer of the book The Great Terror started with the estimate with 30 million, a few years later putting it down to 20 million[411] and in his latest revision sais no less than 15 million perished.[412] Estimates before the release of the archives put those killed by Stalin as "low" as 3 million and as high as 60 million.[412]
13,674,790 11,000,000 17,000,000 Nazi Holocaust Nazi occupied Europe 1939 1945 Nazi Holocaust against Jews, Poles, Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs and Jehovah's Witnesses.+Soviet Famine
10,511,124 5,965,000 18,522,000 Conscription Killings and Man-made famine from the Chinese Nationalist Government China 1928 1946 [413]
9,317,081 3,000,000 28,936,000 Japanese War Holocaust In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific 1895 1945 Mass Killings 3,000,000 to 14,000,000[313][314]
Famine and disease 8,136,000 to 14,936,000
See World War II casualties
(possible overlap)
Minimum is minimum mass killings estimate and maximum is maximum mass killings estimate plus maximum famine and disease estimate.
6,244,998 3,000,000[lower-alpha 3] 13,000,000[279] Congolese Holocaust Congo Free State 1885 1908 Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[280] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[281]
2,171,381 1,386,734[64] 3,400,000[65] Khmer Rouge Holocaust Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 The arbitrary torture, execution, starvation and enslavement of the population Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge for the sake of achieving Agrarian socialism, and the genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.
1,989,284 1,439,000 2,750,000 Young Turk's Ottoman Holocaust. Ottoman Empire 1913 1922 A collective term to refer to the various genocides and Ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks. Death toll is the combined death tolls of the Armenian Genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian Genocide (150,000 to 300,000), and Greek Genocide (289,000 to 750,000), and combined with the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (200,000).
1,576,388 710,000 3,500,000 North Korean Crimes against humanity (and possible genocide) North Korea 1948 ongoing [414]
North Korea continues to be one of the most repressive governments in the world with the world's lowest human rights record. Over 200,000 people are interned in concentrations camps for either being political dissidents or being related to political dissidents where they are subject to slavery, torture, starvation, shootings, gassing, and human experimentation.
906,658+ 240,500 3,418,000+ Crimes against humanity and genocide(s) under Suharto's Revolution and New Order Indonesia 1965 1998 65/66 Politicide- 78,500 to 3,000,000 Communists

East Timor Atrocities-60,000 to 308,000 East Timorese

West Papua Atrocities-100,000 Papuans

Petrus Killings-2,000 to 10,000 "Suspected Criminals"
867,468 430,000 1,750,000 Crimes against humanity of Mengistu Haile Mariam Ethiopia 1977 1987 Manmade Famine- 400,000 to 1,000,000
Politicide-30,000 to 750,000
700,000 700,000[415] 700,000 Crimes of the FRELIMO Communist Mozambique 1975 1999 See also Mozambican Civil War
481,756 214,500 1,082,000 Crimes of Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong Vietnam 1954 2000 95,000 Reeducation camps[416]

13,500[260]-200,000[261] Land Reform

106 to 227 Thousand[416] War Crimes

200 to 560 Thousand[416][417] Boat People

Minimum death toll is the combined minimum estimates for War Crimes, Reeducation camps, and Land Reform while maximum death toll is the combination of the maximum estimated death toll of Land Reform, War Crimes, Reeducation camps and Boat People which may or may not be attributable to the regime and its controllers depending on your perspective.
429,189 211,000 873,000 Saddam Hussein's Crimes against humanity and genocide(s) Baathist Iraq 1979 2003 1991 Repression Massacre- 25 to 280 Thousand[418]

Al-Anfal Genocide of Kurds- 50 to 182 Thousand[149][150]

Iran-Iraq War Atrocities 100 Thousand[419]

Post-1991 Uprising Refugee crisis of March and early April (a 36-day period) killed 1,000 per day or 36,000 people.[420]

Only 20,000 Marsh Arabs were left in the region after the draining (out of half a million), though it is unknown whether this was caused by famine or migration, except for the 80 to 120 thousand who fled to Iran

[421][422] And the 125,000 to 150,000 that remain in Iraq.

