An entheogen ("generating the divine within") is a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context that may be synthesized or obtained from natural species. The chemical induces altered states of consciousness, psychological or physiological (e.g., bullet ant venom used by the Satere-Mawe people). Entheogens can supplement many diverse practices for transcendence, and revelation, including meditation, yoga, and prayer, psychedelic and visionary art, chanting, and music including peyote song and psytrance, traditional medicine and psychedelic therapy, magic, and psychonautics.
Entheogens have been used in a ritualized context for thousands of years; their religious significance is well established in anthropological and modern evidences. Examples of traditional entheogens include psychedelics like peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, and ayahuasca, psychedelic-dissociatives like Tabernanthe iboga, atypical psychedelics like Salvia divinorum, quasi-psychedelics like cannabis and Ipomoea tricolor, deliriants like Amanita muscaria. Traditionally a tea, admixture, or potion like ayahuasca or bhang have been compounded through the work of a shaman or apothecary.
With the advent of organic chemistry, there now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from these plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these respective organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine, ergine, and muscimol. Semi-synthetic (e.g., LSD used by the Neo-American Church) and synthetic drugs (e.g., DPT used by the Temple of the True Inner Light and 2C-B used by the Sangoma) have also been developed. Cannabis is the world's most widely used psychedelic drug and part of the cannabis culture, while medical cannabis has contributed to the development of modern drug paraphernalia like the vaporizer used by hospitals. However, Cannabis is always considered a quasi-psychedelic drug, even with cannabis strains that have been bred to intensify the psychedelic characteristics.
More broadly, the term entheogen is used to refer to any psychoactive drugs when used for their religious or spiritual effects, whether or not in a formal religious or traditional structure. This terminology is often chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs. Studies such as Timothy Leary's Marsh Chapel Experiment and Roland Griffiths' psilocybin studies at Johns Hopkins have documented reports of mystical/spiritual/religious experiences from participants who were administered psychoactive drugs in controlled trials. Ongoing research is limited due to widespread drug prohibition; however, some countries have legislation that allows for traditional entheogen use.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Entheogens
- 3 Controversial entheogens
- 4 Usage
- 5 Archaeological record
- 6 Classical mythology and cults
- 7 Research
- 8 Legal status of entheogens
- 9 Literature
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The neologism entheogen was coined in 1979 by a group of ethnobotanists and scholars of mythology (Carl A. P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Richard Evans Schultes, Jonathan Ott and R. Gordon Wasson). The term is derived from two words of ancient Greek, ἔνθεος (entheos) and γενέσθαι (genesthai). The adjective entheos translates to English as "full of the god, inspired, possessed", and is the root of the English word "enthusiasm." The Greeks used it as a term of praise for poets and other artists. Genesthai means "to come into being." Thus, an entheogen is a drug that causes one to become inspired or to experience feelings of inspiration, often in a religious or "spiritual" manner.
Entheogen was coined as a replacement for the terms hallucinogen and psychedelic. Hallucinogen was popularized by Aldous Huxley's experiences with mescaline, which were published as The Doors of Perception in 1954. Psychedelic, in contrast, is a Greek neologism for "mind manifest", and was coined by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond; Huxley was a volunteer in experiments Osmond was conducting on mescaline.
Ruck et al. argued that the term hallucinogen was inappropriate owing to its etymological relationship to words relating to delirium and insanity. The term psychedelic was also seen as problematic, owing to the similarity in sound to words pertaining to psychosis and also due to the fact that it had become irreversibly associated with various connotations of 1960s pop culture. In modern usage entheogen may be used synonymously with these terms, or it may be chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs. The meanings of the term entheogen were formally defined by Ruck et al.:
In a strict sense, only those vision-producing drugs that can be shown to have figured in shamanic or religious rites would be designated entheogens, but in a looser sense, the term could also be applied to other drugs, both natural and artificial, that induce alterations of consciousness similar to those documented for ritual ingestion of traditional entheogens.— Ruck et al, 1979, Journal of Psychedelic Drugs
In essence, all psychoactive drugs that are biosynthesized in nature by cytota (cellular life), can be used in an entheogenic context or with entheogenic intent. To exclude non-psychoactive drugs that sometimes also are used in spiritual context, the term "entheogen" refers primarily to drugs that have been categorized based on their historical use. Toxicity does not affect a drug's inclusion (some can kill humans), nor does effectiveness or potency (if a drug is psychoactive, and it has been used in a historical context, then the required dose has also been found).
High caffeine consumption has been linked to an increase in the likelihood of experiencing auditory hallucinations. A study conducted by the La Trobe University School of Psychological Sciences revealed that as few as five cups of coffee a day could trigger the phenomenon.
