Duchy of Lucca
|Duchy of Lucca|
|Ducato di Lucca|
The Duchy of Lucca (green).
|•||Congress of Vienna||9 June 1815|
|•||Annexed by Tuscany||17 December 1847|
The Duchy of Lucca was a small Italian state existing from 1815 to 1847. It was centered on the city of Lucca. By the Congress of Vienna of 1815 the Duchy was to revert to Tuscany on the end of its Bourbon line of rulers, which happened in 1847. Tuscany was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) in 1860.
The Duchy was formed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, out of the former Republic of Lucca and the Principality of Lucca and Piombino, which had been ruled by Elisa Bonaparte. It was created to compensate the House of Bourbon-Parma for the loss of the Duchy of Parma, which had been given to Marie Louise of Austria.
In 1817, Maria Luisa of Spain, the former Infanta of Spain and Queen of Etruria, assumed the government of Lucca. She was also the mother of Charles Louis of Parma, the Bourbon heir to Parma. This followed the Treaty of Paris (1815), which confirmed both her sovereign status in Lucca, and her son's status as heir to Parma in succession to Marie Louise.
After Maria Luisa's death in 1824, Charles Louis assumed the government of the Duchy. In 1847 Charles succeeded to the Duchy of Parma, and left Lucca, which was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
From 1815 to 1818, the flag of Lucca was yellow and red horizontal stripes. From 7 November 1818, to 1847 the flag was white, with Maria Luisa's coat of arms and the yellow–red flag in the canton.
Dukes of Lucca (1815–1847)
||6 July 1782 – 13 March 1824 (aged 41)||9 June 1815||13 March 1824||Only accepted the investiture in 1817; granted the rank and privileges of a Queen||Bourbon-Parma|
||22 December 1799 – 16 April 1883 (aged 83)||13 March 1824||17 December 1847
|Son of Maria Luisa||Bourbon-Parma|
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- DiQuinzio, Mary Elizabeth. Opera in the Duchy of Lucca, 1817-1847. PhD Diss. Music) (Catholic University of America, 1997)
- Murray, John. A Handbook for Travellers in Central Italy: Including Lucca, Tuscany, Florence, the Marches, Umbria, Part of the Patrimony of St. Peter, and the Island of Sardinia. J. Murray, 1861.
- Ross, Janet, and Nelly Erichsen. The story of Lucca. (1912) online.