Minimum estimate is the minimum estimate of civilians killed by Saddam during Iran-Iraq War, Uprising and genocide of Kurds combined, while maximum is the maximum of the aforementioned combined with the maximum demographic decline of Mesopotamian Marshes.

223,607 100,000 500,000 Personal Dictatorship of Idi Amin Uganda 1971 1979 Idi Amin's rule of Uganda saw excessive and egregious human rights abuses toward ethnic minorities and political opposition earning him the nickname by critics "The Butcher of Uganda."
161,555 60,000[423] 435,000[415] Communist Repression of Romania Romania 1945 1964 Does not take into account the Romanian orphans who perished under Nicolae Ceaușescu's policies
109,545 60,000 200,000 Tsardom of Ivan the Terrible Russian Empire 1533 1584 [424]
83,666 70,000[415] 100,000[423] Communist Repression of East Germany East Germany 1945 1989 Political repression in the Iron Curtain
81,240 31,000[425][426] 220,000[415] Communist Repression of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1944 1989 Collecitization and political repression in Bulgaria
65,000 65,000 65,000 Communist Repression of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 1948 1968– [415]
63,246 50,000 80,000 Personal Dictatorship of Francisco Macías Nguema Equatorial Guinea 1968 1979 Macías Nguema is regarded as one of the most kleptocratic, corrupt, and dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. Depending on the source, he was responsible for the deaths of anywhere from 50,000 to 80,000 of the 300,000 to 400,000 people living in the country at the time.
50,000 50,000 50,000 Personal Dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo Dominican Republic 1930 1938 [427][428][429]
42,426 30,000 60,000 Dictatorship of François Duvalier Haiti 1957 1971 Duvalier's rule based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute, and the use of cult of personality, resulted in the murder of 30,000 to 60,000 Haitians and the exile of many more.
40,000 40,000 40,000 Personal Dictatorship of Hissène Habré Chad 1982 1990 In May 2016 Hissène Habré was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery and ordering the killing of 40,000 people, and sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.[430]
29,219 9,240[431] 92,400[431] Communist Repression of Cuba Cuba 1976 ongoing Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of Human Rights Watch, who accuse the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial execution.[432][433][434]
22,431 10,482 48,000 Islamist Dictatorship of Iran Iran 1979 ongoing 4,482 to 30,000 in P.O.C. Massacre
6,000 to 18,000 Child soldiers killed
(refer to earlier tables on page)
22,000 22,000 22,000 Communist Repression of Poland Communist Poland 1945 1989 [415]
13,748 7,000 27,000[415] Communist Repression of Hungary Hungary 1948 1956 Minimum death toll does not take into account those out of the 150,000 who perished in concentration camps, and only counts the 5,000 alleged spies and 2,000 party members executed, noting that 5,000 spies came from only 98,000 out of 700,000 alleged spies. Extrapolate as you will.[435][436]
9,500 9,500 9,500 Imperial Rule of Tiberius Ancient Rome 14 37 [437]
9,000 9,000 9,000 Imperial Rule of Caligula Ancient Rome 37 41 [438]
6,000 6,000 6,000 Personal dictatorship of Johnny Paul Koroma Sierra Leone 1997 1998
5,750 5,750 5,750 Imperial Rule of Nero Ancient Rome 54 68 [439]
3,000 100[440] 90,000[441] Personal dictatorship of Jean-Bedel Bokassa Central African Republic 1966 1976 It was found that Bokassa personally oversaw the massacre of 100 school children.[440]
2,935 2,935 2,935 Imperial Rule of Claudius Ancient Rome 41 54 [442]

Anthropogenically exacerbated famine, mass starvation, and illness

Engraving from The Graphic, October 1877, showing the plight of animals as well as humans in Bellary district, Madras Presidency, British India during the Great Famine of 1876–78.