|Common name||Fauna||Psychoactive constituent(s)||Regions/Cultures of use|
|Colorado River toad||Bufo alvarius||5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin||Controversial interpretation of Mesoamerican art.|
|Bullet ant||Paraponera clavata||Poneratoxin||Used by the Satere-Mawe people in their initiation rites 20 times.|
|Hallucinogenic fish||Primary Siganus spp.||Unknown|
|Common name||Flora||Psychoactive constituent(s)||Regions/Cultures of use|
|African dream root||Silene capensis||Possibly triterpenoid saponins||Xhosa people of South Africa.|
|Ayahuasca||Banisteriopsis caapi||Harmala alkaloids||South America; people of the Amazon Rainforest. UDV of Brazil and United States. Use within ayahuasca.|
|Blue lily||Nymphaea caerulea||Nuciferine and aporphine||Possibly ancient Egypt and South America.|
|Angel's trumpet||Brugmansia spp.||Tropane alkaloids||South America, sometimes used as part of ayahuasca.|
|Bolivian torch cactus||Echinopsis lageniformis syn. Trichocereus bridgesii||Mescaline||South America|
|Cannabis||Cannabis spp.||THC and other cannabinoids||Rastafari movements and other groups (see entheogenic use of cannabis)|
|Chaliponga||Diplopterys cabrerana||DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin||Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as part of ayahuasca.|
|Harmal (espand)||Peganum harmala||Harmala alkaloids||Iran and the Middle East.|
|Hawaiian baby woodrose||Argyreia nervosa||Ergoline alkaloids||Psychoactive, but may not have been used as an entheogen. Native to India. Traditional usage possible but mainly undocumented.|
|Henbane||Hyoscyamus niger||Tropane alkaloids||Ancient Greece and witches of the Middle Ages.|
|Peruvian torch cactus||Echinopsis peruviana syn. Trichocereus peruvianus||Mescaline||Pre-Incan Chavín rituals in Peru.|
|Iboga||Tabernanthe iboga||Ibogaine||Bwiti religion of West Central Africa. Used by Western nations to treat opioid addiction.|
|Morning glory||Ipomoea tricolor||Ergoline alkaloids||Aztecs|
|Morning glory||Ipomoea violacea||Ergoline alkaloids||Mazatec|
|Jimson weed||Datura stramonium||Tropane alkaloids||Native Americans: Algonquian and Luiseño. Sadhus of India. Táltos of the Magyar (Hungary).|
|Jurema||Mimosa tenuiflora syn. M. hostilis||DMT and harmala alkaloids-ott claims to have taken bark alone and is active||Northeastern Brazil|
|Peyote||Lophophora williamsii||Mescaline||Native American Church, Oshara Tradition|
|Chacruna||Psychotria viridis||DMT||UDV of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and the Brazilian church. Santo Daime have used it as part of ayahuasca.|
|Ska María Pastora||Salvia divinorum||Salvinorin A||Mazatec|
|San Pedro cactus||Echinopsis pachanoi syn. Trichocereus pachanoi||Mescaline||South America|
|Christmas vine||Turbina corymbosa syn. Rivea corymbosa||Ergoline alkaloids||Mazatec|
|Virola||Virola spp.||DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin||South America|
|Vilca||Anadenanthera colubrina||DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin||South America|
|Yopo||Anadenanthera peregrina||DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin||South America|
|Common name||Fungi||Psychoactive constituent(s)||Regions/Cultures of use|
|Fly agaric||Amanita muscaria||Ibotenic acid and muscimol||Siberian shamans. Scandinavia. Possibly the Soma drink of India.|
|Magic mushrooms||primarily Psilocybe spp.||Psilocybin and psilocin; baeocystin and norbaeocystin (some species)||Mazatec|
Many man-made chemicals with little human history have been recognized to catalyze intense spiritual experiences, and many synthetic entheogens are simply slight modifications of their naturally occurring counterparts. Some synthetic entheogens like 4-AcO-DMT are theorized to be prodrugs that metabolize into the natural psychoactive, similar in nature to how the synthetic compound heroin is deacetylated by esterase to the active morphine. While synthesized DMT and mescaline is reported to have identical entheogenic qualities as extracted or plant based sources, the experience may wildly vary due to the lack of numerous psychoactive alkaloids that constitute the material. This is similar to how pure THC is very different than an extract that retains the many cannabinoids of the plant such as cannabidiol and cannabinol.
|Common name||Synthesis process||Full name|
|LSD||Semi-synthetic||Lysergic acid diethylamide|
|2C-B||Synthetic||2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine||2C-B is used by the Sangoma over their traditional plants. Although acting strongly as an empathogen-entactogen, 2C-B is notably psychedelic in a unique way. Although some users feel the 2C-x series are better suited for recreational purposes, 2C-B is consistently excluded as an exception and is an exceptional example for its class.|
|DPT||Synthetic||Dipropyltryptamine||DPT is used as a religious sacrament by the Temple of the True Inner Light who believes that DPT and other entheogens are physical manifestations of God.|
|MDMA||Synthetic||3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine||Small doses of MDMA are used as an entheogen to enhance prayer or meditation by some religious practitioners.|
|Psilocybin||Synthetic||4-Phosphoryloxy-N, N-Dimethyltryptamine||The Mazatec curandera María Sabina was celebrating a mushroom velada with pills of synthetic psilocybin named Indocybin synthesized by Albert Hofmann.|
|Yohimbine||Synthetic or extracted||-||
Yohimbine is an alkaloid naturally found in Pausinystalia yohimbe (Yohimbe), Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian Snakeroot), and Alchornea floribunda (Niando), along with several other active alkaloids. There are no references to these species in traditional use to induce past memories, most likely because their alkaloid content is too low; However, laboratory extracted yohimbine, now commonly sold as sport supplement, may be used in psychedelic therapy to facilitate recall of traumatic memories in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
- in proportion to other effects, changes in thought, perception, and mood should predominate;
- intellectual or memory impairment should be minimal;
- stupor, narcosis, or excessive stimulation should not be an integral effect;
- autonomic nervous system side effects should be minimal; and
- addictive craving should be absent.
Most NMDA-antagonist dissociative drugs including ketamine, PCP, and DXM are drugs known to easily cause clinical psychological dependence, but also strengthen narcissism, and induces chemical dependence, and NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), when used chronically. Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT) have been used for preparation for death (thanatological, death-rebirth psychotherapy) chemical treatment against alcoholism, pain therapy, and to increase intelligence. However, ibogaine, is considered a non-controversial entheogen that also have been used for these purposes but is anti addictive, both against psychological dependence and chemical dependence.
Common recreational drugs that cause chemical dependence have a history of entheogenic use. Perhaps because they could not access traditional entheogens as shamans were very secret with their sacraments who regarded non-visioning sacraments as hedonistic. The drugs mentioned here have occasionally been used by some shamans but they are psychoactive drugs that are not classified as hallucinogens (psychedelic, dissociative or deliriant). These drugs are not researched chemicals for psychedelic therapy as they have low therapeutic index.
|Common name||Source||Psychoactive constituent(s)||Regions/Cultures of use||Problematic use|
|Alcoholic beverages (e.g., wine)||Ethanol fermentation||Primarily ethyl alcohol||Used in rituals and worshipped by the Egyptians and the Greeks. Used (in the form of Communion wine) by Catholics and other Christian sects.||Physical dependence|
|Coca||Erythroxylum coca & Erythroxylum novogranatense spp.||Primarily cocaine||Coca has been a vital part of the religious cosmology of the Andean peoples of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, northern Argentina, and Chile from the pre-Inca period through the present. In addition, coca use in shamanic rituals is well documented wherever local native populations have cultivated the plant. For example, the Tayronas of Colombia's Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta use to chew the plant before engaging in extended meditation and prayer.||The alkaloid content of coca leaves is low, between 0.25% and 0.77%.
