Ethnic flag

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An ethnic flag is a flag that symbolizes a certain ethnic group. Ethnic flags are often introduced to the ethnic community through the respective cultural or political ethnic movements. They are popular among ethnic minorities and some ethnic majorities, especially in multiethnic countries.

History

Like the concept of the national flag itself, that of an "ethnic flag" is modern, first arising in the late 19th century; strictly speaking, the national flags of nation states are themselves "ethnic flags", and often so used by ethnic minorities in neighbouring states, especially in the context of irredentism (e.g. the flag of the Republic of Albania used as an "ethnic Albanian flag" by Kosovar Albanians).

Ethnic flags are often used in irredentism, representing the "national flag" of a proposed or unrecognized state. The first such flags were designed at the end of the 19th century, such as the Basque flag (1894) or the "Flag of Zion" used to symbolize Zionism from 1898, which became the national flag of Israel 50 years later[citation needed].

Most early ethnic flags imply a connection with an unrecognized state claimed by the respective ethnicities, such as the flag of Kurdistan which originates as the flag of the Republic of Ararat (1927). A flag of the Hispanic People was designed in 1932.

Alternatively, an "ethnic flag" may represent a Pan-nationalism, such as the Pan-Arab flag which originates as the flag of the Arab Revolt during World War I, the proposed flag of Pan-Slavism (1848), Pan-Iranism or Pan-Turkism.

The concept of using ethnic flags to symbolize ethnic groups within a multiethnic state, not necessarily connected with irredentism, became popular in the later 20th century, such as the Australian Aboriginal flag (1971), the Assyrian flag (1971), the flag of the Romani people (1971), the Berber flag (1970s), the Sami flag (1986) or the Māori flag (1990). Designing ethnic or tribal flags has become very popular since the 1990s, especially for online use, and mostly do not have any kind of "official" status and must be judged based on de facto use.


Africa

Pan-African Flag Flag of all Africans whether outside of Africa or inside of Africa.
Pan-African Flag Flag of all Africans whether outside of Africa or inside of Africa.

North Africa

Berbers[1] (North Africa)
Berbers[1] (North Africa)
Copts (Egypt, Sudan, Libya) "The Coptic flag, created in 2005, is not officially recognised by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, but it is commonly accepted by Coptic community as a representative symbol of its identity".
Copts (Egypt, Sudan, Libya)
"The Coptic flag, created in 2005, is not officially recognised by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, but it is commonly accepted by Coptic community as a representative symbol of its identity".
Fur (Darfur)[citation needed]
Fur (Darfur)[citation needed]
Dinka or Jieng (Southern Sudan)[citation needed]
Dinka or Jieng (Southern Sudan)[citation needed]

Horn of Africa

Somalis[2] (Somalia, Ogaden, Northern Frontier District and Djibouti)
Somalis[2] (Somalia, Ogaden, Northern Frontier District and Djibouti)
Amhara[3] (Amhara Region)
Amhara[3] (Amhara Region)
Afar[4] (Afar Region)
Afar[4] (Afar Region)
Harari[5] (Harari Region)
Harari[5] (Harari Region)
Oromo[6] (Oromia Region, Northern Frontier District and Somalia)
Oromo[6] (Oromia Region, Northern Frontier District and Somalia)
Tigray[7] (Tigray Region)
Tigray[7] (Tigray Region)

East and Central Africa

BaKonjo and BaAmba[8] (Rwenzururu)
BaKonjo and BaAmba[8] (Rwenzururu)
Maasai (Kenya and Tanzania)[citation needed]
Maasai (Kenya and Tanzania)[citation needed]
Kongo (Republic of Congo and DRC)[citation needed]
Kongo (Republic of Congo and DRC)[citation needed]

West Africa

Bubis (Otcho or Bioko Island)[citation needed]
Bubis (Otcho or Bioko Island)[citation needed]
Adamawa (Bamileke National Movement) (Cameroon)[citation needed]
Adamawa (Bamileke National Movement) (Cameroon)[citation needed]
Ashanti[9] (Ashanti Region)
Ashanti[9] (Ashanti Region)
Ewe (Ghana, Togo and Benin)[citation needed]
Ewe (Ghana, Togo and Benin)[citation needed]
Ogoni (Rivers State)[citation needed]
Ogoni (Rivers State)[citation needed]
Igbo people[10] (Igboland)
Igbo people[10] (Igboland)
Hausa (Niger and Nigeria)[citation needed]
Hausa (Niger and Nigeria)[citation needed]
Yoruba (Nigeria, Togo and Benin)[citation needed]
Yoruba (Nigeria, Togo and Benin)[citation needed]