Note: Some of these famines diseases were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines, and disease that were caused or exacerbated by human action.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
79,937,476 71,000,000 90,000,000 Disease caused by Smoking worldwide 1930 1999 [443][444]



Communist Famines worldwide 1933


Combined death toll of famines caused by Communist states as listed below. (Great Chinese Famine, Soviet famine of 1932–33, North Korean famine, Cambodian Holocaust Famine, 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia)
(Russian Famine of 1921 may have been exacerbated by War Communism policies but it is debatable to what extent. Soviet famine of 1946–47 is debated between by caused more by government policy or war as well.)
28,722,810 15,000,000[404] 55,000,000[445] Great Chinese Famine People's Republic of China 1958 1962 During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death.[446] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[447]
23,065,130 19,000,000 28,000,000 Famine and Disease during World War II Worldwide 1939 1945 See World War II casualties
11,023,579 8,136,000 14,936,000 Famine and Disease under Japanese Imperialism Japanese Empire 1937 1945 See World War II casualties
Combined death tolls of China's, Vietnam's, Indonesia's and the Philippine's famine and disease.
10,816,650 9,000,000[citation needed] 13,000,000 Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 China 1876 1879 ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
7,071,072 5,000,000[448] 10,000,000[448] Russian famine of 1921 Soviet Russia 1921 1922 See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka
7,071,068 5,000,000 10,000,000 Famine and Disease in China during Japanese Invasion China 1937 1945 See World War I casualties
6,928,200 6,000,000 8,000,000[449] Soviet famine of 1932–33 Soviet Union 1932 1933 Majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations (including Ukraine) regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine known as the Holodomor.
5,745,181 5,411,000 6,100,000 Famine and disease during World War I Worldwide 1914 1918 See World War I casualties
8,300,000[450] 6,100,000[451] 10,320,000[452] Great Famine of 1876–78 British India 1876 1878 ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
4,529,901 3,800,000 5,400,000 African World War Famine Africa 1998 2004 Majority of those who died in war perished from famine and disease.
4,242,641 3,000,000[453] 6,000,000[454] Decommunization Former States of the Soviet Union and Eastern Block 1991 2000 Deaths caused by decrease in living conditions in Russia and other former Communist States after the fall of the Soviet Union.
3,464,100 3,000,000[citation needed] 4,000,000 Bengal famine of 1943 British India 1943 1943 The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports[455]

However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.[456]

13,700,000 8,400,000[451] 19,000,000[457] Indian famine of 1896–97, Indian famine of 1899–1900 British India 1896 1900 ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
2,449,490 2,000,000[458] 3,000,000[459][460] Biafran Blockade during Nigeria's Civil War Nigeria 1967 1970 More than two million Igbo died from the famine imposed deliberately through blockade throughout the war. Lack of medicine also contributed. Thousands of people starved to death every day as the war progressed.
2,400,000 2,400,000[461] 2,400,000 Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia 1944 1945 An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.[461]
1,224,745 1,000,000 1,500,000 Post-WWII Soviet Famine Soviet Union 1946 1946 Debated whether it was caused by war or government policy more.
1,060,660 750,000[462][463] 1,500,000[464] Great Irish Famine[465] Ireland 1846 1849 Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[466][467]
894,427 400,000[468] 2,000,000[469] Vietnamese Famine of 1945 Vietnam 1944 1945 The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[469]
871,780 800,000[470] 950,000[471] Cambodian Holocaust Famine Cambodia 1975 1979 An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
632,456 400,000[472] 1,000,000[473] 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia 1983 1985 The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.[472]
336,000 336,000 336,000 Famine and disease under Japanese occupation of the Philippines Philippines 1942 1945 See World War I casualties
330,000 240,000[474] 420,000[474] North Korean famine North Korea 1994 1998 The famine stemmed from a variety of factors. Economic mismanagement and the loss of Soviet support caused food production and imports to decline rapidly. A series of floods and droughts exacerbated the crisis, but were not its direct cause. The North Korean government and its centrally-planned system proved too inflexible to effectively curtail the disaster. Recent research suggests the likely number of excess deaths between 1993 and 2000 was about 330,000.[474][475]
300,000 300,000 300,000[476][477] Cuban War of Independence Famine Cuba 1895 1898 Most of dead in war perished from famine and disease.
200,000 200,000 200,000 Great Famine of Mount Lebanon Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire 1915 1918 Around 200,000 people starved to death at a time when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated at 400,000.[478] The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population of World War I. Bodies were piled in the streets and people were reported to be eating street animals while some even resorted to cannibalism.[96][479]
70,000 70,000[480] 70,000 Sudan famine Sudan 1998 1998 The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[481]
n/a 0[482] 576,000[483] Starvation caused by the Sanctions against Iraq Iraq 1990 1998 According to Saddam Hussein's government, sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council indirectly caused excess deaths of young children.
n/a 0? 275,000? Starvation from the Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes Mesopotamian Marshes, Iraq and Iran 1950s 1990s Only 20,000 Marsh Arabs were left in the region after the draining (out of half a million), though it is unknown whether this was caused by famine or migration, except for the 80 to 120 thousand who fled to Iran[421][422] And the 125,000 to 150,000 remaining in Iraq.