This means that chewing the leaves or drinking coca tea does not produce the intense high (euphoria, megalomania, depression) people experience with cocaine. However, even if it would produce such effect, the next problem would be cocaine dependence.
|Kava||Piper methysticum||Kavalactones||Kava cultures are the religious and cultural traditions of western Oceania which consume kava.||Anxiolytic|
|Khat||Catha edulis||For centuries, religious leaders have consumed the leaves to stay awake during long nights of prayer.||Khat can produce mild-to-moderate psychological dependence (less than tobacco or alcohol).|
|Mapacho (South America) and thuoc lao (thuốc lào) (Vietnam)||Nicotiana rustica||Comparatively high levels of MAOI beta-carbolines||A common admixture of Ayahuasca in some parts of the Amazon.||Uncured tobacco contains nicotine which is addictive|
|Opium poppy||Papaver somniferum||Morphine||The opium poppy was a magical ritual plant among the Germanic tribes.||Physical dependence|
Drugs, including some that cause physical dependence, have been used with entheogenic intention, mostly in ancient times.
Alcohol has sometimes been invested with religious significance.
The present day Arabic word for alcohol appears in The Qur'an (in verse 37:47) as الغول al-ġawl, properly meaning "spirit" or "demon", in the sense of "the thing that gives the wine its headiness." The term ethanol was invented 1838, modeled on German äthyl (Liebig), from Greek aither (see ether), and hyle "stuff". Ether in late 14c. meant "upper regions of space," from Old French ether and directly from Latin aether, "the upper pure, bright air," from Greek aither "upper air; bright, purer air; the sky," from aithein "to burn, shine," from PIE root *aidh- "to burn" (see edifice).
- Celtic polytheism
- Ancient Mesopotamian religion
- Dionysian Mysteries
In the ancient Greco-Roman religion, Dionysos (or Bacchus) was the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy, of merry making and theatre. The original rite of Dionysus is associated with a wine cult and he may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks. The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques (like dance and music) to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return to a natural state. In his Laws, Plato said that alcoholic drinking parties should be the basis of any educational system, because the alcohol allows relaxation of otherwise fixed views. The Symposium (literally, 'drinking together') was a dramatised account of a drinking party where the participants debated the nature of love.
In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, a cup of wine is offered to Demeter which she refuses, instead insisting upon a potion of barley, water, and glechon, known as the ceremonial drink Kykeon, an essential part of the Mysteries. The potion has been hypothesized to be an ergot derivative from barley, similar to LSD.
Egyptian pictographs clearly show wine as a finished product around 4000 BC. Osiris, the god who invented beer and brewing, was worshiped throughout the country. The ancient Egyptians made at least 24 types of wine and 17 types of beer. These beverages were used for pleasure, nutrition, rituals, medicine, and payments. They were also stored in the tombs of the deceased for use in the afterlife. The Osirian Mysteries paralleled the Dionysian, according to contemporary Greek and Egyptian observers. Spirit possession involved liberation from civilization's rules and constraints. It celebrated that which was outside civilized society and a return to the source of being, which would later assume mystical overtones. It also involved escape from the socialized personality and ego into an ecstatic, deified state or the primal herd (sometimes both).
Some scholars[who?] have postulated that pagan religions actively promoted alcohol and drunkenness as a means of fostering fertility. Alcohol was believed to increase sexual desire and make it easier to approach another person for sex. For example, Norse paganism considered alcohol to be the sap of Yggdrasil. Drunkenness was an important fertility rite in this religion.
Many Christian denominations use wine in the Eucharist or Communion and permit alcohol consumption in moderation. Other denominations use unfermented grape juice in Communion; they either voluntarily abstain from alcohol or prohibit it outright.
Judaism uses wine on Shabbat and some holidays for Kiddush as well as more extensively in the Passover ceremony and other religious ceremonies. The secular consumption of alcohol is allowed. Some Jewish texts, e.g., the Talmud, encourage moderate drinking on holidays (such as Purim) in order to make the occasion more joyous.
Kava cultures are the religious and cultural traditions of western Oceania which consume kava. There are similarities in the use of kava between the different cultures, but each one also has its own traditions.
Use and abuse
There are also instances where people have been given entheogens without their knowledge or consent (e.g., tourists in Ayahuasca), as well as attempts to use such drugs in other contexts, such as cursing, psychochemical weaponry, psychological torture, brainwashing and mind control; CIA experiments with LSD were used in Project MKUltra, and controversial entheogens like alcohol are often mentioned in context of bread and circuses.
Entheogens have been used in various ways, e.g., as part of established religious rituals, as aids for personal spiritual development ("plant teachers"), as recreational drugs, and for medical and therapeutic use. The use of entheogens in human cultures is nearly ubiquitous throughout recorded history.
Naturally occurring entheogens such as psilocybin and DMT (in the preparation ayahuasca), were, for the most part, discovered and used by older cultures, as part of their spiritual and religious life, as plants and agents that were respected, or in some cases revered for generations and may be a tradition that predates all modern religions as a sort of proto-religious rite.
One of the most widely used entheogens is cannabis, entheogenic use of cannabis has been used in regions such as China, Europe, and India, and, in some cases, for thousands of years. It has also appeared as a part of religions and cultures such as the Rastafari movement, the Sadhus of Hinduism, the Scythians, Sufi Islam, and others.
The best-known entheogen-using culture of Africa is the Bwitists, who used a preparation of the root bark of Tabernanthe iboga. Although the ancient Egyptians may have been using the sacred blue lily plant in some of their religious rituals or just symbolically, it has been suggested that Egyptian religion once revolved around the ritualistic ingestion of the far more psychoactive Psilocybe cubensis mushroom, and that the Egyptian White Crown, Triple Crown, and Atef Crown were evidently designed to represent pin-stages of this mushroom. There is also evidence for the use of psilocybin mushrooms in Ivory Coast. Numerous other plants used in shamanic ritual in Africa, such as Silene capensis sacred to the Xhosa, are yet to be investigated by western science. A recent revitalization has occurred in the study of southern African psychoactives and entheogens (Mitchell and Hudson 2004; Sobiecki 2002, 2008, 2012).
Entheogens have played a pivotal role in the spiritual practices of most American cultures for millennia. The first American entheogen to be subject to scientific analysis was the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii). For his part, one of the founders of modern ethno-botany, the late-Richard Evans Schultes of Harvard University documented the ritual use of peyote cactus among the Kiowa, who live in what became Oklahoma. While it was used traditionally by many cultures of what is now Mexico, in the 19th century its use spread throughout North America, replacing the deadly toxic mescal bean (Calia secundiflora) who are questioned to be an entheogen at all. Other well-known entheogens used by Mexican cultures include the alcoholic Aztec sacrament, pulque, ritual tobacco (known as 'picietl' to the Aztecs, and 'sikar' to the Maya (from where the word 'cigar' derives), psilocybin mushrooms, morning glories (Ipomoea tricolor and Turbina corymbosa), and Salvia divinorum.
