Euphoria

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
File:Supreme happiness.jpg
Playing can induce an intense state of happiness and contentment.

Euphoria[note 1] (pronunciation: /juːˈfɔəriə/) is an affective state and a form of pleasure in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, happiness, and excitement.[3][4][5] Certain drugs, many of which are addictive, are known to cause euphoria. Similarly, certain natural rewards and social activities, such as physical exercise, laughter, music listening and making, and dancing, can induce a state of euphoria.[5][6] Euphoria has also been cited as being experienced by those participating in certain religious or spiritual rituals and meditation.[7] Euphoria is also known to occur as a symptom of mania.[8]

Types

Many different types of stimuli can induce euphoria, including psychoactive drugs, natural rewards, and social activities.[3][4][6][8] Affective disorders such as unipolar mania or bipolar disorder can involve euphoria as a symptom.[8]

Exercise-induced

File:LairigGhru-8246.jpg
Runners can experience a euphoric state often called a "runner's high".

Continuous physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, can induce a state of euphoria; for example, distance running is often associated with a "runner's high", which is a pronounced state of exercise-induced euphoria.[9] Exercise is known to affect dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens, producing euphoria as a result, through increased biosynthesis of three particular neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid),[10] β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid),[11] and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog).[9][12][13]

Music euphoria

Euphoria has been known to occur as a result of dancing to music, music-making, and listening to emotionally arousing music.[6][14] Emotionally arousing music increases dopamine neurotransmission in the dopaminergic pathways that project to the striatum (i.e., the mesolimbic pathway and nigrostriatal pathway).[14]

Pharmacologically-induced

A large dose of methamphetamine causes a drug-induced euphoria.[15]

An euphoriant is a type of psychoactive drug which tends to induce euphoria.[16][17] Most pharmacological euphoriants are addictive drugs due to their reinforcing properties and ability to activate the brain's reward system.[8]

Stimulants

Dopaminergic stimulants like amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA, and methylphenidate are euphoriants.[3][8] Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic stimulant that acts as a mild euphoriant in some people, but not others.[8]

Depressants

Certain depressants can produce euphoria; some of the euphoriant drugs in this class include drinking alcohol (i.e., ethanol) in moderate doses,[18][19] γ-hydroxybutyric acid,[3] and ketamine.[3]

Opioids

µ-Opioid receptor agonists are a class of euphoriants[8] that include drugs such as heroin, morphine, codeine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, and pethidine.

κ-Opioid receptor antagonists are also capable of inducing euphoria.[8] By contrast, κ-opioid receptor agonists, like the endogenous neuropeptide dynorphin, are known to cause dysphoria,[8] a mood state opposite to euphoria that involves feelings of profound discontent.

Certain drugs, such as buprenorphine, are both mu-opioid agonists and kappa-opioid antagonists, thereby creating euphoria through multiple mechanisms at once.

Cannabinoids

Cannabinoid receptor 1 agonists are a class of euphoriants that includes certain plant-based cannabinoids (e.g., THC from the cannabis plant), endogenous cannabinoids (e.g., anandamide), and synthetic cannabinoids.[8]

Inhalants

Certain gasses, like nitrous oxide (N2O, aka "laughing gas"), can induce euphoria when inhaled.[8]

Glucocorticoids

Acute exogenous glucocorticoid administration is known to produce euphoria, but this effect is not observed with long-term exposure.[8]

Neuropsychiatric

Mania

Euphoria is also strongly associated with both hypomania and mania, mental states characterized by a pathological heightening of mood, which may be either euphoric or irritable, in addition to other symptoms, such as pressured speech, flight of ideas, and grandiosity.[20][21]

Although hypomania and mania are syndromes with multiple etiologies (that is, ones that may arise from any number of conditions), they are most commonly seen in bipolar disorder, a psychiatric illness characterized by alternating periods of mania and depression.[20][21]

Epilepsy

Brief euphoria may occur immediately before or during epileptic seizures originating in the temporal lobes.[22][23] Euphoria (or more commonly dysphoria) may also occur in periods between such seizures. This condition, interictal dysphoric disorder, is considered an atypical affective disorder.[24]

Multiple sclerosis

Euphoria sometimes occurs in persons with multiple sclerosis as the illness progresses. This euphoria is part of a syndrome originally called euphoria sclerotica, which typically includes disinhibition and other symptoms of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction.[25]

See also

Notes

  1. Derived from Ancient Greek εὐφορία: εὖ eu meaning "well" and φέρω pherō meaning "to bear".[1][2] The word is semantically opposite of dysphoria.

References

  1. Euphoria, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  2. Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Key DSM-IV Mental Status Exam Phrases". Gateway Psychiatric Services. Mood and Affect. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2014-02-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  7. "Psychophysical Correlates of the Practice of Tantric Yoga Meditation". Corby, Roth, Zarcone, & Kopell. Archives of General Hackett, 1978.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Sydor A, Brown RY, eds. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 191, 350–351, 367–368, 371–375. ISBN 9780071481274. Changes in appetite and energy may reflect abnormalities in various hypothalamic nuclei. Depressed mood and anhedonia (lack of interest in pleasurable activities) in depressed individuals, and euphoria and increased involvement in goal-directed activities in patients, who experience mania, may reflect opposing abnormalities in the nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, or other structures. ... Although short-term administration of glucocorticoids often produces euphoria and increased energy, the impact of long-lasting increases in endogenous glucocorticoids produced during depression can involve complex adaptations such as those that occur in Cushing syndrome (Chapter 10). ... Exposure to addictive chemicals not only produces extreme euphoric states that may initially motivate drug use, but also causes equally extreme adaptations in reinforcement mechanisms and motivated behavior that eventually lead to compulsive use. Accordingly, the evolutionary design of human and animal brains that has helped to promote our survival also has made us vulnerable to addiction.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  10. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  11. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  12. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  13. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  14. 14.0 14.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  15. Methamphetamine | InfoFacts | The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
  16. Merrian-Webster definition
  17. "euphoriant". Memidex/WordNet Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  19. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Bipolar and Related Disorders". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association. 2013. ISBN 9780890425572. Retrieved 11 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. 21.0 21.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  22. "Diseases and Conditions: Temporal lobe seizure". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 23 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Jones, Niya; Sather, Rita (eds.). "Online Medical Encyclopedia: Epilepsy and Seizures". University of Rochester Medical Center. Retrieved 23 May 2016. The most common aura involves feelings, such as deja vu, impending doom, fear, or euphoria.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Shorvon, Simon D. (2010). "5. Principles of Treatment". Handbook of Epilepsy Treatment. John Wiley & Sons. p. 111. ISBN 9781444340808.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).