Riot or political unrest

Victims Event Country City Date
200,000–2,000,000 Partition of India and Pakistan British India Punjab & Bengal 1947
200,000–300,000 La Violencia Colombia Country-wide 1948–1960
85,000–87,000 1959 Tibetan uprising Tibet (China) Lhasa 1959
30,000 Nika riots Constantinople 532
6,667–20,000 La semaine sanglante France Paris 1871
10,000–30,000 February 28 Incident Taiwan (Republic of China) 1947
14,000–30,000 Jeju Uprising South Korea Jeju island 1948
13,000–15,500 August Uprising Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic 1924
10,000–40,000 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising El Salvador 1932
10,000–20,000 Romanian Peasants' Revolt Romania 1907
10,000 Kronstadt rebellion Russia Kronstadt 1921
2,800–8,000 1984 anti-Sikh riots India New Delhi 1984
7,500 March 1st Movement South Korea Seoul 1919
4,179–4,354 Second Intifada Israel/Palestinian territories 2000–2005
3,800 Pitchfork Uprising Russia 1920
532–60,000 Iranian Revolution[484] Iran 1979
3,000–10,000 8888 Uprising Burma / Myanmar 1987–1993
2,204 First Intifada Israel/Palestinian territories 1987
47–2,000 Banana Massacre Colombia Ciénaga 1928
2,300 Santa María School massacre Chile Iquique 1907
1,104 Romanian Revolution of 1989 Romania Bucharest and major cities 1989
1,000–1,200 May 1998 riots of Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta, Medan, Surakarta 1998
132–4,000 Bloody Sunday (1905) Russia Saint Petersburg 1905
893 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes Kyrgyzstan 2010
400 Iranian pilgrim riot Saudi Arabia Mecca 1987
379–1,526 Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) massacre British India Amritsar 1919
360+ Telangana movement (Hyderabad) India Hyderabad 1969
338 Tunisian Revolution Tunisia 2010–2011
300–3,000 Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 China Beijing 1989
285 Gordon Riots England 1780
249 1929 Palestine riots British Mandate for Palestine 1929
196 13 May incident Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 1969
187–1,500 Andijan massacre Uzbekistan Andijan 2005
139 Cartoon Riots 2006
121–797 Euromaidan Ukraine Kiev 2014
100 Napoleon's "whiff of grapeshot" France Paris 1795
100 New York City draft riots United States New York City 1863
95 Jaffa riots British Mandate for Palestine Jaffa 1921
94 1947 Jerusalem riots Jerusalem 1947
94 July Revolt of 1927 Austria Vienna 1927
93 Bahraini uprising of 2011 Bahrain 2011
88 2012 Rakhine State riots Myanmar 2012
84 Riot and crushing during mass arrests Thailand Narathiwat Province 2004
74 Port Said Stadium riot Egypt Port Said 2012
69 Sharpeville massacre South Africa Sharpeville 1960
53 1992 Los Angeles riots United States Los Angeles 1992
50 2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots Myanmar 2013
50 Champ de Mars massacre France Paris 1791
46 Boipatong massacre South Africa Boipatong 1992
45 Polish 1970 protests Poland Gdynia, Szczecin, Gdańsk, and Elbląg 1970[485]
43 Attica Prison riot United States Attica, New York 1971
43 1967 Detroit riot United States Detroit 1967
41 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests Afghanistan 2012
40–200 Paris massacre of 1961 France Paris 1961
40–50 Midland Revolt England Newton, Northamptonshire 1607
39+ Tulsa race riot United States Tulsa, Oklahoma 1921
36 1964 race riots in Singapore Singapore 1964
34 Watts Riots United States Los Angeles 1965
30–300 Tlatelolco massacre Mexico Mexico City 1968
25 Palingoproer Netherlands Amsterdam 1886
25 Corpus Christi massacre Mexico Mexico City 1971
23–600 Soweto uprising South Africa Soweto 1976
22 Eureka Rebellion Australia Ballarat 1854
20 Ludlow Massacre United States Ludlow, Colorado 1914
18 Maria Hertogh riots Singapore 1950
17 6 February 1934 crisis France Paris 1934
16 Bloody Sunday (1921) Northern Ireland Belfast 1921
14 Bloody Sunday (1972) Northern Ireland Derry 1972
13 Socialist riot (1932) Switzerland Geneva 1932
13 Chinese middle schools riots Singapore 1956
13 Mendiola Street massacre Philippines 1987
12 2011 Nakba Day Israel/Palestinian territories 2011
11 Peterloo Massacre England Manchester 1819
9 1920 Nebi Musa riots British Mandate for Palestine Jerusalem 1920
9 Fusillade de Fourmies France Fourmies 1891
5 Ådalen shootings Sweden Ådalen 1931
5 2011 England riots United Kingdom 2011
5 Boston Massacre British America Boston 1770
5 Greensboro massacre United States Greensboro, North Carolina 1979
4 Kent State shootings United States Kent, Ohio 1970
4 Hock Lee bus riots Singapore 1955