Indigenous peoples of South America employ a wide variety of entheogens. Better-known examples include ayahuasca (most commonly Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) among indigenous peoples (such as the Urarina) of Peruvian Amazonia. Other entheogens include San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi, syn. Trichocereus pachanoi), Peruvian torch cactus (Echinopsis peruviana, syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), and various DMT-snuffs, such as epená (Virola spp.), vilca and yopo (Anadenanthera colubrina and A. peregrina, respectively). The familiar tobacco plant, when used uncured in large doses in shamanic contexts, also serves as an entheogen in South America. Also, a tobacco that contains higher nicotine content, and therefore smaller doses required, called Nicotiana rustica was commonly used.
Datura wrightii is sacred to some native Americans and has been used in ceremonies and rites of passage by Chumash, Tongva, and others. Among the Chumash, when a boy was 8 years old, his mother would give him a preparation of momoy to drink. This supposed spiritual challenge should help the boy develop the spiritual wellbeing that is required to become a man. Not all of the boys undergoing this ritual survived. Momoy was also used to enhance spiritual wellbeing among adults . For instance, during a frightening situation, such as when seeing a coyote walk like a man, a leaf of momoy was sucked to help keep the soul in the body.
In Hinduism, Datura stramonium and cannabis have been used in religious ceremonies, although the religious use of datura is not very common, as the primary alkaloids are strong deliriants, which causes serious intoxication with unpredictable effects.
Also, the ancient drink Soma, mentioned often in the Vedas, appears to be consistent with the effects of an entheogen. In his 1967 book, Wasson argues that Soma was Amanita muscaria. The active ingredient of Soma is presumed by some to be ephedrine, an alkaloid with stimulant and (somewhat debatable)[by whom?] entheogenic properties derived from the soma plant, identified as Ephedra pachyclada. However, there are also arguments to suggest that Soma could have also been Syrian rue, cannabis, Atropa belladonna, or some combination of any of the above plants.
Fermented honey, known in Northern Europe as mead, was an early entheogen in Aegean civilization, predating the introduction of wine, which was the more familiar entheogen of the reborn Dionysus and the maenads. Its religious uses in the Aegean world are bound up with the mythology of the bee.
Dacians were known to use cannabis in their religious and important life ceremonies, proven by discoveries of large clay pots with burnt cannabis seeds in ancient tombs and religious shrines. Also, local oral folklore and myths tell of ancient priests that dreamed with gods and walked in the smoke. Their names, as transmitted by Herodotus, were "kap-no-batai" which in Dacian was supposed to mean "the ones that walk in the clouds".
The growth of Roman Christianity also saw the end of the two-thousand-year-old tradition of the Eleusinian Mysteries, the initiation ceremony for the cult of Demeter and Persephone involving the use of a drug known as kykeon. The term 'ambrosia' is used in Greek mythology in a way that is remarkably similar to the Soma of the Hindus as well.
A theory that natural occurring gases like ethylene used by inhalation may have played a role in divinatory ceremonies at Delphi in Classical Greece received popular press attention in the early 2000s, yet has not been conclusively proven.
Mushroom consumption is part of the culture of Europeans in general, with particular importance to Slavic and Baltic peoples. Some academics consider that using psilocybin- and or muscimol-containing mushrooms was an integral part of the ancient culture of the Rus' people.
It has been suggested that the ritual use of small amounts of Syrian rue is an artifact of its ancient use in higher doses as an entheogen (possibly in conjunction with DMT containing acacia).
Philologist John Marco Allegro has argued in his book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross that early Jewish and Christian cultic practice was based on the use of Amanita muscaria, which was later forgotten by its adherents. Allegro's hypothesis is that Amanita use was sacred knowledge kept only by high figures to hide the true beginnings of the Christian cult, seems supported by his own view that the Plaincourault Chapel shows evidence of Christian amanita use in the 13th century.
In general, indigenous Australians are thought not to have used entheogens, although there is a strong barrier of secrecy surrounding Aboriginal shamanism, which has likely limited what has been told to outsiders. A plant that the Australian Aboriginals used to ingest is called Pitcheri, which is said to have a similar effect to that of coca. Pitcheri was made from the bark of the shrub Duboisia myoporoides. This plant is now grown commercially and is processed to manufacture an eye medication. There are no known uses of entheogens by the Māori of New Zealand aside from a variant species of Kava. Natives of Papua New Guinea are known to use several species of entheogenic mushrooms (Psilocybe spp, Boletus manicus).
Kava or kava kava (Piper Methysticum) has been cultivated for at least 3000 years by a number of Pacific island-dwelling peoples. Historically, most Polynesian, many Melanesian, and some Micronesian cultures have ingested the psychoactive pulverized root, typically taking it mixed with water. Much traditional usage of kava, though somewhat suppressed by Christian missionaries in the 19th and 20th centuries, is thought to facilitate contact with the spirits of the dead, especially relatives and ancestors.
Some religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic beverages. These include Islam, Jainism, the Bahá'í Faith, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of Christ, Scientist, the United Pentecostal Church International, Theravada, most Mahayana schools of Buddhism, some Protestant denominations of Christianity, some sects of Taoism (Five Precepts and Ten Precepts), and Hinduism.
The Pali Canon, the scripture of Theravada Buddhism, depicts refraining from alcohol as essential to moral conduct because intoxication causes a loss of mindfulness. The fifth of the Five Precepts states, "Surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi." In English: "I undertake to refrain from fermented drink that causes heedlessness." Technically, this prohibition does not include other mind-altering drugs. The canon does not suggest that alcohol is evil but believes that the carelessness produced by intoxication creates bad karma. Therefore, any drug (beyond tea or mild coffee) that affects one's mindfulness be considered by some to be covered by this prohibition.