Southern Africa

Swazi (Swaziland, South Africa, and Mozambique)[citation needed]
Swazi (Swaziland, South Africa, and Mozambique)[citation needed]
Basotho (Lesotho and South Africa)[citation needed]
Basotho (Lesotho and South Africa)[citation needed]
Afrikaners/Boers[11] (South Africa)
Afrikaners/Boers[11] (South Africa)

Americas

North America

Anishinaabe people (Canada and United States).
Anishinaabe people (Canada and United States).
Danes of Greenland[citation needed]
Danes of Greenland[citation needed]
Inuit people of Nunavut (Nunavut, Canada)
Inuit people of Nunavut (Nunavut, Canada)
Inuit people of Greenland (Greenland)
Inuit people of Greenland (Greenland)
Haida (British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, United States)
Haida (British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, United States)
Mi'kmaq (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec, Canada and Maine, United States)
Mi'kmaq (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec, Canada and Maine, United States)
Natuaqanek (Eel Ground) First Nation of the Mi'kmaq (New Brunswick, Canada)
Natuaqanek (Eel Ground) First Nation of the Mi'kmaq (New Brunswick, Canada)
Quebecois, Canada
Quebecois, Canada
Iroquois (New York, United States)
Iroquois (New York, United States)
Crow Tribe (Montana, United States)
Crow Tribe (Montana, United States)
Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (Montana, United States)
Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (Montana, United States)
Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming, United States)
Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming, United States)
Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation (South Dakota, United States)
Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation (South Dakota, United States)
Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Iowa, United States)
Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Iowa, United States)
Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma (Oklahoma, United States)
Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma (Oklahoma, United States)
Cherokees (Oklahoma, United States)
Cherokees (Oklahoma, United States)
Cajun flag[12] (United States)
Cajun flag[12] (United States)
Vietnamese Americans (United States)
Vietnamese Americans (United States)
Mulattoes[13] (United States, Hispanic America and Brazil)
Mulattoes[13] (United States, Hispanic America and Brazil)
Flag of the Southern United States or Dixie, its use is highly controversial.[14]
Flag of the Southern United States or Dixie, its use is highly controversial.[14]
Flag of Hispanic America (Hispanic America and United States)
Flag of Hispanic America (Hispanic America and United States)
Cross of Burgundy flag used by Criollos
Cross of Burgundy flag used by Criollos
Flag of African-Americans[12] (United States)
Flag of African-Americans[12]
(United States)
Métis flag Blue or French variant, Metis people
Métis flag Blue or French variant, Metis people
Métis flag Red or English variant, Metis people
Métis flag Red or English variant, Metis people
Flag of Acadia, Acadians
Flag of Acadia, Acadians
Flag of the Purépecha people (Michoacán, Mexico)
Flag of the Purépecha people (Michoacán, Mexico)
Flag of the Mixe people (Oaxaca, Mexico)
Flag of the Mixe people (Oaxaca, Mexico)
Flag of the Otomi people (Mexico: Hidalgo (state), State of Mexico, Querétaro, Puebla (state), Veracruz, Guanajuato)
Flag of the Otomi people (Mexico: Hidalgo (state), State of Mexico, Querétaro, Puebla (state), Veracruz, Guanajuato)
Flag of the Yaqui (Sonora, Mexico)
Flag of the Yaqui (Sonora, Mexico)
Seminole Tribe (Florida, United States)
Seminole Tribe (Florida, United States)

Central America and Caribbean

Flag of Maya (Mexico, Guatemala)
Flag of Maya (Mexico, Guatemala)
Flag of the Jatibonicu Taíno Tribal Nation of Borikén (Puerto Rico)
Flag of the Jatibonicu Taíno Tribal Nation of Borikén (Puerto Rico)
Garifuna (Honduras, Belize, Guatemala)
Garifuna (Honduras, Belize, Guatemala)
Kuna (Panama, Colombia)
Kuna (Panama, Colombia)

South America

Indigenous peoples in Colombia[15]
Indigenous peoples in Colombia[15]
Quechua[16] (Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador)
Quechua[16] (Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador)
Aymara (Bolivia, Peru, Chile and Argentina)
Aymara (Bolivia, Peru, Chile and Argentina)
Mapuche[17] (Chile and Argentina)
Mapuche[17] (Chile and Argentina)
Flag of the Guarani people (Paraguay, eastern Bolivia)
Flag of the Guarani people (Paraguay, eastern Bolivia)