Human sacrifice and ritual suicide

A tzompantli, or skull rack, as shown in the post-Conquest Ramirez Codex.

This section lists deaths from the systematic practice of human sacrifice or suicide. For notable individual episodes, see Human sacrifice and mass suicide.

Geom. mean estimate[1] Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Group Location From To Notes
316,228 20,000[486] 5,000,000[487] Human sacrifice in Aztec culture Aztecs Mexico 14th century 1521 Skull racks: 60,000[488] to 136,000[489]
13,000 13,000[490] 13,000 Human sacrifice Shang dynasty China 1300 BC 1050 BC Last 250 years of rule
12,284 12,284 12,284[491] Suicide bombings during the Iraq War Iraqi insurgency (2003–11) Iraq 2003 2011
7,941 7,941[492] 7,941 Ritual suicides Sati India 1815 1828
3,912 3,912 3,912 Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note[493] Imperial Japan navy and army Pacific theatre 1944 1945
913 913 913 Jonestown murder-suicide[494] Followers of The Peoples Temple cult Jonestown November 18, 1978 November 19, 1978
967 967[citation needed] 967 Mass suicide motivated religious and political. Judean rebels Masada Spring 73 CE
804 804 804 Palestinian suicide attacks Palestinian militants Israel and Palestine July 6, 1989 April 18, 2016 May only include victims

Anthropogenic floods, drownings and landslides

Note: These are floods and landslides that have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 2,500,000–3,700,000[495] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000[citation needed] 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 500,000–700,000[citation needed] 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938
4. 200,000–560,000[416][417] Flight of the Boat People Gulf of Thailand and Pacific Ocean 1978–79
5. 26,000[496]-230,000[497] The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina. China August 1975
6. 145,000[citation needed] 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
7. more than 100,000[citation needed] St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
8. 100,000[citation needed] Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
9. 100,000[citation needed] 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911
10. 50,000–80,000[citation needed] St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands, England 1287
11. 10,000–50,000[citation needed] Vargas Tragedy, landslide Venezuela 1999
12. 2,400[citation needed] North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium 31 January 1953
12. 2,209[citation needed] Johnstown Flood Pennsylvania 31 May 1889