Judaism and Christianity
The primary advocate of a religious use of cannabis plant in early Judaism was Sula Benet, also called Sara Benetowa, a Polish anthropologist, who claimed in 1967 that the plant kaneh bosm קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible, and used in the holy anointing oil of the Book of Exodus, was in fact cannabis. The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church confirmed it as a possible valid interpretation. The lexicons of Hebrew and dictionaries of plants of the Bible such as by Michael Zohary (1985), Hans Arne Jensen (2004) and James A. Duke (2010) and others identify the plant in question as either Acorus calamus or Cymbopogon citratus. Kaneh-bosm is listed as an incense in the Old Testament. It is generally held by academics specializing in the archaeology and paleobotany of Ancient Israel, and those specializing in the lexicography of the Hebrew Bible that cannabis is not documented or mentioned in early Judaism. Against this some popular writers have argued that there is evidence for religious use of cannabis in the Hebrew Bible, although this hypothesis and some of the specific case studies (e.g., John Allegro in relation to Qumran, 1970) have been "widely dismissed as erroneous, others continue".
According to The Living Torah, cannabis may have been one of the ingredients of the holy anointing oil mentioned in various sacred Hebrew texts. The herb of interest is most commonly known as kaneh-bosm (Hebrew: קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם). This is mentioned several times in the Old Testament as a bartering material, incense, and an ingredient in holy anointing oil used by the high priest of the temple. Although Chris Bennett's research in this area focuses on cannabis, he mentions evidence suggesting use of additional visionary plants such as henbane, as well.
The Septuagint translates kaneh-bosm as calamus, and this translation has been propagated unchanged to most later translations of the old testament. However, Polish anthropologist Sula Benet published etymological arguments that the Aramaic word for hemp can be read as kannabos and appears to be a cognate to the modern word 'cannabis', with the root kan meaning reed or hemp and bosm meaning fragrant. Both cannabis and calamus are fragrant, reedlike plants containing psychotropic compounds.
In his research, Professor Dan Merkur points to significant evidence of an awareness within the Jewish mystical tradition recognizing manna as an entheogen, thereby substantiating with rabbinic texts theories advanced by the superficial biblical interpretations of Terence McKenna, R. Gordon Wasson and other ethnomycologists.
Although philologist John Marco Allegro has suggested that the self-revelation and healing abilities attributed to the figure of Jesus may have been associated with the effects of the plant medicines, this evidence is dependent on pre-Septuagint interpretation of Torah and Tenach. Allegro was the only non-Catholic appointed to the position of translating the Dead Sea scrolls. His extrapolations are often the object of scorn due to Allegro's non-mainstream theory of Jesus as a mythological personification of the essence of a "psychoactive sacrament". Furthermore, they conflict with the position of the Catholic Church with regard to transubstantiation and the teaching involving valid matter, form, and drug — that of bread and wine (bread does not contain psychoactive drugs, but wine contains ethanol). Allegro's book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross relates the development of language to the development of myths, religions, and cultic practices in world cultures. Allegro believed he could prove, through etymology, that the roots of Christianity, as of many other religions, lay in fertility cults, and that cult practices, such as ingesting visionary plants (or "psychedelics") to perceive the mind of God, persisted into the early Christian era, and to some unspecified extent into the 13th century with reoccurrences in the 18th century and mid-20th century, as he interprets the Plaincourault chapel's fresco to be an accurate depiction of the ritual ingestion of Amanita muscaria as the Eucharist.
The historical picture portrayed by the Entheos journal is of fairly widespread use of visionary plants in early Christianity and the surrounding culture, with a gradual reduction of use of entheogens in Christianity. R. Gordon Wasson's book Soma prints a letter from art historian Erwin Panofsky asserting that art scholars are aware of many "mushroom trees" in Christian art.
The question of the extent of visionary plant use throughout the history of Christian practice has barely been considered yet by academic or independent scholars. The question of whether visionary plants were used in pre-Theodosius Christianity is distinct from evidence that indicates the extent to which visionary plants were utilized or forgotten in later Christianity, including so-called "heretical" or "quasi-" Christian groups, and the question of other groups such as elites or laity within "orthodox" Catholic practice.
Daniel Merkur at the University of Toronto contends that a minority of Christian hermits and mystics could possibly have used entheogens, in conjunction with fasting, meditation, and prayer.
According to R.C. Parker, "The use of entheogens in the Vajrayana tradition has been documented by such scholars as Ronald M Davidson, William George Stablein, Bulcsu Siklos, David B. Gray, Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, Shashibhusan Das Gupta, Francesca Fremantle, Shinichi Tsuda, David Gordon White, Rene de Nebesky-Wojkowitz, James Francis Hartzell, Edward Todd Fenner, Ian Baker, Dr. Pasang Yonten Arya and numerous others." These scholars have established entheogens were used in Vajrayana (in a limited context) as well as in Tantric Saivite traditions. The major entheogens in the Vajrayana Anuttarayoga Tantra tradition are Cannabis and Datura which were used in various pills, ointments, and elixirs. Several tantras within Vajrayana specifically mention these entheogens and their use, including the Laghusamvara-tantra (aka Cakrasaṃvara Tantra), Samputa-tantra, Samvarodaya-tantra, Mahakala-tantra, Guhyasamaja-tantra, Vajramahabhairava-tantra, and the Krsnayamari-tantra. In the Cakrasaṃvara Tantra, the use of entheogens is coupled with mediation practices such as the use of a mandala of the Heruka meditation deity (yidam) and visualization practices which identify the yidam's external body and mandala with one's own body and 'internal mandala'.
In the West, some modern Buddhist teachers have written on the usefulness of psychedelics. The Buddhist magazine Tricycle devoted their entire fall 1996 edition to this issue. Some teachers such as Jack Kornfield have acknowledged the possibility that psychedelics could complement Buddhist practice, bring healing and help people understand their connection with everything which could lead to compassion. Kornfield warns however that addiction can still be a hindrance. Other teachers such as Michelle McDonald-Smith expressed views which saw entheogens as not conductive to Buddhist practice ("I don't see them developing anything").
R. Gordon Wasson and Giorgio Samorini have proposed several examples of the cultural use of entheogens that are found in the archaeological record. Evidence for the first use of entheogens may come from Tassili, Algeria, with a cave painting of a mushroom-man, dating to 8000 BP. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.
Classical mythology and cults
Although entheogens are taboo and most of them are officially prohibited in Christian and Islamic societies, their ubiquity and prominence in the spiritual traditions of various other cultures is unquestioned. "The spirit, for example, need not be chemical, as is the case with the ivy and the olive: and yet the god was felt to be within them; nor need its possession be considered something detrimental, like drugged, hallucinatory, or delusionary: but possibly instead an invitation to knowledge or whatever good the god's spirit had to offer."
