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Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action. Many cultures have a story about how a deity exacted punishment on previous inhabitants of their land, causing their doom.
An example of divine retribution is the story found in many cultures about a great flood destroying all of humanity, as described in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Hindu Vedas, or Book of Genesis (6:9-8:22), leaving one principal 'chosen' survivor. In the first example it is Utnapishtim, and in the last example Noah. References in the Qur'an to a man named Nuh (Noah) who was commanded by God to build an ark also suggest that one man and his followers were saved in a great flood.
Other examples in Hebrew religious literature include the dispersion of the builders of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9), the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18:20-21, 19:23-28)(Quran 7:80-84), and the Ten Plagues visited upon the ancient Egyptians for persecuting the children of Israel (Exodus, Chapters 7-12). Similarly, in Greek mythology, the goddess Hera often became enraged when her husband, Zeus, would impregnate mortal women, and would exact divine retribution on the children born of such affairs. In some versions of the myth, Medusa was turned into her monstrous form as divine retribution for her vanity; in others it was as punishment for being raped by Poseidon.
In most cases, the Bible refers to be divine retribution as being delayed or "treasured up" to a future time. Sight of God's supernatural works and retribution would mitigate against faith in God's Word. William Lane Craig says that In Paul’s view God’s properties, His eternal power and deity, are clearly revealed in creation, so that people who fail to believe in an eternal, powerful Creator of the world are without excuse. Indeed, Paul says that they actually do know that God exists, but they suppress this truth because of their unrighteousness.
Some religions have no concept of divine retribution, or of a God being capable of expressing human sentiments such as jealousy, vengeance, or wrath. For example, in Deism and Pandeism, the Creator has no need to intervene in our Universe at all, and so exhibits no such behavior. In Pantheism (as reflected in Pandeism as well), God is the Universe and encompasses everything within it, and so has no need for retribution, as all things against which retribution might be taken are simply within God. This view is reflected in some pantheistic or pandeistic forms of Hinduism, as well.
The concept of divine retribution is resolutely denied in Buddhism. Gautama Buddha did not endorse belief in a creator deity, refused to express any views on creation and stated that questions on the origin of the world are worthless. The non-adherence to the notion of an omnipotent creator deity or a prime mover is seen by many as a key distinction between Buddhism and other religions.
But Buddhists do accept the existence of beings in higher realms (see Buddhist cosmology), known as devas, but they, like humans, are said to be suffering in samsara, and are not necessarily wiser than us. The Buddha is often portrayed as a teacher of the gods, and superior to them. Despite this there are believed to be enlightened devas. But since there may also be unenlightened devas, there also may be godlike beings who engage in retributive acts, but if they do so, then they do so out of their own ignorance of a greater truth.
Despite this nontheism, Buddhism nevertheless fully accepts the theory of karma, which posts punishment-like effects, such as rebirths in realms of torment, as a consequence of wrongful actions. Unlike in most Abrahamic monotheistic religions, these effects are not eternal, though they can last for a very long time. Even theistic religions do not necessarily see such effects as "punishment" imposed by a higher authority, rather than natural consequences of wrongful action.
"Wrath of God"
"The wrath of God", an anthropomorphic expression for the attitude which some believe God has towards sin, is mentioned many times in the Christian Bible. Leaving aside the references to it in the Old Testament, where it is used of God not only when punishing the wicked but also when sending trials to the just, as in Job 14:13, it is mentioned in at least twenty verses of the New Testament. Examples are:
- John 3:36 - Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.
- Romans 1:18 - For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth.
- Romans 5:9 - Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God.
- Romans 12:19 - Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord."
- Ephesians 5:6 - Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.
- Revelation 6:17 - For the great day of his wrath has come, and who is able to withstand?
- Revelation 14:19 - So the angel swung his sickle across the earth and gathered the grape harvest of the earth and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God.
- Revelation 15:1 - Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous: seven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them the wrath of God was finished.
- Revelation 19:15 - From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty.
Divine Retribution in the Pentateuch
Divine retribution is easily seen in the Pentateuch or first five books of the Bible which set a hermeneutical foundation of the other Bible books. Major examples of divine retribution in the Pentateuch include:
|Genesis 3:14-24||Curse upon Adam and Eve and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden||disobedience and excuses including blaming God|
|Genesis 4:9-15||Curse upon Cain after his slaying of his brother, Abel||deceit, murder, lies|
|Genesis 6-7||The destruction of the Great Flood||rampant evil and Nephilim|
|Genesis 11:1-9||The confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel||impiety on a massive scale|
|Genesis 19:23-29||Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah||people of no redeeming value|
|Genesis 38:6-10||Destruction of Er and Onan||wickedness in the Lord's sight|
|Exodus 7-14||Plagues of Egypt||to establish his power over that of the gods of Egypt|
|Exodus 19:10-25||Divine threatenings at Mount Sinai||warn that the mountain is off limits and holy|
|Exodus 32||Plagues at the incident of the golden calf||disowning the people for breaking his covenant with them|
|Leviticus 10:1-2||Nadab and Abihu are burned||offering unauthorized fire in their censers|
|Leviticus 26:14-39||Curses upon the disobedient||divine warning|
|Numbers 11||A plague accompanies the giving of quail meat in the wilderness||rejecting his gracious gift of heavenly food and failing his test of obedience|
|Numbers 16||The rebellion of Korah, Dathan and Abiram - Their supernatural deaths and the plague that followed||insolence and attempting self-promotion to roles they were unworthy of holding|
|Numbers 20:9-13||Reprimand of Moses at the water of Meribah||disobeying the Lord's instruction, showing distrust and indífference in God's presence|
|Numbers 21||Murmuring of the people and the plague of fiery serpents||spurning God's grace|
|Numbers 25||Whoredom with the Moabites and resulting plague||breaching God's covenant through sexual immorality and worshipping other gods|
|Deuteronomy 28||Curses pronounced upon the disobedient||another divine warning|
Other notable biblical retributions
The Bible being full of cases of divine retribution, some instances are particularly notable for heralding in new eras, while others were meant to serve as abject lessons in dealing with God and keeping faithful to his commands.
