European migrant crisis

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Asylum applications in EU and EFTA states between 1 January and 30 June 2015 according to Eurostat data.[n 1]
A small boat in water, with land on the horizon behind. Many people are on its outside in orange life jackets, some carrying inner tubes as well. A few are in the water swimming toward the camera. In the foreground a man in a red and back wetsuit has his hand out to them.
Syrian and Iraqi immigrants getting off a boat from Turkey on the Greek island of Lesbos.

The European migrant crisis[n 2] or European refugee crisis[n 3] began in 2015,[10] when a rising number of refugees and migrants[11] made the journey to the European Union (EU) to seek asylum, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea or through Southeast Europe. They came from areas such as Western and South Asia, Africa,[12][13] and the Western Balkans.[14] According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the top nationalities of the over one million Mediterranean Sea arrivals between January 2015 and March 2016 were Syrian (46.7%), Afghan (20.9%) and Iraqi (9.4%).[15] Of the refugees and migrants arriving in Europe by sea in 2015, over 70% were male, and about 25% were children.[16] The number of deaths at sea rose to record levels in April 2015, when five boats carrying almost 2,000 migrants to Europe sank in the Mediterranean Sea, with a combined death toll estimated at more than 1,200 people.[17]

Due to ongoing conflicts and crises in the Third world, the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide by 2015 approached 60 million.[18][19] Amid an upsurge in the number of sea arrivals in Italy from Libya in 2014, several European Union governments refused to fund the Italian-run rescue option Operation Mare Nostrum, which was replaced by Frontex's Operation Triton in November 2014. In 2015 Greece overtook Italy as the first EU country of arrival, becoming the starting point of a flow of refugees and migrants moving through Balkan countries to northern European countries, mainly Germany and Sweden. The European Union has struggled to limit migrant smuggling, launching Operation Sophia and proposing a quota system to relocate and resettle asylum seekers among EU states. Individual countries have reintroduced border controls within the Schengen Area, and resisted the entry of new migrants.

According to Eurostat, EU member states received over 1.2 million first time asylum applications in 2015, more than double that of the previous year. Four states (Germany, Hungary, Sweden, and Austria) received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications in 2015, with Hungary, Sweden, and Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita. Over half the asylum seekers came from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq.[20]

The inflow of this many Third World peoples in such a short time was criticized by right wing and Alt-right commenters, some of whom alleged it was part of a deliberate[21] or encouraged[22] process of partial population replacement.[23]

The fact that the migrants contained a significant surplus of mostly young men was cited as evidence. Historically, mostly male invaders have been known to change the population genetics of conquered lands,[24] most famously in the case of Genghis Khan, though these were all wartime events. However, reports of sexual violence by migrants were cited as evidence the inflow had aspects of an invasion.[25][26]

Background

Schengen Area and Dublin Regulation

Main articles: Schengen Area and Dublin Regulation
  European Union members legally obliged to join Schengen at a future date

In the Schengen Agreement, 26 European countries (22 of the 28 European Union member states, plus four European Free Trade Association states) joined together to form an area where border checks on internal Schengen borders (i.e. between member states) are abolished, and instead checks are restricted to the external Schengen borders and countries with external borders are obligated to enforce border control regulations. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for "public policy or national security" reasons.[27]

The Dublin regulation determines the EU member state responsible to examine an asylum application to prevent asylum applicants in the EU from "asylum shopping", where applicants send their applications for asylum to numerous EU member states, or "asylum orbiting", where no member state takes responsibility for an asylum seeker. By default (when no family reasons or humanitarian grounds are present), the first member state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the asylum seeker then moves to another member state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered.[28][29][30]

Carrier's responsibility

Hans Rosling explains 'Why Boat Refugees Don't Fly'

Article 26 of the Schengen Convention[31] says that carriers which transport people into the Schengen area shall, if they transport people who are refused entry into the Schengen Area, pay for the return of the refused people, and pay penalties.[32][33] Since migrants without a visa can't enter the Schengen Area legally, they have resorted to migrant smugglers.[34] Humanitarian visas are in general not given to refugees who want to apply for asylum.[35]

Migrant smuggling laws make it illegal to help unauthorized migrants to cross national borders. Airlines refuse passage to migrants without visas, including through international flights inside the Schengen Area. Many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. According to a study carried out for the European Parliament, "penalties for carriers, who assume some of the control duties of the European police services, either block asylum-seekers far from Europe's borders or force them to pay more and take greater risks to travel illegally".[36][37]

Statistics on the EU's foreign-born population prior to 2015

Main article: Immigration to Europe
Immigration of non-EU nationals (green),[38] asylum applicants (orange)[39] and illegal border-crossings (blue)[40] in the European Union, 2010–2014

The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 amounts to 33 million people, or 7% of the total population of the 28 EU countries (above 500 million people). By comparison, the foreign-born population is 1.63% of the total population in Japan,[41] 7.7% in Russia,[42] 13% in the United States, 20% in Canada and 27% in Australia. Between 2010 and 2013, around 1.4 million non-EU nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees, immigrated into the EU each year using regular means, with a slight decrease since 2010.[38]

Prior to 2014, the number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in 1992 (672,000), 2001 (424,000), and 2013 (431,000). In 2014 it reached 626,000.[43] According to the UNHCR, the EU countries with the biggest numbers of recognised refugees at the end of 2014 were France (252,264), Germany (216,973), Sweden (142,207) and the United Kingdom (117,161). No European state was among the top ten refugee-hosting countries in the world.[18]

Prior to 2014, the number of illegal border crossings detected by Frontex at the external borders of the EU peaked in 2011, with 141,051 sea and land irregular arrivals.[44]

Global refugee crisis

Top ten countries of origin (red) and asylum (green) of refugees worldwide at the end of 2014, according to UNHCR data (excluding Palestine refugees under UNRWA mandate).[18]

According to the UNHCR, the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide reached 59.5 million at the end of 2014, the highest level since World War II,[45] with a 40% increase taking place since 2011. Of these 59.5 million, 19.5 million were refugees (14.4 million under UNHCR's mandate, plus 5.1 million Palestinian refugees under UNRWA's mandate), and 1.8 million were asylum-seekers. The rest were persons displaced within their own countries (internally displaced persons). The 14.4 million refugees under UNHCR's mandate were around 2.7 million more than at the end of 2013 (+23%), the highest level since 1995. Among them, Syrian refugees became the largest refugee group in 2014 (3.9 million, 1.55 million more than the previous year), overtaking Afghan refugees (2.6 million), who had been the largest refugee group for three decades. Six of the ten largest countries of origin of refugees were African: Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic and Eritrea.[18][46]

Developing countries hosted almost 90% of refugees; the least developed countries alone provided asylum to 25% worldwide.[18] Even though most Syrian refugees were hosted by neighbouring countries such as Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan, the number of asylum applications lodged by Syrian refugees in Europe steadily increased between 2011 and 2015, totaling 813,599 in 37 European countries (including both EU members and non-members) as of November 2015; 57% of them applied for asylum in Germany or Serbia.[47] The largest single recipient of new asylum seekers worldwide in 2014 was the Russian Federation, with 274,700 asylum requests, 99% of them lodged by Ukrainians fleeing from the war in Donbass;[18] Russia was followed by Germany, the top recipient of asylum applications within the European Union, with 202,645 asylum requests, 20% of them from Syria.[43]

Background to the crisis in Greece and Italy

Greek, Turkish, and Bulgarian borders and the course of the Maritsa River

Between 2007 and 2011, large numbers of migrants from the Middle East and Africa entered Greece from Turkey, leading Greece and the European Border Protection agency Frontex to upgrade border controls.[48] In 2012, immigrant influx into Greece by land decreased by 95% after the construction of a fence on that part of the Greek–Turkish frontier which does not follow the course of the Maritsa River.[49] In 2015, Bulgaria followed by upgrading a border fence to prevent migrant flows through Turkey.[50][51]

In 2008, Berlusconi's government in Italy and Gaddafi's government in Libya signed a treaty including cooperation between the two countries in stopping irregular migration from Libya to Italy; this led to a policy of forcibly returning to Libya boat migrants intercepted by the Italian coast guard at sea.[52] The cooperation collapsed following the outbreak of the Libyan civil war in 2011, and in 2012 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Italy had violated the European Convention on Human Rights by returning migrants to Libya, as it exposed the migrants to the risk of being subjected to ill-treatment in Libya and violated the prohibition of collective expulsions.[53] Instability and the Second Civil War in Libya have made departures from the north-African country to Italy easier, with migrant smuggling networks flourishing. The war also forced out many African immigrants to Libya.[54] The 2013 Lampedusa migrant shipwreck involved "more than 360" deaths, leading the Italian government to establish Operation Mare Nostrum, a large-scale search and rescue operation, with some migrants brought aboard a naval amphibious assault ship.[55] In 2014, Frontex assumed responsibility for search and rescue operations. The Frontex operation is called Operation Triton.[56][57] The UK government cited fears that the operation was acting as "an unintended 'pull factor', encouraging more migrants to attempt the dangerous sea crossing and thereby leading to more tragic and unnecessary deaths".[58][59]

Migration

Statistics

Sea and land arrivals to the EU

2014
Sea and land arrivals to the EU
in 2014 by nationality[60]
 Syria 79,169
 Eritrea 34,586
Unspecified sub-Saharan nationals 26,341
 Afghanistan 22,132
 Kosovo* 22,069
 Mali 10,575
 Albania 9,323
 The Gambia 8,730
 Nigeria 8,715
 Somalia 7,676
Others 54,216
Total 283,532

According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), up to 3,072 people died or disappeared in 2014 in the Mediterranean while trying to migrate to Europe.[61] Overall estimates are that over 22,000 migrants died between 2000 and 2014.