Most of the well-known modern examples, such as peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, and morning glories are from the native cultures of the Americas. However, it has also been suggested that entheogens played an important role in ancient Indo-European culture, for example by inclusion in the ritual preparations of the Soma, the "pressed juice" that is the subject of Book 9 of the Rig Veda. Soma was ritually prepared and drunk by priests and initiates and elicited a paean in the Rig Veda that embodies the nature of an entheogen:
Splendid by Law! declaring Law, truth speaking, truthful in thy works, Enouncing faith, King Soma!... O [Soma] Pavāmana (mind clarifying), place me in that deathless, undecaying world wherein the light of heaven is set, and everlasting lustre shines.... Make me immortal in that realm where happiness and transports, where joy and felicities combine...
The kykeon that preceded initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries is another entheogen, which was investigated (before the word was coined) by Carl Kerényi, in Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Other entheogens in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean include the opium poppy, datura, and the unidentified "lotus" (likely the sacred blue lily) eaten by the Lotus-Eaters in the Odyssey and Narcissus.
According to Ruck, Eyan, and Staples, the familiar shamanic entheogen that the Indo-Europeans brought knowledge of was Amanita muscaria. It could not be cultivated; thus it had to be found, which suited it to a nomadic lifestyle. When they reached the world of the Caucasus and the Aegean, the Indo-Europeans encountered wine, the entheogen of Dionysus, who brought it with him from his birthplace in the mythical Nysa, when he returned to claim his Olympian birthright. The Indo-European proto-Greeks "recognized it as the entheogen of Zeus, and their own traditions of shamanism, the Amanita and the 'pressed juice' of Soma — but better, since no longer unpredictable and wild, the way it was found among the Hyperboreans: as befit their own assimilation of agrarian modes of life, the entheogen was now cultivable." Robert Graves, in his foreword to The Greek Myths, hypothesises that the ambrosia of various pre-Hellenic tribes was Amanita muscaria (which, based on the morphological similarity of the words amanita, amrita and ambrosia, is entirely plausible) and perhaps psilocybin mushrooms of the Panaeolus genus.
Amanita was divine food, according to Ruck and Staples, not something to be indulged in or sampled lightly, not something to be profaned. It was the food of the gods, their ambrosia, and it mediated between the two realms. It is said that Tantalus's crime was inviting commoners to share his ambrosia.
The entheogen is believed to offer godlike powers in many traditional tales, including immortality. The failure of Gilgamesh in retrieving the plant of immortality from beneath the waters teaches that the blissful state cannot be taken by force or guile: When Gilgamesh lay on the bank, exhausted from his heroic effort, the serpent came and ate the plant.
Another attempt at subverting the natural order is told in a (according to some) strangely metamorphosed myth, in which natural roles have been reversed to suit the Hellenic world-view. The Alexandrian Apollodorus relates how Gaia (spelled "Ge" in the following passage), Mother Earth herself, has supported the Titans in their battle with the Olympian intruders. The Giants have been defeated:
When Ge learned of this, she sought a drug that would prevent their destruction even by mortal hands. But Zeus barred the appearance of Eos (the Dawn), Selene (the Moon), and Helios (the Sun), and chopped up the drug himself before Ge could find it.
The legends of the Assassins had much to do with the training and instruction of Nizari fida'is, famed for their public missions during which they often gave their lives to eliminate adversaries.
The tales of the fida’is’ training collected from anti-Ismaili historians and orientalists writers were confounded and compiled in Marco Polo’s account, in which he described a "secret garden of paradise". After being drugged, the Ismaili devotees were said be taken to a paradise-like garden filled with attractive young maidens and beautiful plants in which these fida’is would awaken. Here, they were told by an "old" man that they were witnessing their place in Paradise and that should they wish to return to this garden permanently, they must serve the Nizari cause. So went the tale of the "Old Man in the Mountain", assembled by Marco Polo and accepted by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1774–1856), a prominent orientalist writer responsible for much of the spread of this legend. Until the 1930s, von Hammer’s retelling of the Assassin legends served as the standard account of the Nizaris across Europe.
Notable early testing of the entheogenic experience includes the Marsh Chapel Experiment, conducted by physician and theology doctoral candidate, Walter Pahnke, under the supervision of Timothy Leary and the Harvard Psilocybin Project. In this double-blind experiment, volunteer graduate school divinity students from the Boston area almost all claimed to have had profound religious experiences subsequent to the ingestion of pure psilocybin. In 2006, a more rigorously controlled experiment was conducted at Johns Hopkins University, and yielded similar results. To date there is little peer-reviewed research on this subject, due to ongoing drug prohibition and the difficulty of getting approval from institutional review boards.
Legal status of entheogens
Between 2011 and 2012, the Australian Federal Government was considering changes to the Australian Criminal Code that would classify any plants containing any amount of DMT as "controlled plants". DMT itself was already controlled under current laws. The proposed changes included other similar blanket bans for other substances, such as a ban on any and all plants containing Mescaline or Ephedrine. The proposal was not pursued after political embarrassment on realisation that this would make the official Floral Emblem of Australia, Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), illegal. The Therapeutic Goods Administration and federal authority had considered a motion to ban the same, but this was withdrawn in May 2012 (as DMT may still hold potential entheogenic value to native and/or religious peoples).
In 1963 in Sherbert v. Verner the Supreme Court established the Sherbert Test, which consists of four criteria that are used to determine if an individual's right to religious free exercise has been violated by the government. The test is as follows:
For the individual, the court must determine
- whether the person has a claim involving a sincere religious belief, and
- whether the government action is a substantial burden on the person’s ability to act on that belief.
If these two elements are established, then the government must prove
- that it is acting in furtherance of a "compelling state interest," and
- that it has pursued that interest in the manner least restrictive, or least burdensome, to religion.
In City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997) and Gonzales v. O Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal, 546 U.S. 418 (2006), the RFRA was held to trespass on state sovereignty, and application of the RFRA was essentially limited to federal law enforcement.
Many works of literature have described entheogen use; some of those are:
- The drug melange (spice) in Frank Herbert's Dune universe acts as both an entheogen (in large enough quantities) and an addictive geriatric medicine. Control of the supply of melange was crucial to the Empire, as it was necessary for, among other things, faster-than-light (folding space) navigation.