  1. Spanish Empire, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American disease and epidemics. These death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which some say might never be accurately determined. Historian Henige says that "the fifteen fold increase from the original population estimates were based on instrument rather than evidence. Newly introduced European diseases became the chief means used to explain a much greater population decline."[15] Modern scholarship tend to side with the higher estimates, but there is still variance based on calculation methods used. Even using conservative populations estimates, however, "one dreadful conclusion is inescapable: the 150 years after Columbus's arrival brought a toll on human life in this hemisphere comparable to all of the world's losses during World War II."[16] "Against the alien agents of disease, the indigenous people never had a chance. Their immune systems were unprepared to fight smallpox and measles, malaria and yellow fever. The epidemics that resulted have been well documented."[17] A small industry of researchers in recent years have focused their attention on Native American population size in 1492, and the subsequent decimation of the population after contact with Europeans. While that research is interesting and important to Native American history, a group of researchers are now exploring wide variations in health of Native Americans before 1492.[18] They say their findings in no way diminish the "dreadful impact Old World diseases had on the people of the New World. But it suggests that the New World was hardly a healthful Eden." For example, they note that as the previously thriving indigenous peoples became more urbanized and less mobile, they succumbed to the same declining sanitation and health conditions of other urban cultures, including tuberculosis. The researchers stress, however, that "their findings in no way mitigated the responsibility of Europeans as bearers of disease devastating to native societies."[17]
  2. The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".[278]
  3. The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".[278]

