Dungan Revolt (1895–96)

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Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. The Dungan Revolt (1895–96) was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.

Revolt

After rival Sufi Naqshbandi spiritual orders had fought and accused each other of various misdeeds, instead of continuing the violence they decided to use the Qing legal system to solve the dispute. They filed opposing lawsuits through the office of the Xining Prefect and the judge in the case decided not to issue a ruling on which group was superior to the other in matters of all Islamic affairs, and urged them to behave. As a result, both groups resorted to violence. A taotai (道台) was sent by the Qing to crush the perpetrators of the violence, which ended in several deaths. This led the involved parties in the dispute to rebel against the Qing.[1]

In Xunhua, Qinghai, masses of Hui, Dongxiang, Bao'an, and Salars were incited to revolt against the Qing by the Multicoloured Mosque leader Ma Yonglin. Soldiers were ordered to destroy the rebels by Brigadier General Tang Yanhe.[2] Ma Dahan arranged a deal with the fellow Dongxiang Ma Wanfu when rebelling against the Qing dynasty. In Hezhou, Didao, and Xunhua they directed their adherents to join the rebellion. Guanghe, Sanjiaji, and Tiaoheyan were agreed upon as points in a defensive position and they pledged that they would not surrender.

Ma Wanfu's Wahhabi inspired Yihewani sect was considered the "new teaching" sect.[3] The Yihewani encouraged the rebellion.

Governor General Yang Changjun sent troops to crush the rebellion.[4]

Dong Fuxiang, the Commander in Chief of Kashgaria (Kashgar), received a telegram ordering that he and General Ma Xinsheng relieve the districts in revolt by conducting forced marches.[5] His loyalist Chinese Muslim troops led by Muslim officers like Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Fulu crushed the revolt, reportedly cutting off the heads and ears of rebels. Dong received the rank of generalissimo.[6][7] Dong Fuxiang's troops from Hezhou were armed with Mausers and Remingtons, which were modern European guns, just brought back from Beijing. Their new weapons severely outclassed the bladed weapons and muzzle loading guns of the Muslim rebels and quashed them in battle.[8][9]

Ma Anliang's Muslim cavalry defeated Muslim rebels at Oxheart Mountain, and relieved the siege of Hezhou on December 4. He led Hui cavalry troops to slaughter rebel Salar Muslim fighters who had agreed to negotiate unarmed at a banquet by telling them "Disown me as a Muslim if I deceive you.", and received the rank of Xinjiang General, and Hezhou Colonel once the revolt was crushed.[10][11] The loyalist Muslim Generals led their troops to initiate massive slaughter of the rebel Muslims. They decapitated the heads of the rebels and removed their ears. It was said Muslim blood colored the red cap of Ma Anliang and Muslim heads were used to construct the offices of Ma Fuxiang and Ma Fulu.[12][13]

In 1895 Ma Anliang lifted the siege of Xining (sining) with four ying (ying is a Chinese unit for battalion).[14][15]

Ma Wanfu surrendered as the Chinese Muslim loyalist General Ma Anliang and Dong Fuxiang arrived to crush the rebel Muslims, and Ma Dahan was killed while fighting.[16]

Ma Yonglin (Ma Yung-lin), his son, and over a hundred other Muslim rebel leaders were captured and beheaded by Dong Fuxiang.[17]

On August 2, 1896, it was reported that the Qing Generals carried out large scale massacres of the rebels, in one Area 8,000 were killed and the females sold into slavery.[18]

Around 400 Muslims in Topa 多巴 did not join the revolt and proclaimed their loyalty to China. An argument between a Han Chinese and his Muslim wife led to these Muslims getting massacred, when she threatened that the Muslims from Topa would attack Tankar and give a signal to their co-religionists to rise up and open the gates by burning the temples atop the hills. The husband reported this to an official and the next day the Muslims were massacred.[19]

Generals Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang and Ma Haiyan were originally called to Beijing during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894, but the Dungan Revolt (1895) broke out and they were subsequently sent to crush the rebels.[20]

Due to the rebellion the western Inner Mongolian Han Chinese Catholic village Xiaoqiaopan had defensive procedures institted by the Belgian Priests in charge.[21]

Around 100,000 died in the revolt.[22]

References

  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 26, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
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  13. Ma Tong, Zhongguo Yisilan... shilue, p 245
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  20. 董福祥与西北马家军阀的的故事 - 360Doc个人图书馆
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  22. CARSON, SUSANNA (Rijnhart; Moyes)

See also