In 2014, 283,532 migrants irregularly entered the European Union, mainly following the Central Mediterranean, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Balkan routes.[61][62][63] 220,194 migrants crossed EU sea borders in the Central, Eastern and Western Mediterranean (a 266% increase compared to 2013). Half of them had come from Syria, Eritrea and Afghanistan.[60]

Of those arriving in Southern Europe in 2014, the vast majority (170,664, a 277% increase compared to 2013) arrived in Italy through Libya, whereas a minority (50,834, a 105% increase) arrived in Greece through Turkey.[64] 62,000 applied for asylum in Italy, but most Syrians and Eritreans, who comprised almost half of the arrivals in Italy in 2014, did not stop in Italy, but continued their journey towards northern Europe, Germany and Sweden in particular.[65]

2015

In 2015, a shift took place, with Greece overtaking Italy as the primary point of arrival and surpassing in the first six months of 2015 the numbers for the whole of 2014: 67,500 people arrived in Italy, mainly coming from Eritrea (25%), Nigeria (10%) and Somalia (10%), whereas 68,000 arrived on the islands of Greece, mainly coming from Syria (57%) and Afghanistan (22%).[66] In total, 137,000 migrants crossed the Mediterranean into Europe in the first six months of 2015.[67]

As of 17 April 2015, the total number of migrants reaching the Italian coasts was 21,191 since 1 January 2015, with a decrease during the month of March due to bad weather conditions, and a surge since 10 April, bringing the total number of arrivals in line with the number recorded in the same period in 2014. However, the death toll in the first four months of 2014 was 96, compared with 500 in the same period in 2015; this number excluded the victims of the devastating shipwrecks on 13 and 19 April.[68][69]

Mediterranean sea arrivals to Greece (green) and Italy (orange) from January to December 2015, according to UNHCR data.[70]

By August 2015, over 250,000 migrants had arrived in Europe by sea so far that year; 124,000 in Greece and 98,000 in Italy.[71] According to Frontex, July set a new record for a single month, with 107,500 migrants estimated to have entered the EU.[72] Frontex detected 615,492 irregular entries into the EU in the third quarter of 2015 and 978,338 entries in the fourth quarter,[73] bringing the total number of detections of irregular entries at EU sea and land external borders in 2015 to 1.82 million (872,938 in Greece, 764,038 in Hungary and Croatia and 153,946 in Italy), associated with an estimated one million individuals irregularly entering the EU (because some migrants were double-counted).[74]

According to IOM and UNHCR estimates, around one million migrants and refugees arrived in Europe till 21 December 2015, three to four times more than in 2014.[75] Just 3% (34,215) came by land to Bulgaria and Greece; the rest came by sea to Greece, Italy, Spain, Cyprus and Malta. The vast majority arrived by sea in Greece (816,752); 150,317 arrived by sea in Italy, with a slight drop from 170,000 in 2014. Half of those crossing the Mediterranean were from Syria, 20% were from Afghanistan and 7% from Iraq. IOM estimated that a total of 3,692 migrants and refugees lost their lives in the Mediterranean in 2015 – over 400 more than in 2014 – of whom 2,889 in the Central Mediterranean and 731 in the Aegean sea.[76][77]

2016
File:Total EU arrivals 2014-2016 (June).png
Total monthly Mediterranean Sea arrivals in the EU, 2014-2016, according to UNHCR's data[78]

In January and February 2016, over 123,000 migrants landed in Greece, compared to about 4,600 in the same period of 2015.[79] In March, following the closing of the Western Balkan route by Macedonia and the entry into force of the EU-Turkey deal on 20 March, the number of migrants arriving in Greece dropped to 26,460, less than half the figure recorded in February. Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis continued to account for the largest share of the migrants arriving in Greece.[80] This downward trend continued in April, when only 2,700 migrants arrived in Greece, decreasing by 90% compared to the previous month.[81]

Meanwhile, due to improved weather conditions, the number of mainly African migrants crossing the sea to Italy doubled between February and March, reaching nearly 9,600 in March 2016, compared to 2,283 in March 2015.[80] In April, on the contrary, the number of migrants arriving in Italy (8,370) dropped by 13% compared to the previous month and by 50% compared to the same month in 2015; despite this, Italy exceeded the totals for Greece for the first time since June 2015.[81] On 16 April, a shipwreck of a large boat between Libya and Italy was reported, in which as many as 500 people may have died, in one of the worst disasters since April 2015.[82] More than 66,000 mostly African migrants have arrived in Italy since the start of 2016.[83]

The mass influx of migrants into Europe was not seen favorably in many European Union countries. 94% of Greeks and 88% of Swedes disapproved of the measures taken, among other countries with similar disapproval rates.[84] This contributed to the creation and implementation of the EU-Turkey Refugee Agreement, which was signed in March 2016. From that point on, the numbers of refugees entering Greece decreased. In February 2016, the last full month before the deal, 57,066 migrants arrived in Greece via the sea; from that point on, discounting March, the highest number of migrants reaching Greece via the sea was 3,650 (in April).[85] While there is no direct connection to the implementation of the Eu-Turkey deal, the number of migrants arriving in Italy in that same time period has increased. From March 2016 to October 2016, 140,358 migrants have arrived in Italy via the sea, which averages out to roughly 20,051 migrants per month.[86] Overall the number of migrants arriving into the EU has dropped, but the EU still is creating agencies and plans to mitigate the crisis. In addition to the EU-Turkey Refugee Agreement, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency was launched on October 6, 2016.[87]

Asylum applications

2014

According to Eurostat, EU member states received 626,065 asylum applications in 2014, the highest number since the 672,000 applications received in 1992. The main countries of origin of asylum seekers, accounting for almost half of the total, were Syria (20%), Afghanistan (7%), Kosovo (6%), Eritrea (6%) and Serbia (5%).[43][88]

In 2014, decisions on asylum applications in the EU made at the first instance resulted in more than 160,000 asylum seekers being granted protection status, while a further 23,000 received protection status on appeal. The rate of recognition of asylum applicants was 45% at the first instance and 18% on appeal. The main beneficiaries of protection status, accounting for more than half of the total, were Syrians (68,300 or 37%), Eritreans (14,600 or 8%) and Afghans (14,100 or 8%).[89]

Four states – Germany, Sweden, Italy and France – received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications and granted almost two-thirds of protection status in 2014. Sweden, Hungary and Austria were among the top recipients of EU asylum applications per capita, when adjusted for their own populations, with 8.4 asylum seekers per 1,000 inhabitants in Sweden, 4.3 in Hungary and 3.2 in Austria.[90][91][92]

2015
Asylum applicants in EU and EFTA states, January–December 2015. The height of the bars indicates the number of asylum applicants per country. Colours indicate the percentage of asylum applicants in relation to the population.

In 2015, EU member states received 1,255,640 first time asylum applications, a number more than double that of the previous year. The highest number of first time applicants was registered in Germany (with 441,800 applicants, or 35% of all applicants in EU states), followed by Hungary (174,400, or 14%), Sweden (156,100, or 12%), Austria (85,500, or 7%), Italy (83,200, or 7%) and France (70,600, or 6%). Compared with the population, the highest number was registered in Hungary (with 17.7 asylum seekers per 1,000 inhabitants), Sweden (16), Austria (10), Finland (5.9) and Germany (5.4). The three main countries of citizenship of asylum applicants, accounting for more than half of the total, were Syria (with 362,800 applicants, or 29% of the total), Afghanistan (178,200, or 14%) and Iraq (121,500, or 10%), followed by Kosovo (5%), Albania (5%), Pakistan (4%), Eritrea (3%), Nigeria (2%) and Iran (2%).[20]

Number of first time asylum applications received by the top ten recipients in the EU-28, January–December 2015. The top ten recipients account for more than 90% of the total asylum applications received in the EU-28.[93]

333,350 asylum applicants were granted protection in the EU in 2015 following a positive decision on their asylum application. The main beneficiaries of protection status were citizens of Syria (50% of the total number of persons granted protection in the EU), Eritrea (8%), Iraq (7%), Afghanistan (5%), Iran (2%), Somalia (2%) and Pakistan (2%). The EU countries who granted protection to the highest number of asylum seekers were Germany (who granted protection to 148,200 people), Sweden (34,500), Italy (29,600) and France (26,000). The rate of recognition, i.e. the share of positive decisions in the total number of decisions, was 52% for first instance decisions in the EU and 14% for decisions on appeal. The citizenships with the highest recognition rates at first instance were Syria (97.2%), Eritrea (89.8%), Iraq (85.7%), Afghanistan (67%), Iran (64.7%), Somalia (63.1%) and Sudan (56%).[94]

Countries of origin of asylum applicants in the EU and EFTA States between 1 January and 30 June 2015

In the first three months of 2015, the number of new asylum applicants in the EU was 184,800. More than half applied for asylum in Germany (40%) or Hungary (18%). The main nationalities of the applicants were Kosovo (48,875 or 26%), Syria (29,100 or 16%) and Afghanistan (12,910 or 7%).[95]

In the second quarter of 2015, 213,200 people applied for asylum in the EU, up by 15% compared with the previous quarter. 38% applied for asylum in Germany, followed by Hungary (15%) and Austria (8%). The main countries of citizenship of asylum seekers, accounting for more than half of the total, were Syria (21%), Afghanistan (13%), Albania (8%), Iraq (6%) and Kosovo (5%).[96]

In the third quarter of 2015 (July–September), EU countries received 413,800 first time asylum applications, almost double the number registered in the previous quarter. Germany and Hungary were the top recipients, with 26% each of total applicants. One third of asylum seekers were Syrians (33%), followed by Afghans (14%) and Iraqis (11%).[97]

In the fourth quarter of 2015, there were 426,000 first time applicants, mainly Syrians (145,130), Afghans (79,255) and Iraqis (53,585). The top recipients were Germany (38% of the total), Sweden (21%) and Austria (7%).[98]

Germany's Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) reported 476,649 asylum applications in 2015, mainly from Syrians (162,510), Albanians (54,762), Kosovars (37,095), Afghans (31,902), Iraqis (31,379), Serbians (26,945), Macedonians (14,131), Eritreans (10,990) and Pakistanis (8,472). Germany made 282,762 asylum decisions in 2015; the overall recognition rate was 49.8% (140,915 decisions were positive). The most successful applicants were Syrians (101,419 positive decisions, with a 96% recognition rate), Eritreans (9,300 positive decisions; 92.1% recognition rate) and Iraqis (14,880 positive decisions; 88.6% recognition rate).[99][100]

Sweden received 162,877 asylum applications in 2015, mainly Syrian (51,338), Afghan (41,564), Iraqi (20,857), Eritrean (7,231) and Somali (5,465) men.[101] Sweden granted protection to 32,631 asylum applicants and rejected 9,524 applications (77% accepted). The main beneficiaries were Syrians (18,523 positive decisions, 100% recognition rate), Eritreans (6,542 positive decisions; 100% recognition rate) and Afghans (1,088 positive decisions; 74% recognition rate).[102]

