Demographic economics

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Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.[1][2]

Aspects of the subject include

Other subfields include measuring value of life[53][54] and the economics of the elderly[55][56][57] and the handicapped[58][59][60] and of gender,[61][62][63] race, minorities, and non-labor discrimination.[64][65] In coverage and subfields, it complements labor economics[66][67] and implicates a variety of other economics subjects.[68][69][70]


The Journal of Economic Literature classification codes are a way of categorizing subjects in economics. There, Demographic Economics is paired with Labor Economics as one of 19 primary classifications at JEL: J.[71] It has 8 subareas, which are listed below with JEL-code links to corresponding available article-preview links of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008) Online:

JEL: J10 (all) – General
JEL: J11 – Demographic Trends and Forecasts
JEL: J12Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
JEL: J13Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
JEL: J14 – Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped
JEL: J15 – Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
JEL: J16 – Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
JEL: J17Value of life; Foregone Income
JEL: J18 – Public Policy.

See also



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  5. Galor, Oded (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 685. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0434.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  6. Adsera, Alicia (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 286. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0559.  |chapter= ignored (help)
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  9. Hanushek, Eric A (1992). "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy. 100 (1): 84–117. JSTOR 2138807. doi:10.1086/261808. 
  10. Lehrer, Evelyn L. (1996). "Religion as a determinant of marital fertility". Journal of Population Economics. 9 (2): 173–96. JSTOR 20007500. PMID 12320501. doi:10.1007/s001480050013. 
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  12. Ermisch, John (2003). An Economic Analysis of the Family. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09667-4. [page needed]
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  18. Weiss, Yoram (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 347. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1043.  |chapter= ignored (help)
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  21. Canning, David; Bloom, David E. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 516. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1310.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  22. Vaupel, James W.; Von Kistowski, Kristín G.; Rau, Roland (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 781. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1141.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  23. Preston, Samuel H. (1975). "The Changing Relation between Mortality and level of Economic Development". Population Studies. 29 (2): 231. doi:10.1080/00324728.1975.10410201. 
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  25. Kelley, AC; Schmidt, RM (1996). "Saving, dependency and development". Journal of population economics. 9 (4): 365–86. PMID 12292225. doi:10.1007/BF00573070. 
  26. Weil, David N. (May 1999). "Population Growth, Dependency, and Consumption". The American Economic Review. 89 (2): 251–5. JSTOR 117115. doi:10.1257/aer.89.2.251. 
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  29. Walker, James R. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 421. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0824.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  30. Borjas, George J. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 453. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0830.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  31. Lee, Ronald D. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 512. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1309.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  32. Galor, Oded (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 109. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0755.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  33. Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. (September 2000). "Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and beyond". The American Economic Review. 90 (4): 806–28. JSTOR 117309. doi:10.1257/aer.90.4.806. 
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  35. Kelley, Allen C. (1988). "Economic Consequences of Population Change in the Third World". Journal of Economic Literature. December (4): 1685–728. JSTOR 2726858. 
  36. Brander, James A.; Dowrick, Steve (1994). "The role of fertility and population in economic growth". Journal of Population Economics. 7 (1): 1–25. PMID 12287546. doi:10.1007/BF00160435. 
  37. Kremer, Michael (August 1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 681–716. JSTOR 2118405. doi:10.2307/2118405. 
  38. Dasgupta, Partha (December 1995). "The Population Problem: Theory and Evidence". Journal of Economic Literature. 33 (4): 1879–902. JSTOR 2729316. 
  39. Arrow, K.; Bolin, B.; Costanza, R.; Dasgupta, P.; Folke, C.; Holling, C. S.; Jansson, B.-O.; Levin, S.; Mäler, K.-G.; Perrings, C.; Pimentel, D. (1995). "Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment". Science. 268 (5210): 520–1. PMID 17756719. doi:10.1126/science.268.5210.520. 
  40. Cohen, J. (1995). "Population growth and earth's human carrying capacity". Science. 269 (5222): 341–6. PMID 7618100. doi:10.1126/science.7618100. 
  41. Cohen, Joel E. (1995). How Many People Can the Earth Support?. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31495-3. [page needed]
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  45. Sen, Amartya (1995). "Authoritarianism versus Cooperation" (PDF). International Lecture Series on Population Issues. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Republished as Sen, Amartya (1997). "Population policy: Authoritarianism versus cooperation". Journal of Population Economics. 10: 3. JSTOR 20007525. doi:10.1007/s001480050029. 
  46. Birdsall, Nancy; Kelley, Allen C.; Sinding, Steven W., eds. (2001). Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-152953-5. [page needed]
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  48. Gokhale, Jagadeesh (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 630. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0627.  |chapter= ignored (help)
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  50. Greenwood, Jeremy; Seshadri, Ananth; Vandenbroucke, Guillaume (2005). "The Baby Boom and Baby Bust". American Economic Review. 95: 183. doi:10.1257/0002828053828680. 
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  52. Lee, Ronald D. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 433. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0374.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  53. Kip Viscusi, W. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 586. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1784.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  54. Becker, Gary S; Philipson, Tomas J; Soares, Rodrigo R (2005). "The Quantity and Quality of Life and the Evolution of World Inequality". American Economic Review. 95: 277. doi:10.1257/0002828053828563. 
  55. Hurd, Michael (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 130. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1431.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  56. Weil, David N. (2008). "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics": 499. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1307.  |chapter= ignored (help)
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  59. Tomlinson, Sally (1985). "The Expansion of Special Education". Oxford Review of Education. 11 (2): 157. JSTOR 1050498. doi:10.1080/0305498850110203. 
  60. Bubolz, Margaret M.; Whiren, Alice P. (January 1984). "The Family of the Handicapped: An Ecological Model for Policy and Practice". Family Relations. 33 (1): 5–12. JSTOR 584584. doi:10.2307/584584. 
  61. Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. (June 1996). "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth". The American Economic Review. 86 (3): 374–87. JSTOR 2118202. 
  62. Jacobsen, Joyce P. (2008), "gender roles and division of labour", in Durlauf, Steven N.; Blume, Lawrence E., The new Palgrave dictionary of economics (2nd ed.), Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 582, ISBN 9780333786765.  Also available online.
  63. Jacobsen, Joyce P. (2007). The economics of gender (3rd ed.). Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781405161824. 
  64. Sowell, Thomas (1975). Race and Economics. McKay. [page needed]
  65. Sowell, Thomas (1995). Race and Culture: A World View. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-06797-8. 
  66. JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.
  67. Labor and Demographic Economics: Demographic Economics, NBER Working Paper abstract links from the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  68. Assaf Razin and Efraim Sadka, 1996. Population Economics. MIT Press. Description & chapter previews.
  69. Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Stark, Oded (1997). "Handbook of Population and Family Economics Volume 1". Handbook of Population and Family Economics. 1: 1. ISBN 9780444826459. doi:10.1016/S1574-003X(97)80018-9.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  70. Search of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online, "population OR demography".
  71. Of which a complete list for JEL: J with corresponding Wikipedia links is at JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.


