Emily Davies

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This article is about the women's education advocate. For the pottery decorator, whose married name was Emily Grace Davies, see Grace Barnsley
Sarah Emily Davies
File:Emily Davies-200px.jpg
Emily Davies portrait by Rudolph Lehmann, 1880
Born (1830-04-22)22 April 1830
Carlton Crescent, Southampton
Died 13 July 1921(1921-07-13) (aged 91)
Nationality British
Known for founder Girton College, Cambridge

Sarah Emily Davies (22 April 1830 – 13 July 1921) was an English feminist, suffragist and a pioneering campaigner for women's rights to university access. She is principally remembered as being the co-founder and an early Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge University, the first college in England to educate women.


She was born in Carlton Crescent, Southampton, England to an evangelical clergyman and a teacher,[1] although she spent most of her youth in Gateshead.

Davies had been tempted to train in medicine and wrote the article "Female Physicians"[2] for the feminist publication, the English Woman's Journal in 1861, and "Medicine as a Profession for Women" in 1862.[3] She also "greatly encouraged" her friend Elizabeth Garett in her medical studies.[4]

In 1862, after the death of her father, Davies moved to London, where she edited the English Woman's Journal, and became friends with women's rights advocates Barbara Bodichon, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and her younger sister Millicent Fawcett. Davies became a founder member of a women's discussion group, the Kensington Society along with Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Barbara Bodichon, Dorothea Beale and Francis Mary Buss who, together, unsuccessfully petitioned Parliament to grant women voting rights.[5]

Davies began campaigning for a woman's right to educate. She was active on the London School Board and in the Schools Inquiry Commission and was instrumental in obtaining the admission of girls to official secondary school examinations.

She then advocated for the admission of women to the Universities of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Like all universities at this time, these were exclusively male domains.

She also became involved in the Suffrage movement, which centred on a woman's right to vote. She was involved in organizing for John Stuart Mill's 1866 petition to the British Parliament) (which was signed by Paulina Irby,[6] Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and 15,000 others)[7] the first to ask for women's suffrage. That same year, she also wrote the book The Higher Education of Women.

In 1869, Davies led the founding of Britain's first women's college, with the support of Frances Buss, Dorothea Beale and Barbara Bodichon.[8] Girton College was initially established in Hitchin, Hertfordshire with Charlotte Manning as the first Mistress. The college later moved in 1873 to the outskirts of Cambridge, Cambridgeshire.

Davies strongly advocated for a quality of curriculum that was equivalent to those offered to men of the time.[8] Despite the Senate rejecting her proposal to let women officially sit for the papers, Davies continued to train students for Tripos exams on an unofficial basis.[8]

From 1873 to 1875, Davies served as mistress of the college, where she then served as Secretary until 1904.The college was not permitted to grant full Cambridge University degrees to women until 1948.

Davies persistent fight for equal education for women was instrumental in the founding in 1875 of Newnham College, which would be led by Anne Jemima Clough.[8]

In June 1901, she received the honorary Doctor of Laws (DLL) from the University of Glasgow.[9]

Davies also continued her suffrage work. In 1906, she headed a delegation to Parliament. She was known for opposing the militant and violent methods used by the Suffragette part of the women's suffrage movement, led by the Pankhursts.

In 1910, Davies published Thoughts on Some Questions Relating to Women. She died in 1921.


Many persons will reply, without hesitation, that the one object to be aimed at, the ideal to be striven after, in the education of women, is to make good wives and mothers. And the answer is a reasonable one, so far as it goes, and with explanations. Clearly, no education would be good which did not tend to make good wives and mothers; and that which produces the best wives and mothers is likely to be the best possible education. But having made this admission, it is necessary to point out that an education of which the aim is thus limited, is likely to fail in that aim.

— Emily Davies, The higher education of women

What is really wanted in a woman is, that she should be a permanently pleasant companion. So far as education can give or enhance pleasantness, it does so by making the view of life wide, the wit ready, the faculty of comprehension vivid

— Emily Davies, The higher education of women

See also

External links and references

  1. Leonard, A. G. K. (Autumn 2010). "Carlton Crescent: Southampton's most spectacular Regency development" (PDF). Southampton Local History Forum Journal. Southampton City Council. pp. 41–42. Retrieved 23 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Davies, Emily (1861). "Female Physicians". English Woman's Journal.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Davies, Emily (11 June 1862). "Medicine as a Profession for Women". paper read out by Russell Gurney at the London meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Blake, Catriona (1990). The Charge of the Parasols: Women's Entry to the Medical Profession (First ed.). London, UK: The Women's Press Limited. p. 57. ISBN 0-7043-4239-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Emily Davies". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 17 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Miss Paulina Irby - an Early Suffragist". The Common Cause. 1915. Retrieved 2 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Sara Delamont, ‘Davies, (Sarah) Emily (1830–1921)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2007 accessed 2 March 2013
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Gould, Paula (Jun 1997). "Women and the Culture of University Physics in Late Nineteenth-Century Cambridge". The British Journal for the History of Science. 30 (2).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Glasgow University jubilee" The Times (London). Friday, 14 June 1901. (36481), p. 10.
  10. Davies, Emily (1866). The higher education of women.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Davies, Emily (1866). The higher education of women.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


Further reading

Academic offices
Preceded by
Annie Austin
Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge
Succeeded by
Marianne Bernard