Asia

West Asia

[18]

Arabs (Arab world)[note 1]
Arabs (Arab world)[note 1]
Palestinians (Palestine)[citation needed]
Palestinians (Palestine)[citation needed]
Druze[note 2] (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan)
Druze[note 2] (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan)
Jews (Israel and countries of the diaspora)[citation needed]
Jews (Israel and countries of the diaspora)[citation needed]
Kurds (Kurdistan)
Kurds (Kurdistan)
Assyrians (Assyria)
Assyrians (Assyria)
Arameans (Aramea)
Arameans (Aramea)
Iraqi Turkmens[19]
Iraqi Turkmens[19]
Zazas[20] (Turkey)
Zazas[20] (Turkey)
Azerbaijanis of Southern Azarbaijan[21]
Azerbaijanis of Southern Azarbaijan[21]
Khuzestani Arabs[22] (Khuzestan)
Khuzestani Arabs[22] (Khuzestan)
A flag used by the Yazidi militia HPÊ
A flag used by the Yazidi militia HPÊ

South Asia

Pashtuns (Pashtunistan)[citation needed]
Pashtuns (Pashtunistan)[citation needed]
Sindhis[note 3] (Sindh and West India)[citation needed]
Sindhis[note 3] (Sindh and West India)[citation needed]
Burusho-Hunzakuts[23] (Hunza)
Burusho-Hunzakuts[23] (Hunza)
Kashmiris (Kashmir and Jammu)
Kashmiris (Kashmir and Jammu)
Ladakhis[24] (Ladakh)
Ladakhis[24] (Ladakh)
Muhajir people (Pakistan)
Muhajir people (Pakistan)
Chagossians or Îlois[25] (Chagos Islands and Mauritius)
Chagossians or Îlois[25] (Chagos Islands and Mauritius)
Assamese[citation needed]
Assamese[citation needed]
Bodos (Bodoland)[citation needed]
Bodos (Bodoland)[citation needed]
Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
Bnei Menashe (Manipur, Mizoram, Chin State, Southern Sagaing Division and Chittagong Division)[note 4]
Bnei Menashe (Manipur, Mizoram, Chin State, Southern Sagaing Division and Chittagong Division)[note 4]

East Asia

Uyghur people (Xinjiang, China)
Uyghur people (Xinjiang, China)
Li and Miao[26] (Hainan)
Li and Miao[26] (Hainan)
Ainu people[27] (Hokkaidō, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin)
Ryukyu (Okinawa prefecture, Japan)
Ryukyu (Okinawa prefecture, Japan)
Salars (Xunhua Salar Autonomous County, Qinghai, China)
Salars (Xunhua Salar Autonomous County, Qinghai, China)

North Asia

Tuvans[28] (Tuva)
Tuvans[28] (Tuva)
Buryats (Buryatia, Russia)
Buryats (Buryatia, Russia)
Yakuts or Sakha (Sakha Republic)[citation needed]
Yakuts or Sakha (Sakha Republic)[citation needed]

Southeast Asia

Akha[29] (China,[note 5] Burma, Laos and Northern Thailand)
Akha[29] (China,[note 5] Burma, Laos and Northern Thailand)
Khmer Krom[30] (Mekong Delta)
Khmer Krom[30] (Mekong Delta)
Karen people (Kayah State and Kayin State of Burma, western Thailand, Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
Karen people (Kayah State and Kayin State of Burma, western Thailand, Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
Acehnese people[31] (Aceh)
Acehnese people[31] (Aceh)
Minangkabau people (West Sumatra, the western part of Riau and Jambi, the western coast of Aceh and North Sumatra, the northern part of Bengkulu, and Negeri Sembilan)
Minangkabau people (West Sumatra, the western part of Riau and Jambi, the western coast of Aceh and North Sumatra, the northern part of Bengkulu, and Negeri Sembilan)

Melanesia

Kanak[32] (Kanaky) Torres Strait Islanders[33] (Torres Strait Islands, Australia)
Kanak[32] (Kanaky) Torres Strait Islanders[33] (Torres Strait Islands, Australia)