- Consumption of the imaginary mushroom anochi [enoki] as the entheogen underlying the creation of Christianity is the premise of Philip K. Dick's last novel, The Transmigration of Timothy Archer, a theme that seems to be inspired by John Allegro's book.
- Aldous Huxley's final novel, Island (1962), depicted a fictional psychoactive mushroom — termed "moksha medicine" — used by the people of Pala in rites of passage, such as the transition to adulthood and at the end of life.
- Bruce Sterling's Holy Fire novel refers to the religion in the future as a result of entheogens, used freely by the population.
- In Stephen King's The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, Book 1 of The Dark Tower series, the main character receives guidance after taking mescaline.
- The Alastair Reynolds novel Absolution Gap features a moon under the control of a religious government that uses neurological viruses to induce religious faith.
- A critical examination of the ethical and societal implications and relevance of "entheogenic" experiences can be found in Daniel Waterman and Casey William Hardison's book Entheogens, Society & Law: Towards a Politics of Consciousness, Autonomy and Responsibility (Melrose, Oxford 2013). This book includes a controversial analysis of the term entheogen arguing that Wasson et al. were mystifying the effects of the plants and traditions it refers to.
- The book Orange Sunshine and the Psychedelic Sunrise covers the continuum of life to death experiences from a personal and existential perspective, with an emphasis on spiritual transcendence: a psychedelic experience.
- Rudgley, Richard. "The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances". www.mescaline.com. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- "Entheogen". dictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-03-13.
- "Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology - Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology". scielo.br. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- Chen Cho Dorge (2010-05-20). "2CB chosen over traditional entheogens by South African healers". Evolver.net.
- Godlaski, Theodore M (2011). "The God within". Substance Use and Misuse. 46 (10): 1217–1222. PMID 21692597. doi:10.3109/10826084.2011.561722.
- Carl A. P. Ruck; Jeremy Bigwood; Danny Staples; Jonathan Ott; R. Gordon Wasson (January–June 1979). "Entheogens". Journal of Psychedelic Drugs. 11 (1–2): 145–146. PMID 522165. doi:10.1080/02791072.1979.10472098.
- "Too much coffee can make you hear things that are not there". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- Heinrich, C (1995). Strange Fruit: Alchemy and Religion- The Hidden Truth. London : Bloomsbury. Referenced throughout ISBN 978-0-7475-1548-7
- Oroc, James (May 21, 2009). Tryptamine Palace: 5-MeO-DMT and the Sonoran Desert Toad. Park Street Press. p. 295. ISBN 1594772991.
- "Temple of the true inner light". psychede.tripod.com. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- MDMA and Religion. CSP. Retrieved on 11 June 2011.
- "Ethnopharmacognosy and Human Pharmacology of Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A". Sagewisdom.org. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- van der Kolk, Bessel A. (1995). "The Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder". In Hobfoll, Stevan E.; De Vries, Marten W. Extreme stress and communities: impact and intervention. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 421–44. ISBN 978-0-7923-3468-2.
- Glennon RA. Classical drugs: an introductory overview. In Lin GC and Glennon RA (eds). Hallucinogens: an update. National Institute on Drug Abuse: Rockville, MD, 1994.
- Museo del Oro, Banco de la Republica. "Museo del Oro, Colombia" (in español). Banrep.gov.co. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- Plowman, T; Rivier L (1983). "Cocaine and Cinnamoylcocaine content of thirty-one species of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae)". Annals of Botany. London. 51: 641–659.
- Nutt, D.; King, L.A.; Saulsbury, C.; Blakemore, Colin (March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. PMID 17382831. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, by R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann, and Carl A. P. Ruck.
- "Why I Do Psychedelics". www.jonathontwiz.com. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- Hearn, Kelly. "The Dark Side of Ayahuasca". Men's Journal. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- Tupper, K.W. (2003). "Entheogens & education: Exploring the potential of psychoactives as educational tools" (PDF). Journal of Drug Education and Awareness. 1 (2): 145–161. ISSN 1546-6965.
- Tupper, K.W. (2002). "Entheogens and existential intelligence: The use of plant teachers as cognitive tools" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Education. 27 (4): 499–516. doi:10.2307/1602247.
- Bwiti: An Ethnography of the Religious Imagination in Africa by James W. Fernandez, Princeton University Press, 1982
- S.R. Berlant (2005). "The entheomycological origin of Egyptian crowns and the esoteric underpinnings of Egyptian religion" (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 102 (2005): 275–88. PMID 16199133. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.028. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-22.
- Samorini, Giorgio (1995). "Traditional Use of Psychoactive Mushrooms in Ivory Coast?". Eleusis. 1: 22–27. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- "Ethnobotanical Research". ethnobotany.co.za. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- Cecilia Garcia, James D. Adams (2005). Healing with medicinal plants of the west - cultural and scientific basis for their use. Abedus Press. ISBN 0-9763091-0-6.
- "History : Oracle at Delphi May Have Been Inhaling Ethylene Gas Fumes". Ethylene Vault. Erowid.org. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- "Drugs in ancient Russia - Research".
- Allegro, John Marco (1970). The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-12875-5.
- "Macropiper Excelsum - Maori Kava". Entheology.org. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- "Benjamin Thomas Ethnobotany & Anthropology Research Page". Shaman-australis.com. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- Singh, edited by Yadhu N. (2004). Kava from ethnology to pharmacology. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 1420023373.
- The Chemical Muse: Drug Use and the Roots of Western Civilization by D. C.A. Hillman Ph.D.
- Rowan Robinson, The Great Book of Hemp, Health & Fitness, 1995, pg. 89
- "Marijuana and the Bible= Erowid.org". 2002-03-01.
- Lytton J. Musselman Figs, dates, laurel, and myrrh: plants of the Bible and the Quran 2007 pg. 73
- Dan Merkur The Mystery of Manna: The Psychedelic Sacrament of the Bible (2001); James D. Dure, Manna Magic Mushroom of Moses : Manna Botanical I.D. of a Biblical Sacrament (self published, 2000)
- Merlin, M. D. "COVER ARTICLE: Archaeological Evidence for the Tradition of Psychoactive Plant Use in the Old World". Economic Botany. 57 (3): 295–323. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0295:AEFTTO]2.0.CO;2.
- Kaplan, Aryeh. (1981). The Living Torah New York. p. 442.
- Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible, by Chris Bennett and Neil McQueen, 2001, Forbidden Fruit Publishing.