Origins and motivations

Most of the migrants are fleeing war, poverty, and unpleasant social conditions in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and Eritrea: according to UNHCR data, 84% of Mediterranean Sea arrivals in 2015 came from the world's top ten refugee-producing countries.[103] According to UNHCR, the top ten nationalities of Mediterranean Sea arrivals in 2015 were Syria (49%), Afghanistan (21%), Iraq (8%), Eritrea (4%), Pakistan (2%), Nigeria (2%), Somalia (2%), Sudan (1%), the Gambia (1%) and Mali (1%).[16][104]

Asylum seekers of seven nationalities had an asylum recognition rate of over 50% in EU States in the first quarter of 2015, meaning that they obtained protection over half the time they applied: Syrians (94% recognition rate), Eritreans (90%), Iraqis (88%), Afghans (66%), Iranians (65%), Somalis (60%) and Sudanese (53%). Migrants of these nationalities accounted for 90% of the arrivals in Greece and 47% of the arrivals in Italy between January and August 2015, according to UNHCR data.[98][105]

Wars fueling the crisis are the Syrian Civil War and the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the War in Somalia, and the War in Darfur. Men from Eritrea, one of the most repressive states in the world, flee from indefinite military conscription and forced labour.[12][106]

Migrants being stopped at the Greek–Macedonian border near Gevgelija by the Macedonian Police, 24 August 2015

Migrants from the Western Balkans (Kosovo, Albania, Serbia) and parts of West Africa (The Gambia, Nigeria) and South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan) are more likely to be economic migrants, fleeing poverty and lack of jobs. Most asylum applicants from Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro are Roma people who say they are discriminated against in their origin countries.[14] The influx from states like Nigeria and Pakistan is a mix of economic migrants and refugees fleeing from violence and war such as Boko Haram insurgency in north-east Nigeria and the War in North-West Pakistan.[12][107][108]

According to UNHCR data, almost two-thirds of migrants arriving in Europe by sea in 2015 were men.[16][104] Of the asylum applications received in Sweden in 2015, 70% were men (including minors).[109][110] Europe has also received a record number of asylum applications from unaccompanied minors, who have better chances of receiving asylum.[111]

Migrants have sought to settle preferentially in countries offering generous social welfare benefits.[112]

Migrant routes, development, and responses in individual countries

Frontex recognises the following routes irregular migrants use to enter the EU:[113]

Migrants along the Balkan route crossing from Serbia into Hungary, 24 August 2015
  • the Western African route
  • the Western Mediterranean route
  • the Central Mediterranean route
  • the Apulia and Calabria route
  • the circular route from Albania to Greece
  • the Western Balkan route (from Greece through Macedonia and Serbia to Hungary or Croatia)[114]
  • the Eastern Mediterranean route
  • the Eastern Borders route
  • an Arctic route (from Russia via Kirkenes to Norway)[115]

Austria

Wien Westbahnhof railway station on 5 September 2015: migrants on their way to Germany

On 27 August 2015, 71 migrants were found dead in an unventilated food truck near Vienna.[116] As an official response to this event, on 31 August 2015, Austria began inspections of vehicles for smuggled immigrants entering from across the border with Hungary, leading to vehicular backups of 19 km (12 mi) and trains stalled for hours.[117]

Austria announced that migrants would be allowed to cross the border from Hungary into Austria and onward to Germany.[118][119]

On 14 September 2015, Austria followed Germany's suit and instituted border controls of its own at the border with Hungary.[120] Austrian authorities also deployed the Austrian Army to the border with Hungary.[121][122]

On 19 September 2015, Austria permitted entry to approximately 10,000 migrants from Slovenia and Hungary.[123] Austria has taken on the role of regulator of the flow of migrants destined for Germany by feeding, housing, and providing them health care in transit.[124]

On 28 October 2015, Austria decided to build a fence along its border with Slovenia (that has a total length of 91 km[125]) to "be able to control the migrants in an orderly manner", said Minister of the Interior Johanna Mikl-Leitner.[126]

In 2016, Austria announced it would limit the number of asylum applicants to 37,500 in each of the next four years, compared to the 90,000 applications in 2015.[127] On 19 February 2016, Austria started putting a daily cap of 80 asylum seekers allowed to enter the country to apply for Austrian asylum, and a maximum of 3,200 allowed daily to transit towards other countries (de facto most of them to Germany). The EU's migration commissioner said the cap was incompatible with Austria's obligations under EU and international law.[128] The EU Council of Ministers' legal team however concluded that Austria's moves are not illegal[129]

Croatia

Marking of a minefield left over from Croatian War of Independence, typically seen in minefields in Croatia

Croatia, an EU member state since 2013, shares a land border (527 km) with Serbia and therefore experienced a strong inflow of migrants from Serbia after Hungary erected a fence on its border with Serbia. Nearly 80% of the border consists of the Danube River, but there is a 70 kilometer-long segment of land border in Syrmia, in the forests and fields near Tovarnik. Also, parts of the Croatia-Serbia border are known minefields, which represent a considerable threat. According to the Croatian Minister of Interior Ranko Ostojić, "police in the area have enough people and equipment to protect the Croatian border against illegal immigrants".[130] Croatian President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna Pusić have so far rejected the option of building a fence along the Croatian border with Serbia.[131][132] Croatian Prime Minister Zoran Milanović said his country is ready to help refugees coming to Europe, insisting that people fleeing conflict should be given the right to remain in the EU.[133]

On 15 September 2015, Croatia started to experience the first major waves of refugees, who carved out a new route through Europe after Hungary sealed its borders.[114] On 15 September 2015, Hungary announced it would start arresting people crossing the border illegally, and as of early 16 September, Hungary had detained 519 people and pressed criminal charges against 46 for trespassing.[134] Thousands of migrants were subsequently led to pursue alternative routes through Croatia from Serbia.[134] After Hungary closed its border with Serbia on 15 September, migrants headed towards the Serbian town of Šid, less than 10 kilometers from the Croatian border. Several buses filled with migrants arrived on the Croatian border crossing of Tovarnik, where the Croatian Vukovar-Srijem County Care and Rescue teams as well as the Croatian Red Cross were on standby awaiting migrants.[135] On 17 September, as of 3:30 am, more than 5,000 migrants had arrived in Tovarnik.[136] Interior Minister Ranko Ostojić said Croatia was "absolutely full" by the evening of 17 September 2015, and Croatia decided to close its border with Serbia.[137] Train lines from Serbia via Croatia to Slovenia were closed until further notice.

As of 6 October 2015, 125,000 had entered Croatia in the space of three weeks.[138] Between mid-September and mid-October 2015, about 200,000 migrants had passed through Croatia, most moving on to Hungary.[139] On 17 October 2015, Hungary closed its border with Croatia to migrants, forcing diversion of migrants to Slovenia instead.[139] However, Slovenia, with a population of only two million, stated that it would only be able to admit 2,500 people per day, stranding thousands of migrants in Croatia as well as Serbia and Macedonia, while new migrants continued to add to this backlog.[140][141]

In late December 2015, Slovenia put up a razor-wire fence on the border with western Croatian regions of Istria and Gorski kotar, the latter of which is a habitat of the lynx and the brown bear, both of which are endangered and protected by law in Croatia. Local hunters have found deer having been killed by the fence. The WWF and the inhabitants of the regions from both sides of the border have protested against the decision to put up the razor-wire fence.[142][143][144]

On 9 March 2016, Croatia started implementing border restrictions on the border with Serbia, aiming to reinstate the Schengen rules.[145]

Denmark

Starting on 6 September 2015, large groups of migrants who declined to apply for asylum in Germany started passing the Danish borders with the majority heading for Sweden.[146] Initially the Danish police attempted to register all migrants in accordance with EU rules, but many refused (instead wishing to seek asylum in Sweden), eventually resulting in a scuffle of about 50 people on 9 September at the Padborg Rail Station.[147][148] On 9 September, Denmark suspended all rail and ferry links with Germany (reopened the following day). On the same day parts of the E45 motorway was closed for vehicles to avoid accidents as hundreds of migrants were walking along it in southern Jutland towards Sweden.[148] It was reopened a few hours later when the walking migrants exited the motorway.[149] After initial uncertainty surrounding the rules, it was decided that migrants wishing to continue to other Nordic countries and refusing to seek asylum in Denmark would be allowed to pass.[146] In the five weeks following 6 September alone, approximately 28,800 migrants passed the Danish borders. 3,500 of these applied for asylum in Denmark and the remaining continued to other Nordic countries.[150] After Sweden introduced ID checks on the Danish border to prevent undocumented migrants from coming to Sweden, Denmark also reintroduced border controls on the Danish-German border in January 2016, citing fear of accumulation of illegal migrants on their way to Sweden as one of the reasons for this decision.[151]

France

See also: Calais jungle

Migrants entering France illegally by train from Italy were returned to Italy by French police since border controls were introduced in July 2015.[152][153] France has been perceived as "unwelcoming" and having a poor job market by migrants.[154] Thus many of them seek to enter the United Kingdom, resulting in camps of migrants around Calais, where one of the Eurotunnel entrances is located. During the summer of 2015, at least nine people died in attempts to reach Britain, including falling from, or being hit by trains, and drowning in a canal at the Eurotunnel entrance.[155] Migrants from the camps also attempt to enter trucks bound for the UK, with some truck drivers being threatened by migrants, and cargo being stolen or damaged.[156] In response, a UK financed fence was built along the A 216 highway in Calais.[157][158] At the camp near Calais, known as the Jungle, riots broke out when authorities started to demolish the illegally constructed campsite on 29 January 2015.[159] Amid the protests, which included hunger strikes, thousands of refugees living in the camp where relocated to France's "first international-standard refugee camp" in Grande-Synthe.[160][161]