Australasia and Polynesia

Australian Aborigines (Australia)
Australian Aborigines (Australia)
Moriori of Chatham Islands[34]".
Moriori of Chatham Islands[34]".
Native Hawaiians or Kanaka Maoli[35] (Hawaii)
Native Hawaiians or Kanaka Maoli[35] (Hawaii)
Tahitians and some other Indigenous Peoples of French Polynesia
Tahitians and some other Indigenous Peoples of French Polynesia
Indigenous Peoples of Austral Islands
Indigenous Peoples of Austral Islands
Indigenous Peoples of Marquesas Islands
Indigenous Peoples of Marquesas Islands
Rapanui (Easter Island)
Rapanui (Easter Island)
Māori people
Māori people

Europe

Northern Europe

Faroese (Faroe Islands)
Faroese (Faroe Islands)
Orcadians (Orkney Islands)
Orcadians (Orkney Islands)
Shetlanders (Shetland)
Shetlanders (Shetland)
Scots (Scotland)
Scots (Scotland)
Irish (Island of Ireland)
Irish (Island of Ireland)
Welsh (Wales)
Welsh (Wales)
Cornish [36] (Cornwall)
Cornish [36] (Cornwall)
Manx (Isle of Man)
Manx (Isle of Man)
Bretons [36] (Brittany)
Bretons [36] (Brittany)
Normans[37] (Normandy)
Normans[37] (Normandy)
Walloons (Wallonia)
Walloons (Wallonia)
Flemish (Flanders)
Flemish (Flanders)
West Frisians (Friesland and Province of Groningen)
West Frisians (Friesland and Province of Groningen)
East Frisians (East Frisia)
East Frisians (East Frisia)
North Frisians (North Frisia)
North Frisians (North Frisia)
Inter-Frisian Flag of the Interfrisian Council
Inter-Frisian Flag of the Interfrisian Council
"The Inter-Frisian Flag
"The Inter-Frisian Flag
English (England)
English (England)
Germans of Northern Schleswig[citation needed]
Germans of Northern Schleswig[citation needed]
Danes of Southern Schleswig[citation needed]
Danes of Southern Schleswig[citation needed]
Finland-Swedes[38] (Åland Islands, Ostrobothnia, Uusimaa and Eastern Uusimaa)
Finland-Swedes[38] (Åland Islands, Ostrobothnia, Uusimaa and Eastern Uusimaa)
Sweden-Finns (Eastern Svealand)
Sweden-Finns (Eastern Svealand)
Sami people[36] (Sápmi)
Sami people[36] (Sápmi)
Tornedalians[39] (Meänmaa)
Tornedalians[39] (Meänmaa)
Karelians[40][41] (Republic of Karelia, Tver Oblast and Novgorod Oblast)
Karelians[40][41] (Republic of Karelia, Tver Oblast and Novgorod Oblast)
Veps[42] (Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast)
Veps[42] (Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast)
Ingrians[43][44] (Leningrad Oblast)
Ingrians[43][44] (Leningrad Oblast)
Izhorians (Leningrad Oblast)
Izhorians (Leningrad Oblast)
Votes[45] (Leningrad Oblast and Estonia)
Votes[45] (Leningrad Oblast and Estonia)
Setos[46] (Setomaa)
Setos[46] (Setomaa)
Võros (Võrumaa) older version
Võros (Võrumaa) older version
Võros (Võrumaa) since February 2013
Võros (Võrumaa) since February 2013
Livonians[47] (Livonia and Curlandia)
Livonians[47] (Livonia and Curlandia)

Central Europe

Czechs (/Bohemians) (Bohemia)
Czechs (/Bohemians) (Bohemia)
Germans of Belgium[48] (Eastern part of the province of Liège)
Germans of Belgium[48] (Eastern part of the province of Liège)
Luxembourgers (Luxembourg, Belgium, France and Germany) [49]
Luxembourgers (Luxembourg, Belgium, France and Germany) [49]
Alsatians  (Alsace)[citation needed]
Alsatians (Alsace)[citation needed]
Tyroleans of South Tyrol
Tyroleans of South Tyrol
Kashubians[36] (Pomerelia)
Kashubians[36] (Pomerelia)
Sorbs[32] (Lusatia)
Sorbs[32] (Lusatia)
Silesians (Silesia)[citation needed]
Silesians (Silesia)[citation needed]
Moravians  (Moravia)[citation needed]
Moravians (Moravia)[citation needed]