- "kanehbosm". Njweedman.com. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- Conjuring Eden: Art and the Entheogenic Vision of Paradise, by Mark Hoffman, Carl Ruck, and Blaise Staples. Entheos: The Journal of Psychedelic Spirituality, Issue No. 1, Summer, 2001
- Wasson and Allegro on the Tree of Knowledge as Amanita, Michael S. Hoffman, Journal of Higher Criticism, 2007
- Daturas for the Virgin, José Celdrán and Carl Ruck, Entheos: The Journal of Psychedelic Spirituality, Vol. I, Issue 2, Winter, 2002
- The Hidden World: Survival of Pagan Shamanic Themes in European Fairytales, by Carl Ruck, Blaise Staples, Jose Alfredo Celdran, Mark Hoffman, Carolina Academic Press, 2007
- Parker, R.C. The Use of Entheogens in the Vajrayana Tradition: a brief summary of preliminary findings together with a partial bibliography.© 2007 (updated 2008), http://vajrayana.faithweb.com/rich_text_5.html
- Tsunehiko SUGIKI, BOOK REVIEW [David B. Gray, The Cakrasamvara Tantra (The Discourse of Śrī Heruka): A Study and Annotated Translation.]
- Tricycle: Buddhism & Psychedelics, Fall 1996
- Kornfield, Jack; “Bringing Home the Dharma: Awakening Right Where You Are“, excerpted at http://www.jackkornfield.com/psychedelics-antidepressants-spiritual-practice/
- Stolaroff; Myron J, Are psychedelics useful in the practice of Buddhism? Journal of Humanistic Psychology Vol. 39 No. 1 Winter 1999 Pp. 60-80
- Giorgio Samorini, "The ‘Mushroom-Tree’ of Plaincourault", Eleusis: Journal of Psychoactive Plants and Compounds, n. 8, 1997, pp. 29-37
- Giorgio Samorini, "The ‘Mushroom-Trees’ in Christian Art", Eleusis: Journal of Psychoactive Plants and Compounds, n. 1, 1998, pp. 87-108
- Staples, Danny; Carl A.P. Ruck (1994). The world of classical myth : gods and goddesses, heroines and heroes. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 0-89089-575-9.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca. Circa 2 A.D. pp. 34–39. Check date values in:
- Hodgson, Marshall G.S. (2005). The Secret Order of Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizârî Ismâʻîlîs Against the Islamic World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1916-6. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
- R. R. Griffiths; W. A. Richards; U. McCann; R. Jesse (2006-07-07). "Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance" (PDF). Psychopharmacology. 187 (3): 268–283. PMID 16826400. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5. Retrieved 2011-02-03.
- Nutt, David J.; King, Leslie A.; Nichols, David E. (2013). "Effects of Schedule I Drug Laws on Neuroscience Research and Treatment Innovation". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 14 (8): 577–85. PMID 23756634. doi:10.1038/nrn3530. Retrieved 2015-01-12.
- Tupper, Kenneth W.; Labate, Beatriz C. (2014). "Ayahuasca, Psychedelic Studies and Health Sciences: The Politics of Knowledge and Inquiry into an Amazonian Plant Brew". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 7 (2): 71–80. doi:10.2174/1874473708666150107155042. Retrieved 2015-01-12.
- "Consultation on implementation of model drug schedules for Commonwealth serious drug offences". Australian Government, Attorney-General’s Department. 24 June 2010.
- "AUSSIE DMT BAN". connection.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- Harner, Michael, The Way of the Shaman: A Guide to Power and Healing, Harper & Row Publishers, NY 1980
- Rätsch, Christian; "The Psychoactive Plants, Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications"; Park Street Press; Rochester Vermont; 1998/2005; ISBN 978-0-89281-978-2
- Roberts, Thomas B. (editor) (2001). Psychoactive Sacramentals: Essays on Entheogens and Religion San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices.
- Roberts, Thomas B. (2006) "Chemical Input, Religious Output—Entheogens" Chapter 10 in Where God and Science Meet: Vol. 3: The Psychology of Religious Experience Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.
- Roberts, Thomas, and Hruby, Paula J. (1995–2003). Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments: An Entheogen Chrestomathy http://www.csp.org/chrestomathy [Online archive]
- Tupper, Kenneth W. (2014). "Entheogenic Education: Psychedelics as Tools of Wonder and Awe" (PDF). MAPS Bulletin. 24 (1): 14–19.
- Tupper, Kenneth W. (2002). "Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of Plant Teachers as Cognitive Tools" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Education. 27 (4): 499–516. doi:10.2307/1602247.
- Tupper, Kenneth W. (2003). "Entheogens & Education: Exploring the Potential of Psychoactives as Educational Tools" (PDF). Journal of Drug Education and Awareness. 1 (2): 145–161.
- Stafford, Peter. (2003). Psychedelics. Ronin Publishing, Oakland, California. ISBN 0-914171-18-6.
- Carl Ruck and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth 1994. Introductory excerpts
- Huston Smith, Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants and Chemicals, 2000, Tarcher/Putnam, ISBN 1-58542-034-4
- Daniel Pinchbeck,"Ten Years of Therapy in One Night", The Guardian UK (2003), describes Daniel's second journey with Iboga facilitated by Dr. Martin Polanco at the Ibogaine Association clinic in Rosarito, Mexico.
- Giorgio Samorini 1995 "Traditional use of psychoactive mushrooms in Ivory Coast?" in Eleusis 1 22-27 (no current url)
- M. Bock 2000 "Māori kava (Macropiper excelsum)" in Eleusis - Journal of Psychoactive Plants & Compounds n.s. vol 4 (no current url)
- Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers by Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hofmann, Christian Ratsch - ISBN 0-89281-979-0
- John J. McGraw, Brain & Belief: An Exploration of the Human Soul, 2004, AEGIS PRESS, ISBN 0-9747645-0-7
- J.R. Hale, J.Z. de Boer, J.P. Chanton and H.A. Spiller (2003) Questioning the Delphic Oracle, 2003, Scientific American, vol 289, no 2, 67-73.
- The Sacred Plants of our Ancestors by Christian Rätsch, published in TYR: Myth—Culture—Tradition Vol. 2, 2003–2004 - ISBN 0-9720292-1-4
- Yadhu N. Singh, editor, Kava: From Ethnology to Pharmacology, 2004, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-32327-4