Finland

On 13 September 2015 it was reported that the local authorities had estimated the flow of 300 asylum seekers per day entering via the northern land border from Sweden into Tornio, which is the main route of migration flow into Finland.[162] The total number of asylum seekers for the year was reported to be over 2.6 times the total amount for the whole of the previous year.[163] During October 2015, 7,058 new asylum seekers arrived in Finland. In mid-October the number of asylum seekers entering Finland during 2015 reached 27,000, which is, in relation to the country's size, the fourth-largest in Europe.[164] In late November, the number passed 30,000, nearly ten-fold increase compared to the previous year.[165] More than 60% of asylum seekers who arrived during 2015 came from Iraq.[166] In late October, The Finnish Immigration Service (Migri) changed its guidelines about areas in Iraq which are recognized as safe by the Finnish authorities,[166] putting Iraqi asylum seekers under closer scrutiny.[167] The Interior Minister Petteri Orpo estimated that two in three of recent asylum seekers come to Finland in hopes of higher standard of living. In November, the Permanent Secretary of the Interior Ministry stated that approximately 60–65% of the recent applications for asylum will be denied.[164] In September, the processing time of an asylum application was estimated to be extended from normal six months up to two years.[168] In late November, the reception centers were reported to be running out of space, forcing the authorities resorting to refurbished shipping containers and tents to house new asylum seekers.[165][169] Interior Minister Petteri Orpo has announced that special repatriation centers would be established. These centers would be inhabited by the asylum seekers whose applications were declined. While he stressed that these camps would not be prisons, he described the inhabitants would be under strict surveillance.[170] In January 2016, Yle, Finland's national public-broadcasting company, reported that a Russian border guard had admitted that the Federal Security Service was enabling migrants to enter Finland.[171]

Germany

Migrants waiting for their entry to Germany
Migrants arriving in Munich

Germany has been the migrants' most sought-after destination.[90][91] Germany's asylum practice is to be based on article 16a of her Basic Law.[172] Germany decided to use the derogation possibility of article 17 of the Dublin III Regulation for humanitarian reasons to let in more migrants.[173] According to The Wall Street Journal, this "unilateral" open-arms policy[174] triggered both a domestic and an international backlash.[175] However, Germany immediately began to deploy a quota system to distribute asylum seekers among all German states.[176] In September 2015 the federal states reached the brink of their capacities and criticised the Government in Berlin.[177]

Protesters gather outside Cologne Cathedral after New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany, January 2016

The Interior Minister announced on 13 September 2015 the introduction of temporary controls on the southern border with Austria and explained the measure with reference to security concerns.[178] The restrictions incorporated a temporary suspension of rail travel from Austria and allowed spot checks on automobiles.[179][180] On 5 October the German tabloid Bild claimed to possess a secret document stating that the number of asylum seekers would increase to 1.5 million by the end of 2015.[181] Germany has followed a policy of treating migrants under 18 years of age as "children first and refugees second," giving them − according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child − the same rights as German children.[182]

In late October 2015, the small village of Sumte, population 102, was told by Lower Saxony officials that it would receive 750 asylum-seekers.[183]

In January 2016, 18 of 31 men suspected of violent assaults on women in Cologne on New Year's Eve were identified as asylum seekers, prompting calls by German officials to deport convicted criminals who may be seeking asylum;[184] these sexual attacks brought about a fresh wave of anti-immigrant anxiety and protest across Europe.[185]

Between January and December 2015, 1,091,894 arrivals of asylum seekers were registered in Germany's "EASY" system for the first distribution of asylum seekers among Germany's federal states; however, asylum applications in 2015 were only 476,649, because many asylum seekers had not formally applied for asylum yet or did not stop in Germany and moved on to other EU states.[186]

In February 2016, the German government admitted that more than 130,000 asylum seekers disappeared. Some probably went to other European countries, while others continued to live illegally in Germany.[187] Merkel's immigration policies were criticised by CSU-chairman Horst Seehofer.[188]

In October 2016 Angela Merkel travelled to Mali and Niger to discuss how their governments could improve conditions which cause people to flee those countries and how illegal migration could be reduced.[189]

In January 2017 it was reported by Deutsche Welle that welfare authorities in Braunschweig had been targeted in 300 cases of migrant fraud as individuals registered many identities in order to receive multiple welfare payouts. Each case of migrant fraud averaged thousands of euros of loss, with the most prolific fraudster having registered 12 identities. The majority of the cases concerned Sudanese migrants. Authorities had at the times been overwhelmed by registering 2000 migrants per day and normal checks like fingerprints are now retroactively required.[190]

Greece

Island groups of the Aegean Sea
13 December 2015: A group of Syrian refugees arrive by boat from Turkey to airport area of Mytilini, Lesvos island, Greece.

Migrants arrive from the Middle East making the 6-kilometre (4 mi) water crossing to the Greek islands of Chios, Kos Lesbos and Kastellorizo, which are close to Turkey and are thus a quick and easy access border into Europe.[191][192][193][194] As of June 2015, 124,000 migrants had arrived into Greece, a 750% increase from 2014, mainly refugees stemming from the wars in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Greece appealed to the European Union for assistance, whilst the UNCHR European Director Vincent Cochetel said facilities for migrants on the Greek islands were "totally inadequate" and the islands in "total chaos".[195]

Frontex's Operation Poseidon, aimed at patrolling the Aegean Sea, is badly underfunded and undermanned, with only 11 coastal patrol vessels, one ship, two helicopters, two aircraft and a budget of €18 million.[196]

Human traffickers charge illegal immigrants $1,000 to $1,500 for the 25-minute boat ride from Bodrum, Turkey to Kos.[191] In August 2015, "hundreds" of boats made the crossing carrying illegal immigrants every night.[191] The migrants travel onward to Thessaloniki in the mainland of Greece and estimate that it will cost them €3,000 to €4,000 to reach Germany, and €10,000 or €12,000 to reach Britain.[191] Desperate migrants have fought brawls over places in boats leaving Bodrum for Kos.[197]

Airlines charge passengers usually less than $400 for oneway economy class tickets from Turkey to Germany or Britain,[198] but a rule in the Schengen Agreement requires airlines to check that all passengers have a visa or are exempt from visa.[199]

In September 2015, the photos of dead 3-year-old Alan Kurdi, who drowned when he and his family were in a small inflatable boat which capsized shortly after leaving Bodrum trying to reach the Greek island of Kos, made headlines around the world. Konstantinos Vardakis, the top EU diplomat in Baghdad, told The New York Times that at least 250 Iraqis per day had been landing on Greek islands between mid-August and early September 2015.[200]

On 27 January 2016, the European Commission accused Greece of neglecting its obligations under the Schengen agreement to carry out external border controls, saying that a visit by EU inspectors in November 2015 found that Greece was failing to identify and register arrivals properly, to fingerprint everyone, and to check travel documents for authenticity and against security databases.[201] On 12 February, the EU gave Greece a three months deadline to fix its border controls, or other member states could be authorized to extend border controls for up to two years instead of the normal six months.[202]

On 11 February, NATO announced that it was going to deploy ships in the Aegean Sea to deter people smugglers taking migrants from Turkey to Greece. Nato chief Jens Stoltenberg said the mission would not be about "stopping or pushing back refugee boats", but about intelligence gathering and sharing information with Turkey and Greece, both NATO allies.[203]

On 1 March 2016, the Greek government asked the EU for 480 million euros in emergency funds to shelter 100,000 refugees.[204]

The Republic of Macedonia closed its border with Greece on 9 March 2016 where 12,000 to 13,000 migrants were stuck at Idomeni on the Greek side, while the total number of migrants throughout Greece are estimated to be more than 50,000.[205]

Hungary

File:Number of migrants in Hungary per week.pdf

Migrants in Hungary on their march towards Austria

Migrants taking the Balkans route cross into the Schengen Area first in Greece. In June 2015, Hungary said it was contemplating countermeasures against the influx of illegal immigrants from Serbia, a non-EU and non-Schengen state.[206]

On 17 June 2015, the Hungarian government announced the construction of a 4-metre-high (13 ft), 175-kilometre-long (109 mi) fence along its southern border with Serbia.[207][208] The European Commission warned EU members against steps that contravene EU obligations and urged members like Hungary to find other ways to cope with an inflow of illegal migrants.[209] The first phase of the construction was finished at the end of August and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that it would be fully completed by the end of 2015.[210]

On 3 September 2015, Hungary's prime minister, Viktor Orbán, defended the country's management of the migrant situation internally, notwithstanding chaos at Budapest's main international rail station, while criticising Germany and Europe overall for not dissuading migrants from entering Europe.[211] On the same day, Hungarian police let migrants board a train in Budapest heading west, then stopped it in Bicske and tried to transport migrants to a registration camp there. The migrants refused to cooperate and remained on the train, which did not travel further west.[212]

On 4 September 2015, about a thousand of the migrants at Railway Station East (Keleti Pályaudvar) set off by foot toward Austria and Germany.[213][214] On the same night, the Hungarian government decided to send buses to transport illegal migrants to Hegyeshalom, on the border with Austria.[215]

On 14 September 2015, it was reported that the Hungarian police was blocking the route from Serbia, and that the regular entry-point was heavily manned with officers, soldiers and helicopters hovering above,[216] sealing this border with a razor wire[217][218] and detaining migrants crossing the border illegally with the threat of arrest and criminal charges.[218] On 15 September 2015, Hungary sealed its border with Serbia. Several hundred migrants broke the fence between Hungary and Serbia twice on Wednesday, 16 September, and threw chunks of concrete and water bottles over the fence. Hungarian police reacted with tear gas and water cannons at Horgoš 2 border crossing. Belgrade protested these actions. A 20-year-old Iraqi refugee was sentenced to deportation and one-year entry ban in Hungary, as well as €80 in court fees, according to the new law put into action a few days before.[219] On 18 September, Hungary started building another fence, this time along the border with Croatia, a fellow EU member state, but not part of the Schengen Area.[220] Within two weeks, tens of thousands of refugees crossed from Croatia into Hungary, most of whom went toward the Austrian border.[221]

On 16 October 2015, Hungary announced that it would close its green border with Croatia to migrants,[139] and since 17 October onward, thousands of migrants daily were diverted to Slovenia instead.[222]

On 9 March 2016 Hungary declared a state of emergency for the whole of the country, and was deploying 1500 soldiers to the borders.[223][224]

Italy

Migrants arriving in Italy by sea, 1997–2015[225]

Since 2014, thousands of migrants have been trying every month to cross the Central Mediterranean to Italy, risking their lives on unsafe boats including fishing trawlers.[226] Many of them are fleeing poverty-stricken homelands or war-torn countries and seeking economic opportunity within the EU.[227][228] Italy, and, in particular, its southern island of Lampedusa, receives enormous numbers of Africans and Middle-Easterners transported by smugglers operating along the ungoverned coast of the failed state of Libya.[227][229]

Migrants arrived in Lampedusa

In 2014, 170,100 migrants arrived in Italy by sea, a 296% increase compared to 2013. 141,484 of the travellers ferried over from Libya. Most of the migrants had come from Syria, Eritrea and various countries in West Africa.[230]

