English languages

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originally Great Britain (England, Lowland Scotland), now worldwide
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Proto-language: Old English
Glottolog: angl1265[1]

The English languages (also called the Anglic languages[2][3] or Insular Germanic languages[4]) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it.[5] These include Middle English, Early Modern English, and Modern English; Early Scots, Middle Scots, and Modern Scots; and the now extinct Yola and Fingallian in Ireland.

English-based creole languages are not generally included, as only their lexicon, not their linguistic structure, comes from English.

Proto-Old English
Northumbrian Mercian and Kentish West Saxon
Early Northern
Middle English
Early Midland & Southeastern
Middle English
Early Southern & Southwestern
Middle English
Early Scots Northern
Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
Middle Scots Northern Early Modern English Midland Early Modern English Metropolitan Early Modern English Southern Early Modern English Southwestern EME, Yola, Fingallian
Modern Scots Northern Modern English East West Modern English Standard Modern English Southern Modern English West Country Modern English

See also


  1. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Anglian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. J. Derrick McClure Scots its range of Uses in A. J. Aitken, Tom McArthur, Languages of Scotland, W. and R. Chambers, 1979. p.27
  3. Thomas Burns McArthur, The English Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1998. p.203
  4. Woolf, Alex (2007). "From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070". The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, p. 336
  5. "Indo-European, Germanic, West, English". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-09-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>