Western and Southern Europe

Canarians[50] (Canary Islands)
Canarians[50] (Canary Islands)
Galicians (Galicia)
Galicians (Galicia)
Asturians (Asturias)
Asturians (Asturias)
Basques (Basque Country, Navarre and Iparralde)
Basques (Basque Country, Navarre and Iparralde)
Castilians (Castile, La Mancha and La Rioja)[citation needed]
Castilians (Castile, La Mancha and La Rioja)[citation needed]
Aragonese[51] (Aragon)
Aragonese[51] (Aragon)
Valencians (Valencian Community and El Carche)
Valencians (Valencian Community and El Carche)
Balearics (Balearic Islands)
Balearics (Balearic Islands)
Catalans (Catalonia, La Franja and Northern Catalonia)
Catalans (Catalonia, La Franja and Northern Catalonia)
Occitans[52] (Occitania)
Occitans[52] (Occitania)
Corsicans (Corsica)
Corsicans (Corsica)
Sardinians (Sardinia)
Sardinians (Sardinia)
Arpitans[53] (Arpitania)
Arpitans[53] (Arpitania)
Savoyards (Savoy)
Savoyards (Savoy)
Ladin people[53] (Ladinia)
Ladin people[53] (Ladinia)
Maltese (Malta)
Maltese (Malta)

Southeastern Europe

Serbs (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,[54] Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia)
Serbs (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,[54] Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia)
Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Macedonians [55] (Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria)
Macedonians [55] (Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria)
Bosniaks of Sandžak[56]
Bosniaks of Sandžak[56]
Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pomaks (Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey)
Pomaks (Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey)
Albanians (Albania, Kosovo, Western part of the Republic of Macedonia, Epirus[57] and Arbëria)
Albanians (Albania, Kosovo, Western part of the Republic of Macedonia, Epirus[57] and Arbëria)
Greeks (Greece, Cyprus, Albania)
Greeks (Greece, Cyprus, Albania)

Eastern Europe

Rusyns[58] (Carpathian Ruthenia)
Rusyns[58] (Carpathian Ruthenia)
Gagauzes (Gagauzia)[citation needed]
Gagauzes (Gagauzia)[citation needed]
Crimean Tatars[59] (Crimea, Turkey, Uzbekistan and Dobruja)
Crimean Tatars[59] (Crimea, Turkey, Uzbekistan and Dobruja)
Lipka Tatars (Belarus, Lithuania and Poland)[citation needed]
Lipka Tatars (Belarus, Lithuania and Poland)[citation needed]
Komis (Komi Republic)
Komis (Komi Republic)
Maris (Mari El)
Maris (Mari El)
Erzyans[60] (Mordovia, Samara Oblast and Tataristan)
Erzyans[60] (Mordovia, Samara Oblast and Tataristan)
Mokshas[61] (Mordovia)
Mokshas[61] (Mordovia)
Mordvins (Mordovia)
Mordvins (Mordovia)
Udmurts (Udmurtia)
Udmurts (Udmurtia)
Chuvashes (Chuvashia)
Chuvashes (Chuvashia)
Volga Tatars (Tatarstan and the historical region of Idel-Ural; Ryazan Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Astrakhan Oblast Kazakhstan and Central Asia)
Volga Tatars (Tatarstan and the historical region of Idel-Ural; Ryazan Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Astrakhan Oblast Kazakhstan and Central Asia)
Bashkirs (Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast and Orenburg Oblast)
Bashkirs (Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast and Orenburg Oblast)
Don Cossacks (southern Russia)[citation needed]
Don Cossacks (southern Russia)[citation needed]
Romani people[36] (Europe and Brazil)
Romani people[36] (Europe and Brazil)

Caucasus and Anatolia

Lezgins[65] (Dagestan and Azerbaijan)

Circassians: Adyghe, Cherkess and Kabardins[62] (Adyghea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Krasnodar Krai, Turkey and Middle East)
Circassians: Adyghe, Cherkess and Kabardins[62] (Adyghea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Krasnodar Krai, Turkey and Middle East)
Abazins (Abazinia)
Abazins (Abazinia)
Abkhazians[63] (Abkhazia and Turkey)
Abkhazians[63] (Abkhazia and Turkey)
Balkars (Kabardino-Balkaria)
Balkars (Kabardino-Balkaria)
Karachays (Karachay–Cherkessia)[citation needed]
Karachays (Karachay–Cherkessia)[citation needed]
Ossetians (South Ossetia and North Ossetia–Alania)
Ossetians (South Ossetia and North Ossetia–Alania)
Ingush (Ingushetia, Eastern part of Prigorodny District, Chechnya and Turkey)
Ingush (Ingushetia, Eastern part of Prigorodny District, Chechnya and Turkey)
Chechens (Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan)
Chechens (Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan)
Kalmyks (Kalmykia)
Kalmyks (Kalmykia)
Kumyks[64] (Dagestan)
Kumyks[64] (Dagestan)
Meskhetians[66][unreliable source?][citation needed] (Samtskhe-Javakheti, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Krasnodar Krai, Turkey and Kyrgyzstan)
Meskhetians[66][unreliable source?][citation needed] (Samtskhe-Javakheti, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Krasnodar Krai, Turkey and Kyrgyzstan)
Adjarians[67] (Adjaria, Guria, Kvemo Kartli, Kakheti and Northeastern Turkey)
Adjarians[67] (Adjaria, Guria, Kvemo Kartli, Kakheti and Northeastern Turkey)
Greeks of Pontus[citation needed]
Greeks of Pontus[citation needed]
Kalmyks (Kalmykia)
Kalmyks (Kalmykia)