See also

Other lists organized by death toll

Other lists with similar topics

Topics dealing with similar themes


  1. While there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 250,000; see "Casualties".


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Pinto, Carla M. A.; Lopes, A. Mendes; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro (2014), Ferreira, Nuno Miguel Fonseca; Machado, José António Tenreiro (eds.), "Casualties Distribution in Human and Natural Hazards", Mathematical Methods in Engineering, Springer Netherlands: 173–180, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7183-3_16, ISBN 978-94-007-7182-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "WWII: The Casualties". Archived from the original on 25 December 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. David Wallechinsky (1996-09-01). David Wallechinskys 20th Century: History With the Boring Parts Left Out. Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-92056-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  13. Pre-Columbian Population
  14. American Philosophy: From Wounded Knee to the Present; Erin McKenna, Scott L. Pratt; Bloomsbury; 2015; Page 375; "It is also apparent that the shared history of the hemisphere is one framed by the dual tragedies of genocide and slavery, both of which are part of the legacy of the European invasions of the past 500 years. Indigenous people north and south were displaced, died of disease, and were killed by Europeans through slavery, rape and war. In 1491, about 145 million people lived in the western hemisphere. By 1691, the population of indigenous Americans had declined by 90–95 percent."
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  21. Willmott 2003, p. 307
  22. "The Rehabilitation Of Tamerlane". Chicago Tribune. 17 January 1999.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  29. Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths, European Journal of Population" (2005) 21: 145–166.
  30. "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study"Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
  31. "Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)". Retrieved 2013-08-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Philip Pregill. Landscapes in History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-29328-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  36. John Shertzer Hittell, "A Brief History of Culture" (1874) p.137: "In the two centuries of this warfare one million persons had been slain..." cited by White
  37. Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) p.278. Cited by White
  38. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
  39. Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Nigel Bagnall., "The Punic Wars" June 23, 2005.
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  42. Derk Bodde, China's First Unifier: A Study in the Ch'in Dynasty as Seen in the Life of Li Ssu, 280? – 208 BC, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1967, p 5-6.
  43. Chris Peers estimates that 1,500,000 were killed before the last campaign in 230–221 BC, Warlords of China, 700 BC to AD 1662, London: Arms and Armour, 1998, p 59.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005). "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF). European Journal of Population. 21: 154.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Jones, Geo H., Vol. 23 No. 5, p. 254.
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  48. Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–5
  49. Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
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  51. "Update on Iraqi Casualty Data" by Opinion Research Business. January 2008.
  52. "Revised Casualty Analysis. New Analysis 'Confirms' 1 Million+ Iraq Casualties". January 28, 2008. Opinion Research Business. Word Viewer for.doc files.
  53. Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945. New York: Beechhurst Press. Review by Friedman, Philip (1954). "Review of The Final Solution". Jewish Social Studies 16 (2): 186–9. JSTOR 4465231. See also a review by Hyamson, Albert M. (1953). "Review of The Final Solution". International Affairs 29 (4): 494–5. JSTOR 2606046
  54. "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust?". Yad Vashem. (FAQs about the Holocaust).
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  56. "Seven million died in the 'forgotten' holocaust – Eric Margolis". Retrieved 2016-01-05.
  57. Stanislav Kulchytsky, "How many of us perished in Holodomor in 1933", Zerkalo Nedeli, 23–29 November 2002. Available online in Russian at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 July 2006) and in Ukrainian at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 May 2006)
  58. Stalislav Kulchytsky, "Demographic losses in Ukrainian in the twentieth century" at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 July 2006), Zerkalo Nedeli, 2–8 October 2004 (in Russian), and (in Ukrainian) at the Wayback Machine (archived 13 March 2007)
  59. Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies 57 (6): 823–41. doi:10.1080/09668130500199392.
  60. Michael Ellman, Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited Europe-Asia Studies, Routledge. Vol. 59, No. 4, June 2007, 663–693. PDF file
  61. Snyder 2010, p. 53. "One demographic retrojection suggests a figure of 2.5 million famine deaths for Soviet Ukraine. This is too close to the recorded figure of excess deaths, which is about 2.4 million. The latter figure must be substantially low, since many deaths were not recorded. Another demographic calculation, carried out on behalf of the authorities of independent Ukraine, provides the figure of 3.9 million dead. The truth is probably in between these numbers, where most of the estimates of respectable scholars can be found. It seems reasonable to propose a figure of approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related disease in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933".
  62. David R. Marples. Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. p.50
  63. Deleting the Holodomor:Ukraine Unmakes Itself on World Affairs by Alexander J.Motyl
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  66. Purcell, Victor. CHINA. London: Ernest Benn, 1962. p. 167
  67. Quoted in Ibid., p. 239.
  68. Chesneaux, Jean. PEASANT REVOLTS IN CHINA, 1840–1949. Translated by C. A. Curwen. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973. p. 40
  69. Rummel, R.J. "Statistics Of Russian Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  71. Prucha. Great Father. p. 241.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> note 58
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  74. Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A Nation Betrayed: A Narrative of Travail and Triumph, Persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday. p. 232.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  76. 76.0 76.1 Osborn, William M. (2001). The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee. Garden City, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50374-0.
  77. Report on Indians taxed and Indians not taxed in the United States (except Alaska). U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994 [1894]. p. 637.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  79. Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations website. 1 March 1999. Retrieved June 2016. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
  81. 81.0 81.1 Robins & Jones 2009, p. 50.
  82. 82.0 82.1 White, Matthew. "Secondary Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century – Brazil". Necrometrics.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6.[page needed]
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  86. Kiernan, Ben. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. p. 374.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 9780415565660.
  88. Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 9781134378258.
  89. Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India. Duke University Press.
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  91. Raphael Lemkin (2012). Steven Leonard Jacobs (ed.). Lemkin on Genocide. Lexington Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5. Retrieved 14 February 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Alleged atrocities by the Pakistan Army (paragraph 33)". Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. 23 October 1974. Retrieved 13 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  94. Bass, Gary (2013-11-19). "Looking Away from Genocide". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-03-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. The British Medical Journal in 2008, conducted a study by Ziad Obermeyer, Christopher J. L. Murray, and Emmanuela Gakidou estimated that up to 269,000 civilians died as a result of the conflict
  96. 96.0 96.1 "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 25 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • D.Smith says 500,000
    • S&S: 500,000 (Civil War, Mar.-Dec. 1971)
    • 1984 World Almanac: up to 1,000,000 civilians were killed.
    • Hartman: 1,000,000 Bengalis
    • B&J: 1,000,000 Bengalis
    • Porter: 1M-2M
    • Harff & Gurr: 1,250,000 to 3,000,000
    • Kuper cites a study by Chaudhuri which counted 1,247,000 dead, and mentions the possibility that it may be as many as 3,000,000.
    • Eckhardt: 1,000,000 civ. + 500,000 mil. = 1,500,000 (Bangladesh)
    • Rummel: 1,500,000.
    • Porter: 1M-2M
    • Harff & Gurr: 1,250,000 to 3,000,000
    • The official estimate in Bangladesh is 3 million dead. [AP 30 Dec. 2000; Agence France Presse 3 Oct. 2000;
    • Rounaq Johan: 3,000,000 (in Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, Samuel Totten, ed., (1997))
    • Compton's Encyclopedia, "Genocide": 3,000,000
    • Encyclopedia Americana (2003), "Bangladesh": 3,000,000
  104. Smith 1997, p. 600–1 n. 8
  105. 'Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts', The Department of Information and International Relations: Central Tibetan Administration, 1996. p. 53
  106. Kuzmin, S.L. Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation. Dharamsala, LTWA, 2011
  107. 897,000 Circassians were deported and killed in an event similar in time period and method to this one and of those about 45% died. ("Caucasus Report: July 15, 2005". Radio Free Europe.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>) if this is applied to the median of the following rough estimates and then rounded up (Since this a very rough estimate anyway) you will end up with a very rough estimate of 390,000 killed.