|(1 Samuel 6:19)||some/many men of Beth Shemesh killed||looking into the ark of the covenant thus displaying irreverent curiosity|
|(2 Samuel 6:1-7)||Uzzah struck dead after touching the Ark of the covenant||Uzzah dared to commit sacrilege and paid the penalty.|
|(1 Kings 11)||God promises to tear Solomon's kingdom from his son except for a single tribe.||Idolatry and unrepentance.|
|(Acts 5:1)||Ananias and his wife Sapphira struck dead||committed the first recorded sin of the new church by pretending to be generous and lying to The Holy Spirit about an offering.|
- Christian eschatology
- Divine judgment
- Divine providence
- Eye for an eye
- Penal substitution
- "Retribution" (poem)
- Retributive justice
- Western Christianity
- Luke 3:7; Romans 2:5
- For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope...(Romans 8:24)
- Craig, William Lane. "Is Unbelief Culpable?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 19 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Thera, Nyanaponika. "Buddhism and the God-idea". The Vision of the Dhamma. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
In Buddhist literature, the belief in a creator god (issara-nimmana-vada) is frequently mentioned and rejected, along with other causes wrongly adduced to explain the origin of the world; as, for instance, world-soul, time, nature, etc. God-belief, however, is placed in the same category as those morally destructive wrong views which deny the kammic results of action, assume a fortuitous origin of man and nature, or teach absolute determinism. These views are said to be altogether pernicious, having definite bad results due to their effect on ethical conduct.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Approaching the Dhamma: Buddhist Texts and Practices in South and Southeast Asia by Anne M. Blackburn (editor), Jeffrey Samuels (editor). Pariyatti Publishing: 2003 ISBN 1-928706-19-3 pg 129
- Bhikku Bodhi (2007). "III.1, III.2, III.5". In Access To Insight (ed.). The All Embracing Net of Views: Brahmajala Sutta. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Thanissaro Bhikku (1997). "Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable". AN 4.77. Access To Insight.
Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Thanissaro Bhikku (1998). "Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta: The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya". Access To Insight.
It's just as if a man were wounded with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. His friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives would provide him with a surgeon, and the man would say, 'I won't have this arrow removed until I know whether the man who wounded me was a noble warrior, a priest, a merchant, or a worker.' He would say, 'I won't have this arrow removed until I know the given name & clan name of the man who wounded me... until I know whether he was tall, medium, or short... The man would die and those things would still remain unknown to him. In the same way, if anyone were to say, 'I won't live the holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not declare to me that 'The cosmos is eternal,'... or that 'After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,' the man would die and those things would still remain undeclared by the Tathagata.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bhikku, Thanissaro (1997). Tittha Sutta: Sectarians.
Then in that case, a person is a killer of living beings because of a supreme being's act of creation... When one falls back on lack of cause and lack of condition as being essential, monks, there is no desire, no effort [at the thought], 'This should be done. This shouldn't be done.' When one can't pin down as a truth or reality what should & shouldn't be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a contemplative.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- John T Bullitt (2005). "The Thirty-one planes of Existence". Access To Insight. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
The suttas describe thirty-one distinct "planes" or "realms" of existence into which beings can be reborn during this long wandering through samsara. These range from the extraordinarily dark, grim, and painful hell realms to the most sublime, refined, and exquisitely blissful heaven realms. Existence in every realm is impermanent; in Buddhist cosmology there is no eternal heaven or hell. Beings are born into a particular realm according to both their past kamma and their kamma at the moment of death. When the kammic force that propelled them to that realm is finally exhausted, they pass away, taking rebirth once again elsewhere according to their kamma. And so the wearisome cycle continues.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Susan Elbaum Jootla (1997). "II. The Buddha Teaches Deities". In Access To Insight (ed.). Teacher of the Devas. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
Many people worship Maha Brahma as the supreme and eternal creator God, but for the Buddha he is merely a powerful deity still caught within the cycle of repeated existence. In point of fact, "Maha Brahma" is a role or office filled by different individuals at different periods." "His proof included the fact that "many thousands of deities have gone for refuge for life to the recluse Gotama" (MN 95.9). Devas, like humans, develop faith in the Buddha by practicing his teachings." "A second deva concerned with liberation spoke a verse which is partly praise of the Buddha and partly a request for teaching. Using various similes from the animal world, this god showed his admiration and reverence for the Exalted One.", "A discourse called Sakka's Questions (DN 21) took place after he had been a serious disciple of the Buddha for some time. The sutta records a long audience he had with the Blessed One which culminated in his attainment of stream-entry. Their conversation is an excellent example of the Buddha as "teacher of devas," and shows all beings how to work for Nibbana.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bhikku, Thanissaro (1997). Kevaddha Sutta. Access To Insight.
When this was said, the Great Brahma said to the monk, 'I, monk, am Brahma, the Great Brahma, the Conqueror, the Unconquered, the All-Seeing, All-Powerful, the Sovereign Lord, the Maker, Creator, Chief, Appointer and Ruler, Father of All That Have Been and Shall Be... That is why I did not say in their presence that I, too, don't know where the four great elements... cease without remainder. So you have acted wrongly, acted incorrectly, in bypassing the Blessed One in search of an answer to this question elsewhere. Go right back to the Blessed One and, on arrival, ask him this question. However he answers it, you should take it to heart.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article wrath of God, the