From January to April 2015, about 1600 migrants died on the route from Libya to Lampedusa, making it the deadliest migrant route in the world.[231] There were 153,842 Mediterranean sea arrivals to Italy in 2015, 9% less than the previous year; most of the refugees and migrants came from Eritrea, Nigeria and Somalia, whereas the number of Syrian refugees sharply decreased, as most of them took the Eastern Mediterranean route from Turkey to Greece.[232]

Malta

Rescued migrants near Malta, October 2013

Between 2008 and 2012, Malta received on average the highest number of asylum seekers compared to its national population: 21.7 applicants per 1,000 inhabitants.[233]:13 In 2011, most of these asylum applications were submitted by nationals of Somalia, Nigeria, Eritrea and Syria.[233]:26 In 2012, more than half of the requests were by Somalian nationals alone.[233]:45 In a 2013 news story, The Guardian reported, "Before Malta joined the EU in 2004, immigration levels were negligible. Because it is located close to north Africa, it has now become a gateway for migrants seeking entry to Europe."[234]

In 2015, very few migrants arrived in Malta compared to previous years, since most of those rescued were taken to Italy. In September, 78 migrants rescued by the Armed Forces of Malta refused to be brought to Malta.[235] They insisted on going to Italy, and were eventually taken there.[236]

Melilla and Ceuta (Spain)

Melilla and Ceuta, two autonomous Spanish cities on the north coast of Africa bordering Morocco, are the only EU territories to share a land border with an African country.[237] The number of undocumented migrants hoping to reach the EU via Melilla or Ceuta grew in 2014.[238] Between January and September 2015, only 100 people out of 3700 hopefuls have managed to cross the Melilla border fence, down from 2100 people from 19,000 attempts the previous year.[239] In October 2015, 165 people were rescued from fourteen attempts to cross the Strait of Gibraltar to reach Ceuta.[240] In a report published on 17 November 2015, Amnesty International called on Spain to cease cooperation with Morocco on immigration matters because of alleged human rights abuses on the Melilla and Ceuta borders. Amnesty said it has "photographs, images and evidence" of "blows with sticks, feet and stones" on migrants attempting to get to Spain.[241] Other reports accuse Spain of using rubber bullets and tear gas to prevent migrants from reaching Spanish territory. The Spanish Government said that it has now banned its border guards from using rubber bullets to repel migrants.[242] In March 2016, migrants were discovered hiding in "impossibly small spaces" in a car at the Melilla border crossing, with some in the dashboard area and some under the back seat. According to the authorities, people are found hiding in cars almost every day.[243]

Norway (Russia-Norway border)

Border crossing between Russia and Norway near Kirkenes

The number of migrants crossing from Russia into Norway increased from a handful in the first half of 2015 to 420 asylum seekers crossing by bicycle in September 2015 alone.[244] As of 11 December 2015 over 4,000 migrants had crossed the Northern border, and the Norwegian government vowed to send all migrants with Russian residence visa back to Russia even if they were from countries experiencing conflicts such as Afghanistan.[245]

Slovenia

Migrants in Slovenia, 23 October 2015

Slovenia established temporary controls on the otherwise unsupervised border with Hungary in the north east on 17 September 2015, following Germany and Austria's similar actions.[246] On 18 September, Slovenia experienced the first larger and largely illegal border crossing occurrences, coming mostly from Croatia, already overwhelmed by the large influx of migrant groups.

On the evening of 18 September, the Slovenian riot police used pepper spray on a bridge at the Harmica border to prevent migrants and activists from crossing the border from Croatia.[247]

By midday of 19 September, the country had registered around 1500 migrants, with all of them being accommodated in temporary reception camps or asylum centres. The largest traffic was seen at Obrežje border crossing, Dobova border crossing and Brežice. Prime Minister Miro Cerar visited the reception centre in Brežice on Saturday, stressing that Slovenia had the situation under control, while criticising the Croatian government for being uncooperative.[248]

large group of migrants moving along a road, being directed by the army and police
Arrival of migrants in Dobova, Slovenia

There were also various humanitarian and non-governmental organisations aiding the migrants on the border, coming mostly from Slovenia, Croatia and Austria.[249]

On 18 October 2015, Slovenia began restricting admission to 2,500 migrants per day, stranding migrants in Croatia as well as Serbia and Macedonia.[140][141]

From 18 October, the country began receiving large numbers of refugees, which soon exceeded the upper admission limit of 2,500. On 22 October, the police reported 12,600 migrant arrivals in 24 hours, reportedly a record, and more than Hungary had received in any one day. The Slovenian government also passed a law giving the army more powers and asked the EU for aid. The latter responded by sending the commissioner for migration to Slovenia, and announcing a "mini EU summit".[250] On the same day the Slovenian government accused the Croatian police of leading migrants through cold waters in an effort to bypass the Slovene controls by crossing the green border, and released a night time thermovision video apparently showing the events on the preceding night.[251][252]

By 24 October, Slovenia had reported more than 56,000 total migrant arrivals.[253]

On 10 November, Prime Minister Cerar announced that Slovenia would impose temporary technical hurdles to control migrants, but that the country would not close border crossings.[254] On 11 November, Slovenian military personnel began the construction of the fence consisting of razor wire.[255] The Austrian minister of the interior Johanna Mikl-Leitner expressed full support for the Slovenian government's action on the border with Croatia.[256]

On 23 February 2016, German press noted that Slovenia decided to deploy army on the border facing Croatia, to assist the police. It was noted, that the bill did not approve military action, however noting that the army was still authorized to use force in the case of emergency.[257]

Sweden

In November 2015, Sweden reintroduced border controls for arrivals, including the Öresund Bridge. This did not have so much effect on the inflow of asylum seekers, since they had the right to apply for asylum once they were on Swedish ground. In December 2015, Sweden passed a temporary law that allows the government to oblige all transport companies to check that their passengers carry valid photographic identification before border crossing. The new law came into effect on 21 December 2015 and is valid until 21 December 2018.[258] The government decided that the new rules will apply from 4 January 2016 until 4 July 2016. The new law led to the mandatory train change and passage through border control at Copenhagen Airport station for travellers between Copenhagen and Sweden, and with a reduction in service frequency.[259] On the first day of border controls this led to a reduction in the number of migrants arriving to southern Sweden from the previous hundreds to some dozens.[260] Within hours of Swedish border control becoming effective, Denmark in turn created a border control between Denmark and Germany.[261] The migration pattern also changed with the majority of those arriving by ferry from Germany to Trelleborg instead of by train to Hyllie station,[260] bypassing the border control between Denmark and Germany.[261] Migrants then started taking taxis in greater numbers over the Öresund Bridge in order to evade identification.[262] Three days later, a Danish cab driver was arrested for human trafficking near the Øresund Bridge.[263] In January 2016 newspaper Sydsvenskan reported that the migration flow had led to an increase of MRSA infections in southernmost Skåne province where many migrants are received, from 160 cases in 2005 to more than 635 cases in 2015.[264] In January 2016 interior minister Anders Ygeman said that Sweden was rejecting about 45 percent of asylum applications, which meant that around 60,000–80,000 of the 160,000 asylum-seekers who applied for asylum in 2015 could be deported in coming years.[265][266]

Turkey

The vast majority of migrants and refugees entering Europe by sea in 2015, nearly half million by September, arrived from Turkey, according to the United Nations.[267] Turkish officials attempting to deter migration facilitated by smugglers have detained 57,000 travellers and over 100 human traffickers in 2015 through September.[267]

Triggers of the summer 2015 crisis

Concert "Voices for Refugees" at the Heldenplatz in Vienna, Austria, 3 October 2015

Factors cited as immediate triggers or causes of the sudden and massive increase in migrant numbers in the summer of 2015 along the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Balkan route (Turkey-Greece-Macedonia-Serbia-Hungary) include:

  • In mid-June 2015 the government of Macedonia announced that it was changing its policy on migrants entering the country illegally. Previously, migrants were forbidden from transiting Macedonia, causing those who chose to do so to take perilous, clandestine modes of transit, such as walking along railroad tracks at night. Beginning in June, migrants were given three-day, temporary asylum permits, enabling them to travel by train and road.[268][269]
  • The opening of the Macedonia route enabled migrants from the Middle East to take very short, inexpensive voyages from the coast of Turkey to the Greek Islands, instead of the far longer, more perilous, and far more expensive voyage from Libya to Italy. According to the Washington Post, in addition to reducing danger, this lowered the cost from around $5–6,000 to $2–3,000.[269]
  • According to the Washington Post, German Chancellor Angela Merkel's public pledges (at a time of diplomatic standoff with the government of Hungary at the beginning of September, when tens of thousands of refugees were attempting to cross Hungarian territory without getting processed for asylum application in the country) that Germany would offer temporary residency to refugees, combined with television footage of cheering Germans welcoming refugees and migrants arriving in Munich,[270] persuaded large numbers of people to move from Turkey up the Balkan route.[269]
  • The Syrian government under Bashar al-Assad announced increased military conscription, and simultaneously made it easier for Syrians to obtain passports, leading Middle East policy experts to speculate that he was implementing a policy to encourage opponents of his regime to leave the country.[269]

Closure of green borders

The entry routes through the Balkans have experienced the greatest intensity of border restrictions in the 2015 EU migrant crisis, according to The New York Times[271] and other sources, as follows:

From To Situation
Turkey Greece Greece built a razor-wire fence in 2012 along its short land border with Turkey.[271] In September 2015, Turkish provincial authorities gave approximately 1,700 migrants three days to leave the border zone.[272]
Turkey Bulgaria As a result of Greece's diversion of migrants to Bulgaria from Turkey, Bulgaria built its own fence to block migrants crossing from Turkey.[271]
Greece Macedonia In August 2015, a police crackdown on migrants crossing from Greece failed in Macedonia, causing the police to instead turn their attention to diverting migrants north, into Serbia.[271] However, in November 2015, Macedonia began erecting a fence along its southern border with Greece, with the intention of channeling the flow of migrants through an official checkpoint as opposed to limiting the inflow of migrants.[273] Beginning in November 2015, Greek police permitted only Syrians, Iraqis, and Afghans to cross into Macedonia.[274] In February, Macedonian soldiers began erecting a second fence meters away from the previous one.[275]
Serbia Hungary Hungary built a 175-km (109-mi) razor-wire fence along its border with Serbia in 2015.[271]
Croatia Hungary Hungary built a 40-km (25-mi) razor-wire fence along its border with Croatia in 2015.[271] On 16 October 2015, Hungary announced that it would close off its border with Croatia to migrants.[139]
Croatia Slovenia Slovenia blocked transit from Croatia in September 2015,[271] pepper spraying migrants trying to cross.[276] Although re-opening the border, by 18 October 2015, Slovenia restricted crossing to 2,500 migrants per day.[141]
Hungary Austria Austria planned to put border controls into effect along its border with Hungary in September 2015, and officials said the controls could stay in effect under European Union rules for up to six months.[271]
Slovenia Austria
Russia Norway On 25 January, it was reported that Russia closed its northern border checkpoint with Norway for asylum seekers to return to Russia.[277] While the announcement was noted as closure of the border, it apparently was considering only returning asylum seekers, thus only partial closure of the border.
Russia Finland On 4 December, Finland temporarily closed one of its land border crossings by lowering the border gate and blocking the road with a car. The closure was reported to only apply for asylum seekers and lasted only a couple of hours.[278] On 27 December 2015, Finland closed its Russian border for people riding on bicycles, reportedly enforcing the rule only on Raja-Jooseppi and Salla checkpoints. Earlier, more and more asylum seekers had crossed the border on bikes.[279]
Austria Germany Germany placed temporary travel restrictions from Austria by rail in 2015[271] but has imposed the least onerous restrictions for migrants entering by the Western Balkans route in 2015, in the context that Chancellor Angela Merkel had insisted that Germany will not limit the number of refugees it accepts.[271]

Incidents

Several serious accidents and deaths have occurred in Europe as a result of migrant smuggling, both in the Mediterranean Sea, due to the capsizing of crowded and unseaworthy migrant vessels, and on European soil, due to the use of standard cargo trucks by smugglers to transport migrants.

Reactions

European Union

After the migrant shipwreck on 19 April 2015, Italy's Premier Matteo Renzi spoke by telephone to French President François Hollande and to Maltese Prime Minister Joseph Muscat.[280][281] They agreed to call for an emergency meeting of European interior ministers to address the problem of migrant deaths. Renzi condemned human trafficking as a "new slave trade"[282] while Prime Minister Muscat said 19 April shipwreck was the "biggest human tragedy of the last few years". Hollande described people traffickers as "terrorists" who put migrant lives at risk. The German government's representative for migration, refugees and integration, Aydan Özoğuz, said that with more migrants likely to arrive as the weather turned warmer, emergency rescue missions should be restored. "It was an illusion to think that cutting off Mare Nostrum would prevent people from attempting this dangerous voyage across the Mediterranean", she said.[283][284][284][285] Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, called for collective EU action ahead of a meeting in Luxembourg on Monday 20 April.[285][286]

In a press conference, Renzi confirmed that Italy had called an "extraordinary European council" meeting as soon as possible to discuss the tragedy,[287] various European leaders agreed with this idea.[288][289] Cameron tweeted on 20 April that he "supported" Renzi's "call for an emergency meeting of EU leaders to find a comprehensive solution" to the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean.[290] He later confirmed that he would attend an emergency summit of European leaders on Thursday.[291]

On 20 April 2015, the European Commission proposed a 10-point plan to tackle the crisis. It focused on prevention, resettlement in the West, and repatriation.[292] [293]

Border patrol operations

Further information: Operation Triton and EU Navfor Med
In June 2015 Royal Navy ship HMS Enterprise replaced HMS Bulwark in the mission to rescue migrants crossing the Mediterranean from Libya to Italy.[294]

The Guardian and Reuters noted that doubling the size of Operation Triton would still leave the mission with fewer resources than the previous Italian-run rescue option (Operation Mare Nostrum) whose budget was more than 3 times as large, had 4 times the number of aircraft[295] and had a wider mandate to conduct search and rescue operations across the Mediterranean Sea.[296]

On 23 April 2015, a five-hour emergency summit was held and EU heads of state agreed to triple the budget of Operation Triton to €120 million for 2015–2016.[297] EU leaders claimed that this would allow for the same operational capabilities as Operation Mare Nostrum had had in 2013–2014. As part of the agreement the United Kingdom agreed to send HMS Bulwark, two naval patrol boats and three helicopters to join the Operation.[297] On 5 May 2015 it was announced by the Irish Minister of Defence Simon Coveney that the LÉ Eithne would also take part in the response to the crisis.[298] Amnesty International immediately criticised the EU response as "a face-saving not a life-saving operation" and said that "failure to extend Triton's operational area will fatally undermine today's commitment".[299]

On 18 May 2015, the European Union decided to launch a new operation based in Rome, called EU Navfor Med, under the command of the Italian Admiral Enrico Credendino,[300] to undertake systematic efforts to identify, capture and dispose of vessels used by migrant smugglers.[301] The first phase of the operation, launched on 22 June, involved naval surveillance to detect smugglers' boats and monitor smuggling patterns from Libya towards Italy and Malta. The second phase, called "Operation Sophia", started in October, and was aimed at disrupting the smugglers' journeys by boarding, searching, seizing and diverting migrant vessels in international waters. The operation uses six EU warships.[302][303] As of April 2016, more than 13,000 migrants were rescued from the sea and 68 alleged smugglers were arrested in the course of the operation.[304]

The EU seeks to increase the scope of EU Navfor Med so that a third phase of the operation would include patrols inside Libyan waters in order to capture and dispose of vessels used by smugglers.[305][306][307] Land operations on Libya to destroy vessels used by smugglers had been proposed, but commentators note that such an operation would need a UN or Libyan permit.

Relocation and resettlement of asylum seekers

The European Parliament has voted in favour of a migrant quota system to make sure that asylum seekers are distributed more equally across member states.[308]

The escalation in April 2015 of shipwrecks of migrant boats in the Mediterranean led European Union leaders to reconsider their policies on border control and processing of migrants.[285] On 20 April the European Commission proposed a 10-point plan that included the European Asylum Support Office deploying teams in Italy and Greece for joint processing of asylum applications.[309] Also in April 2015 German chancellor Angela Merkel proposed a new system of quotas to distribute non-EU asylum seekers around the EU member states.[310]

In September 2015, as thousands of migrants started to move from Budapest to Vienna, Germany, Italy and France demanded asylum-seekers to be shared more evenly between EU states. Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker proposed to distribute 160,000 asylum seekers among EU states under a new migrant quota system to be set out. Jean Asselborn, the Luxembourg foreign minister, called for the establishment of a European Refugee Agency, which would have the power to investigate whether every EU member state is applying the same standards for granting asylum to migrants. Viktor Orbán, the prime minister of Hungary, criticised the European Commission warning that "tens of millions" of migrants could come to Europe. Asselborn declared to be ashamed of Orbán.[311][312] German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier said that EU members reluctant to accept compulsory migrant quotas may have to be outvoted: "if there is no other way, then we should seriously consider to use the instrument of a qualified majority".[313]

Leaders of the Visegrád Group (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) declared in a September meeting in Prague that they will not accept any compulsory long-term quota on redistribution of immigrants.[314] Czech Government Secretary for European Affairs commented that "if two or three thousand people who do not want to be here are forced into Czech Republic, it is fair to assume that they will leave anyway. The quotas are unfair to the refugees, we can't just move them here and there like a cattle." According to the Czech interior minister Milan Chovanec, from 2 September 2015, Czech Republic was offering asylum to every Syrian caught by the police notwithstanding the Dublin Regulation: out of about 1,300 apprehended until 9 September, only 60 decided to apply for asylum in Czech Republic, with the rest continuing to Germany or elsewhere.[315] Czech President Miloš Zeman said that Ukrainian refugees fleeing War in Donbass should be also included in migrant quotas.[316] In November 2015, the Czech Republic started a program of medical evacuations of selected Syrian refugees from Jordan (400 in total). Under the program, severely sick children were selected for treatment in the best Czech medical facilities, with their families getting asylum, airlift and a paid flats in the Czech Republic after stating clear intent to stay in the country. However, from the initial 3 families that had been transported to Prague, one immediately fled to Germany. Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka stated that this signals that quota system will not work either.[317]

On 7 September 2015, France announced that it would accept 24,000 asylum-seekers over two years; Britain announced that it would take in up to 20,000 refugees, primarily vulnerable children and orphans from camps in Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; and Germany pledged US$6.7 billion to deal with the migrant crisis.[318][319] However, also on 7 September 2015, both Austria and Germany warned that they would not be able to keep up with the current pace of the influx and that it would need to slow down first.[320]

National governments' position in the European Union Justice and Home Affairs Council majority vote to relocate 120,000 refugees:
  Yes
  Opt-out
  Abstention
  No
  Non-EU state

On 22 September 2015, European Union interior ministers meeting in the Justice and Home Affairs Council approved a plan to relocate 120,000 asylum seekers over two years from the frontline states Italy, Greece and Hungary to all other EU countries (except Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which have opt-outs). The relocation plan applies to asylum seekers "in clear need of international protection" (those with a recognition rate higher than 75%, i.e. Syrians, Eritreans and Iraqis) – 15,600 from Italy, 50,400 from Greece and 54,000 from Hungary – who will be distributed among EU states on the basis of quotas taking into account the size of economy and population of each state, as well as the average number of asylum applications. The decision was taken by majority vote, with the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia voting against and Finland abstaining. Since Hungary voted against the relocation plan, its 54,000 asylum seekers would not be relocated for now, and could be relocated from Italy and Greece instead.[321][322][323][324] Czech Interior Minister tweeted after the vote: "Common sense lost today."[325] Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico is threatening legal action over EU's mandatory migrant quotas at European Court of Justice in Luxembourg.[326] On 9 October, the first 20 Eritrean asylum seekers were relocated by plane from Italy to Sweden,[327] following the EU prerequisite fingerprinting in Italy as the first member country of asylum registration.[328]

On 25 October 2015, the leaders of Greece and other states along Balkan routes to wealthier nations of Europe, including Germany, agreed to set up holding camps for 100,000 asylum seekers.[329]

In the wake of November 2015 Paris attacks, Poland's European affairs minister designate Konrad Szymański stated that he sees no possibility of enacting the EU refugee relocation scheme,[330] saying, "We'll accept [refugees only] if we have security guarantees."[331] The attacks prompted European officials—particularly German officials—to re-evaluate their stance on EU policy toward migrants, especially in light of the ongoing European migrant crisis.[332][333] Many German officials believed a higher level of scrutiny was needed, and criticised the position of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, but the German Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel defended her stance, and pointed out that a lot of migrants were fleeing terrorism.[333]