  • John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, ed. ([1987] 1989. Social Economics: The New Palgrave, pp. v-vi. Arrow-page searchable links to entries for:
"Ageing Populations," pp. 1-3, by Robert L. Clark
"Declining Population," pp. 10-15, by Robin Barlow
"Demographic Transition," pp. 16-23, by Ansley J. Coale
"Extended Family," pp. 58-63, by Oliva Harris
"Family," pp. 65-76, by Gary S. Becker
"Fertility," pp.77-89, by Richard A. Easterlin
"Gender," pp. 95-108, by Francine D. Blau
"Race and Economics," pp. 215-218, by H. Stanback
"Value of Life," pp.289-76, by Thomas C. Schelling
  • Nathan Keyfitz, 1987. "demography," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 1, pp. 796–802.
  • T. Paul Schultz, 1981. Economics of Population. Addison-Wesley. Book review.
  • John B. Shoven, ed., 2011. Demography and the Economy, University of Chicago Press. Scroll-down description and preview.
  • Julian L. Simon, 1977. The Economics of Population Growth. Princeton,
  • _____, [1981] 1996. The Ultimate Resource 2, rev. and expanded. Princeton. Description and preview links.
    • Dennis A. Ahlburg, 1998. "Julian Simon and the Population Growth Debate," Population and Development Review, 24(2), pp. 317-327.
    • M. Perlman, 1982. [Untitled review of Simon, 1977 & 1981], Population Studies, 36(3), pp. 490-494.
  • Julian L. Simon, ed., 1997. The Economics Of Population: Key Modern Writings. Description.
  • _____, ed., 1998. The Economics of Population: Classic Writings. Description and scroll to chapter-preview links.
  • Joseph J. Spengler 1951. "The Population Obstacle to Economic Betterment," American Economic Review, 41(2), pp. 343-354.
  • _____, 1966. "The Economist and the Population Question," American Economic Review, 56(1/2), pp. 1–24.