    following estimates:

    low estimate In 1893 the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred and displaced to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056. 2,864,056 population out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000 making Hazaras in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
    دلجو, عباس (2014). تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها. کابل: انتشارات امیری. ISBN 9936801504.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Afghanistan: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.) @ 9% (2014)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    World population estimates#Before 1950
    The population of the world in 1892–93 is unknown but there are estimates for years that are close to these: In 1875 the world population was estimated to be 1,325,000,000. If the Hazara proportion is applied to this population there were roughly 530,000 Hazaras at the time. Since the Hazaras have already lost 60% of their population is likely 250% of this or 1,325,000. 60% of 1,325,000 is 795,000.

    high estimate In 1893 the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056. 2,864,056 population out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000 making Hazara's in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
    دلجو, عباس (2014). تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها. کابل: انتشارات امیری. ISBN 9936801504.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    "Afghanistan: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.) @ 9% (2014)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    World population estimates#Before 1950
    The population of the world in 1892–93 is unknown but there are estimates for years that are close to these: In 1900 the world population was estimated to be 1,656,000,000. If the Hazara proportion is applied to this population there were roughly 662,400 Hazaras at the time. Since the Hazaras had already lost 60% of their population at the time the death and displacement toll would be 150% of this making it 993,600.
  108. "Jasenovac". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  112. Totten, Samuel; William S. Parsons; Israel W. Charny (2004). Century of genocide:. Routledge. p. 345. ISBN 0-415-94430-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. Hannum, Hurst (1989). "International Law and Cambodian Genocide: The Sounds of Silence". Human Rights Quarterly (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 11 (1): 82–138. doi:10.2307/761936. JSTOR 761936.
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  117. 《晉書·卷一百七》 Jin Shu Original text 閔躬率趙人誅諸胡羯,無貴賤男女少長皆斬之,死者二十余萬,屍諸城外,悉為野犬豺狼所食。屯據四方者,所在承閔書誅之,于時高鼻多須至有濫死者半。
  118. "Of all these doings in Cromwell's Irish Chapter, each of us may say what he will. Yet to everyone it will at least be intelligible how his name came to be hated in the tenacious heart of Ireland". John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell. Page 298. 1900 and 2001. ISBN 978-1-4212-6707-4.; "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland made him a hero in Protestant England." [1] British National Archives web site. Accessed March 2007; [2] From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history". Accessed March 2007. Site currently offline. WayBack Machine holds archive here 11, 2004/ Archived December 11, 2004 at the Wayback Machine
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  138. Terles In Ethnic Cleansing p61
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  476. Sheina, Robert L., Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899 (2003)
  477. COWP: Correlates of War Project, University of Michigan
  478. Harris 2012, p.174
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  484. A Question of Numbers Web: August 08, 2003 Rouzegar-Now Cyrus Kadivar
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  487. Prescott, William (1843). History of the Conquest of Mexico.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  488. Ruben Mendoza (2007) p. 407-408.
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  490. National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
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  492. Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
  493. This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
  494. The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
  495. "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Retrieved 2010-08-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  496. Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  497. 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998

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