On 12 November it was reported that Frontex was maintaining combined asylum seeker and deportation hotspots in Lesbos, Greece since October.[334]

On 15 December 2015, the EU proposed taking over border and coastal security operations at major migrant entry pressure points, via its Frontex operation.[335]

EU "Safe countries of origin" list

12 EU countries have national lists of so-called safe countries of origin. The European Commission is proposing one, common EU list designating as 'safe' all EU candidate countries (Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey), plus potential EU candidates Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.[336] The list would allow for faster returns to those countries, even though asylum applications from nationals of those countries would continue to be assessed on an individual, case-by-case basis.[336]

Valletta Summit on Migration

The Knot, a monument commemorating the Valletta Summit on Migration held in November 2015

Between 11 and 12 November 2015, a summit between European and African leaders was held in Valletta, Malta, to discuss the migrant crisis. The summit resulted in the EU setting up an Emergency Trust Fund to promote development in Africa, in return for African countries to help out in the crisis.[337]

Negotiations with Turkey

On 12 November 2015, at the end of a two-day summit in Malta, EU officials announced an agreement to offer Turkey 3 billion euros over two years to manage more than 2 million refugees from Syria who had sought refuge there, in return for curbing migration through Turkey into the EU.[338] In November, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reportedly threatened to send the millions of refugees in Turkey to EU member states if it was left to shoulder the burden alone.[339] The 3 billion euros fund for Turkey was approved by the EU in February 2016.[340] In January, the Netherlands proposed that the EU take in 250,000 refugees a year from Turkey in return for Turkey closing the Aegean sea route to Greece, but Turkey rejected the plan.[341] Starting on 7 March 2016, the EU met with Turkey for another summit in Brussels to negotiate further solutions of the crisis. An original plan saw for the closing statement to declare the Western Balkan route closed. However, this was met with criticism from German chancellor Angela Merkel.[342]

The EU proposed to the Turkish government a plan in which Turkey would take back every refugee who entered Greece (and thereby the EU) illegally. In return, the EU would accept one person into the EU who is registered as a Syrian refugee in Turkey for every Syrian sent back from Greece. Turkey countered the offer by demanding a further 3 billion Euros in order to help them in supplying the 2.7 million refugees in Turkey. In addition, the Turkish government asked for their citizens to be allowed to travel freely into the Schengen area starting at the end of June 2016, as well as an increased speed in talks of a possible accession of Turkey to the European Union.[343][344] The plan to send migrants back to Turkey was criticized on 8 March 2016 by the United Nations, which warned that it could be illegal to send the migrants back to Turkey in exchange of financial and political rewards.[345]

EU-Turkey deal

On 20 March 2016, the agreement between the EU and Turkey to tackle the migrant crisis came into effect. As the deal outlines, migrants arriving in Greece will be sent back to Turkey if they do not apply for asylum or their claim is rejected. Under the deal the EU would send around 2,300 experts, including security and migration officials and translators to Greece who will help implement the deal.[346]

The deal further outlines the mechanism that any irregular migrants who will cross into Greece from Turkey after 20 March 2016 will be sent back to Turkey based on individual case by case evaluation. Any Syrian who is returned to Turkey will be replaced by a Syrian resettled from Turkey to the EU, preferably the individuals who did not try to enter the EU illegally in the past and not exceeding a maximum of 72,000 people. Turkish nationals would have access to Schengen passport-free zone by June 2016 but this will not include non-Schengen countries such as Britain. The talks aiming at Turkey's accession to the EU as a member will start in July 2016 and a promised $3.3 billion aid will speedily be delivered to Turkey.[346][347]

Following the arrival of migrants from Greece to Turkey, they are given medical checks, and are registered and fingerprinted, then bussed to "reception and removal" centres[348] in Ankara, Erzurum, İzmir, Gaziantep, Kayseri, Van and Kırklareli,[349] and later deported to their home countries.[348]

The UNHCR said it was not a party to the EU-Turkey deal and it would not be involved in returns or detention.[350] Like the UNHCR, four aid agencies (Médecins Sans Frontières, the International Rescue Committee, the Norwegian Refugee Council and Save the Children) said they would not help implementing the EU-Turkey deal because blanket expulsion of refugees contravened international law.[351]

Amnesty International said that the agreement between EU and Turkey was "madness", and that 18 March 2016 was a dark day. By contrast, Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu described the day as a historic day, adding that Turkey and EU had the same challenges, the same future and the same destiny. Donald Tusk said that the migrants in Greece would not be sent back to dangerous areas.[352]

In April 2016, Turkish President Erdoğan threatened to allow the EU-Turkey deal to collapse.[353] Erdoğan said: "We have received lots of thanks for our action on the refugees and in the fight against terrorism. But we are not doing this for thanks."[353]

Effects on Dublin and Schengen rules

Main articles: Dublin Regulation and Schengen Area

Under the Dublin Regulation, an asylum seeker has to apply for asylum in the first EU country they entered, and, if they cross borders to another country after being fingerprinted, they can be returned to the former. As most asylum seekers try to reach Germany or Sweden through the 22-country 'borderless' Schengen area, enforcement of the Dublin Regulation became increasingly difficult during summer 2015, with countries allowing asylum seekers to transit their territories, or renouncing the right to return them, or reinstating border controls to prevent them from entering.

Refugees strike in front of the Budapest Keleti railway station, 3 September 2015
  • Hungary became overburdened by asylum applications and on 23 June 2015 it stopped receiving back its applicants who later crossed the borders to other EU countries and were detained there.[354]
  • On 24 August 2015, according to article 17 of the Dublin III Regulations Germany decided to suspend the general procedure as regards Syrian refugees and to process their asylum applications directly itself.[355] The change in Germany asylum policy incited large numbers of migrants to move towards Germany, especially after German chancellor Merkel stated that "there is no legal limit to refugee numbers".[356][357] Austria was meanwhile allowing unimpeded travel of migrants from Hungary to Germany through its own territory.
  • On 2 September 2015, the Czech Republic also decided to defy the Dublin Regulation and to offer Syrian refugees who have already applied for asylum in other EU countries and who reach the country to either have their application processed in the Czech Republic or to continue their journey elsewhere. The rules regarding immigrants of other nationalities were not changed—i.e., they would still face detention and return under the Dublin Regulation if trying to reach Germany through the Czech Republic (unless they had the right to apply for asylum in the Czech Republic).[358]
  • On 7 September, Austria announced it would phase out special measures that have allowed tens of thousands of migrants to cross its territory and will reinstate the Dublin Regulation.[359]
  • Between 9 and 10 September, Denmark closed rail lines with Germany, after hundreds of migrants refused to be registered in the country as asylum seekers and insisted on continuing their travel to Sweden.[360]
  • On 13 September, Germany established temporary border controls along its border with Austria, in order to "limit the current inflows" and "return to orderly procedures when people enter the country" according to German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere.[361] The Czech Republic reacted by increasing police presence along its border with Austria in order to be able to react if the mass of migrants that was in Austria tried to reach Germany through the Czech Republic. Czech police did not establish actual border control like Germany, but conducted random searches of vehicles and trains within the Czech territory not far from the border, with cars and helicopters patrolling also alongside the green border. Some Czech police officers were stationed also within Austria in order to give advance warning in case large numbers of migrants moved towards the Austrian–Czech borders.[362]
  • On 14 September, Austria established border controls alongside its border with Hungary. Austria deployed not only police officers, but also the army along its border.[363] Hungary also deployed army personnel along its border with Serbia[364] and announced that from 15 September, all persons who illegally enter the Hungarian territory of Schengen Area will be arrested and face from 3 to 5 years imprisonment.[365] Following Austrian chancellor Werner Faymann's remarks that Hungary's treatment of refugees is akin to Nazi policies,[366] Hungary started transporting refugees by buses directly to the borderline with Austria, where they were offloaded and were then trying to cross to Austria on foot.[367]
  • On 15 September it was reported that migrants in southern Hungary have started a hunger strike protesting the closure of the green border with Serbia.[368][369]
  • On 16 September it was reported that Hungarian police had used tear gas and a water cannon on protesting migrants demanding the opening of the green border, after they had thrown stones and concrete at the riot police.[370]
  • On 17 September, Croatia closed its border with Serbia.[371]

EU member states

'Syrian Refugees Welcome' rally in Vienna, 31 August 2015

 Austria – On 6 August 2015, Amnesty International Secretary General Heinz Patzelt inspected the refugee camp Bundesbetreuungsstelle in Traiskirchen where more than 4,800 refugees are housed while nearly 1,500 of them are sleeping outdoors. Medical expert Siroos Mirzaei from Amnesty International noted that the people had to wait for days in order to get medical help. The report also states that only four doctors are present at the refugee camp and that showers and toilets are in a dreadful condition. Mirzaei speaks about "floating excrement". According to Patzelt, "Austria is currently violating human rights and should focus on unattended children and minors".[372]

 Bulgaria – Bulgaria built a fence along its border with Turkey to prevent migrants from crossing through its territory in order to reach other EU countries. The fence is equipped with infrared cameras, motion sensors and wire, and is monitored by the army.[373][374]

 Croatia – Croatia will receive 1,064[375] migrants in the next two years from 2015 according to the EU plan. Croatia was originally supposed to receive 505 migrants, but decided to accept more—which makes it the only country in the EU, along with Estonia, which has done so.[376] On 29 August 2015 a Croatian daily newspaper Jutarnji list published an interview with a "senior government official" who said that the Croatian Government formed an interdepartmental working group that is working on a plan on how to accept these migrants. Croatia will in October 2015 send its delegation to the migrants' camps in Italy and Greece, which will choose immigrants from Syria and Eritrea that Croatia will accept. Criteria for the selection will be: 1. any kind of connection to Croatia, such as family in Croatia or a diploma from one of the Croatian Universities (while Croatia was member of Yugoslavia, many foreigners from Non-Aligned Movement countries, especially Syrians, were coming to Croatia to study), 2. education in occupations that are in demand in Croatia, and 3. families with small children.[377] In addition, Croatia shares a land border with Serbia. Therefore, there is a risk of a strong inflow of migrants from Serbia considering that Hungary erected a fence on its border with Serbia. Nearly 80% of the border consists of the Danube river, but the problem is the 70 kilometers long so-called "Green Border" near Tovarnik. According to the Croatian Minister of Interior Ranko Ostojić "police in the area has enough people and equipment to protect Croatian border against illegal immigrants".[130] Croatian President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna Pusić rejected the option of building a fence on Croatian border with Serbia.[131][132] Grabar-Kitarović has accused German Chancellor Angela Merkel of causing "chaos".[378]

Anti-immigration rally called "For our culture and safe country" in Prague, Czech Republic on 12 September 2015. According to the poll, over 70% of Czechs reject migration from the Middle East and Africa.[379]
Pro-migration rally in Prague, Czech Republic on 12 September 2015.