See also

Notes

  1. This is the flag of the Arab Revolt.[citation needed]
  2. To be precise, the Druze are a religious and cultural group rather than a distinct ethnic group.
  3. See also the concept of Sindhudesh.
  4. This is just one of several flags used by groups that make up this macro-group.
  5. Akha are considered part of the Hani by the government of People's Republic of China, though this is a subject of some dispute among the Akha themselves.

Citations

  1. "Berbers". Flags of the World. April 24, 2009. Retrieved April 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "History of the flag". Flags of the World. June 26, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The Flag of Somalia, created by Mohammed Awale Liban, was designed to represent pan-Somali territories.
  3. "Amhara (Ethiopia)". Flags of the World. September 13, 2003. Retrieved October 25, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Afar (Ethiopia)". Flags of the World. September 13, 2003. Retrieved October 25, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Harari (Ethiopia)". Flags of the World. June 24, 2006. Retrieved October 25, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Oromo traditional colours". Flags of the World. May 29, 2003. Retrieved June 30, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Tigray (Ethiopia)". Flags of the World. April 29, 2004. Retrieved October 25, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Bakonjo People". Flags of the World. July 12, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Ashanti People". Flags of the World. November 4, 2006. Retrieved April 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 762. ISBN 0-313-32384-4. Retrieved June 3, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Afrikaner". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved June 30, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 Znamierowski, p236
  13. Miller, Richard. "From History to Destiny". The Mulatto People. Archived from the original on February 15, 2001. Retrieved April 22, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  38. "Svenska Brevmärken 1922" (in Swedish). Svenska Centralarkivet. Retrieved April 5, 2010. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The flag of Finland-Swedes appears on some stamps issued by the Swedish People's Party in 1922.
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  42. "Vepsia". Flags of the World. April 14, 2007. Retrieved June 8, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "Inkeri". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved June 9, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  46. "In pictures: The Seto people — Anthem and flag". BBC News Online. Retrieved June 9, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  49. "The Red Lion is the Civil Ensign of the Gran Duchy of Luxemburg. In 2006, the banner was proposed as the new national flag. On 6 July 2007, the Government of Luxembourg refused the proposal, but, at the same time, established the equal status of this flag and the Official Tricolor. Instead, in the Belgian province of Luxemburg, the Red Lion has not an official status, but it (with a different shade of blue) is of common use: it is used even by the Provincial Council on public buildings or in official occurrences". http://www.province.luxembourg.be/provlux/provlux_fr_profils_province_lux/l-institution-provinciale/blason-palais-logo-drapeau-et-chant-provincial/drapeau/drapeau.htm http://www.gouvernement.lu/dossiers/viepol/drapeau/index.html
  50. "Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias" (PDF) (in Spanish). Gobierno de Canarias. Retrieved June 13, 2010. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The flag, which was made official by the Organic Law 10/82 on 16 August 1982, is based upon the original design attributed to Carmen Sarmiento, Jesús Cantero and Arturo Cantero and adopted by the Canarias Libre movement in 1961.
  51. "Estatuto de Autonomía de Aragón" (PDF) (in Spanish). Boletín Oficial de Aragón. April 23, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2010. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The Statute defines Aragonese People as an "historical nationality".
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  61. http://uralistica.com/profiles/blogs/flag-mokshan
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  63. "Abkhazia". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved June 12, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  65. История Лезгинского народа (in Russian). Lezgini Kultuuriühing Eestis. Retrieved June 13, 2010. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Bibliography and references

External links

Southern Asia

Notes and citations for external links

  1. "Asia: flags of the ethnic minorities and stateless nations". Encyclopædia Heraldica. Retrieved May 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>