Energy in France
|Energy in France |
|Change 2004-2009||3.7 %||-6.9 %||-5.8 %||-4.3 %||1.1 %||-8.4 %|
|Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power
2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated
Électricité de France (EDF) is the main electricity generation and distribution company in France. It was founded on April 8, 1946 as a result of the nationalisation of a number of electricity producers, transporters and distributors by the Communist Minister of Industrial Production Marcel Paul. Until November 19, 2004 it was a government corporation, but it is now a limited-liability corporation under private law (société anonyme). The French government partially floated shares of the company on the Paris Stock Exchange in November 2005, although it retains almost 85% ownership as of the end of 2007.
EDF held a monopoly in the distribution, but not the production, of electricity in France until 1999, when the first European Union directive to harmonize regulation of electricity markets was implemented.
A report was published in 2011 by the World Energy Council in association with Oliver Wyman, entitled Policies for the future: 2011 Assessment of country energy and climate policies, which ranks country performance according to an energy sustainability index. The best performers were Switzerland, Sweden, and France.
This section requires expansion. (October 2008)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Renewable energy in France.|
Piper Jaffray expected strong growth in France in 2009 and 2010, partly because of an expected decline in the price of solar panels and partly because of subsidies introduced in 2006 making themselves felt. France should be a key driver for solar together with Italy during 2009-2010. Piper Jaffray believes that France would add 500 megawatts of capacity in both 2009 and 2010. France has 50 megawatts of solar power capacity now.
In July 2015, the French parliament passed a comprehensive energy and climate law that includes a mandatory renewable energy target requiring 40% of national electricity production to come from renewable sources by 2030. For context, 19.5% of the country's electricity was generated by renewable energy in 2014 (13.8% hydro, 3.5% wind, 1.2% solar, 1.0% others).
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- IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
- Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
- Michel, Sharon. ENERGY PRICES AND TAXES, COUNTRY NOTES, 3rd Quarter 2015, page 34. International Energy Agency, 2015
- Bennhold, Katrin (21 November 2005). "EDF shares fail to light up market". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-07-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Shareholding policy". Électricité de France. 31 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity (L27, 30.01.1997, p. 20)
- Tara Patel (2015-07-22). "France to Adopt Law to Cut Nuclear Dependency, Carbon Emissions". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2015-07-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "France passes sweeping energy bill, to raise CO2 tax to €100/t by 2030". Carbon Pulse. 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "France Electricity Report for 2014" (PDF). Réseau de Transport d'Électricité. 2015-01-27. Retrieved 2015-07-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>