 Czech Republic – Czech Republic will receive 4,306 refugees according to quotas accepted by the European Commission.[380] Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka said the European Commission had failed in solving the crisis and expressed disagreement with proposed quotas saying: We reject the system of quotas. I do not consider it effective, I do not think it would help bring any solution. It makes no sense to discuss any numbers for now. He said Europe needs to complete what the European Council has agreed in the past and not to create new plans and proposals. He supports the idea of creating hotspots in Italy or Greece.[381] Czech President Miloš Zeman has expressed his dissatisfaction with the mass inflow of migrants to Europe on several occasions. In late August 2015 in an interview for radio "Frekvence 1" he said: "The reception of migrants from the Middle East and Northern Africa to the territory of Czech Republic brings with it three major risks – spread of infectious diseases, terrorism of the Islamic state and the creation of new ghettos." According to his opinion the majority of refugees are actually economic migrants that are not fleeing war. The President also thinks that migrants that are crossing Czech territory in order to go to Germany will stay in Czech Republic when Germany eventually stops accepting them, "which would then make Czech Republic to defend its boundaries with the police and army".[382]

Czech Deputy Prime Minister Andrej Babiš called for NATO intervention against human trafficking in the Mediterranean.[383] After talks with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg on migrant crisis issue Babiš said: "NATO is not interested in refugees, though Turkey, a NATO member, is their entrance gate to Europe and smugglers operate on Turkish territory".[384] Opposition TOP09's Miroslav Kalousek said that confident and wealthy countries such as the Czech Republic should not be afraid to accept 3,000 refugees and criticised President Zeman of giving rise to hatred to refugees, however he also shares disagreement with proposed quotas.[385] Former Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel Schwarzenberg has said that accepting 80,000 refugees would be suitable.[386] Minister of Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Jiří Dienstbier said the country is able to accept 7,000 —15,000 refugees now and should express solidarity and help other countries facing the strongest influx of refugees without quotas.[387]

 Denmark – Denmark temporarily closed rail links with Germany in September to stop migrants from illegally entering the country, and the E45 Motorway due to migrants on the road.[388] Denmark used the second highest amount on asylum seekers among European nations in 2015, compared to GDP (0.47% of GDP, after Sweden at 0.5%, followed by Germany and Italy at 0.2%, with remaining lower).[389] This is expected to rise in 2016.[389] In December 2015, the Danish Government announced that it would introduce new laws that will allow confiscation of cash above 3,000 DKK (c. 402 euros) and valuables worth more than 3,000 DKK from asylum seekers to pay the cost of their stay. Items of sentimental value (such as wedding rings, personal mobile phones and personal laptops) would not be taken.[390] In January 2016, the limit was changed to 10,000 DKK (c. 1,340 euros) and the law was passed.[391][392] Similar laws already exist in Switzerland (limit 1,000 Swiss francs [c. 913 euros]),[391] the Netherlands (limit 5,895 euros)[393][394] and some federal states of Germany (limit varies, 750 euros in Bavaria and 350 euros in Baden-Württemberg).[395] The Danish law was condemned from several sides, including by the UNHCR,[392][396] and caused one Danish politician, Jens Rohde, to defect from the Venstre party to the Social Liberal Party.[397] The Danish Police said that this would be unenforceable[398] and a review two months after the law came into effect showed that there had been no confiscations.[399]

 Finland – Many migrants arrived over the land border from Sweden. They were stopped from using ferries by carrier's responsibility rules. On 14 September, a former prime minister Matti Vanhanen noted that the government needed to regain control on who enters the country and to divert asylum seekers to special camps. He did not think that it would be appropriate that the asylum seekers could continue to freely move around.[400] Later on the same day, the Minister of the Interior Petteri Orpo, who is also a member of the National Coalition Party, noted that tightened border controls would be imposed on the northern border stations by the end of the week.[401] On 14 November 2015 Finnish prime minister Juha Sipilä noted that border controls need to be tightened and he expressed his concern that Schengen Agreement and freedom of movement was not working. He stressed, that border controls will be restored if Schengen agreement is not fixed. Furthermore, he noted, that Finnish National Bureau of Investigation will improve its cyber surveillance.[402] On the same day Finnish President Sauli Niinistö (elected from the National Coalition Party) was referred to have noted that national solutions needed to be formed if the Schengen agreement could not be repaired.[403]

 France – On 23 September, after the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia voted against a plan to relocate asylum-seekers arriving in Greece, Italy, and Hungary among other member states, French President François Hollande warned former Eastern Bloc countries against rejecting the EU mandatory migrant quotas: "Those who don't share our values, those who don't even want to respect those principles, need to start asking themselves questions about their place in the European Union."[404]

Migrants in Budapest railway station, with most heading to Germany, 4 September 2015

 Germany – Junior coalition partner, Vice Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel said that Germany could take in 500,000 refugees annually for the next several years.[405] German opposition to the government's admission of the new wave of migrants has been an increasingly tense political debate, coupled with a rise in anti-immigration protests.[406] Pegida, an anti-immigration movement flourished briefly in late 2014, followed by a new wave of anti-immigration protests in the late summer of 2015.[407] Chancellor Angela Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take.[408] In September 2015, enthusiastic crowds across the country welcomed arriving refugees and migrants.[409]

Horst Seehofer, leader of Christian Social Union in Bavaria, the sister party of Merkel's Christian Democratic Union attacked Merkel's policies in sharp language, threatened to sue the government in the high court, and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voiced dissatisfaction with Merkel. Meanwhile, Yasmin Fahimi, secretary-general of the Social Democratic Party, the junior partner of the ruling coalition, praised Merkel's policy allowing migrants in Hungary to enter Germany as "a strong signal of humanity to show that Europe's values are valid also in difficult times".[410] North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany's most populous state, was hiring more than 3,600 new teachers to manage the influx of an estimated 40,000 new refugee children in 2015.[411] CSU leader and Bavarian State Premier Horst Seehofer criticised Merkel's decision to allow in migrants: "We’re now in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision."[412] The German Interior Ministry estimates as many as 30% of asylum seekers arriving in Germany claiming to be from Syria are in fact from other countries,[413] and suggested to reduce EU funding for member countries that reject mandatory refugee quotas.[414]

In November 2015, there were talks inside the governing coalition to stop family unification for migrants for two years, and to establish "Transit Zones" on the border and – for migrants with low chances to get asylum approved – to be housed there until their application is approved. The issues are in conflict between the CSU who favours those new measures and threaten to leave the coalition without them, and the SPD who opposes them. Merkel has agreed to the measures.[415] The November 2015 Paris attacks prompted reevaluation of German officials' stance on the EU's policy toward migrants.[416] There appeared to be a consensus among officials, with the notable exception of Angela Merkel herself, that a higher level of scrutiny was needed in vetting migrants with respect to their mission in Germany.[416] However, while not officially limiting the influx numerically, Merkel has tightened asylum policy in Germany.[417]

Migrants crossing illegally into Hungary underneath the unfinished Hungary–Serbia border fence, 25 August 2015

 Hungary – Hungary has finished construction of the first phase of a fence on its southern border with Serbia in late August 2015, according to the Hungarian Ministry of Defence. The fence consists of three strands of NATO razor wire, and is 175 kilometers long. The next phase involves construction of a wire fence which will be approximately 4 meters high. In August, describing Hungary as, "under siege from human traffickers", Minister of the Prime Minister's Office János Lázár announced that the government would "defend this stretch of our borders with force", deploying 9,000 police to keep undocumented migrants out.[418]

Hungary's Prime Minister Viktor Orbán wrote in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: "Europe's response is madness. We must acknowledge that the European Union's misguided immigration policy is responsible for this situation."[419] Orbán also demanded an official EU list of "safe countries" to which migrants can be returned.[420] He said that "the moral, human thing is to make clear: ‘Please don’t come. Why do you have to go from Turkey to Europe? Turkey is a safe country. Stay there. It’s risky to come.’"[421] Hungary has adopted a list of countries deemed safe for transiting purposes. If an asylum seeker has passed through those countries, it is assumed that he could have found asylum there, and therefore he is not eligible for asylum in Hungary.[422] Speaking at United Nations General Assembly, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán called for "global quota" system to distribute refugees to all countries.[423]

Rescued migrants are brought to southern Italian ports, 28 June 2015

 Italy – Some Italian towns and cities have refused instructions from the national government to house migrants.[424] The Mafia Capitale investigation revealed that the Italian Mafia profits from the migrant crisis and exploits refugees.[425][426] Pope Francis thanked the Italian navy for migrant rescue effort.[427]

 Latvia – Latvia decided to receive 250 migrants in the next two years according to the EU plan. National Alliance party expressed its disapproval of such decision. On 4 August 2015 around 250 activists gathered in Riga on a protest against Government's decision on receiving migrants.

 Lithuania – Lithuania decided to receive 325 migrants, although after the increase of migrant flow in August 2015, its government did not discount the possibility of accepting a greater number of migrants later in the same year.[428]

 Malta – Prime Minister Joseph Muscat called the crisis "an ugly period" for Europe, and said that Malta will take in 75 migrants from Italy and Greece.[429] He also called for a 'global system of refugee quotas'.[430]

 Poland – Government officials stated that the country is ready to take 2,000 refugees.[431] Polish President Andrzej Duda rejected the European Union's proposal of compulsory migrant quotas, saying: "I won’t agree to a dictate of the strong. I won’t back a Europe where the economic advantage of the size of a population will be a reason to force solutions on other countries regardless of their national interests".[432]

 Portugal – In the next two years, Portugal is willing to offer shelter to 1,500 of the refugees flooding into Europe from the Mediterranean Sea. A source has told Diário de Notícias that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has already presented its counter-proposal to the European Commission (EC), which wanted Portugal to absorb 2,400 refugees.[433]

 Romania – The European Commission asked Romania to accept 6,351 refugees under an EU quota scheme. The EurActiv reported that "Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta said that his country will request admission to the EU's Schengen borderless area if mandatory quotas to accept refugees are decided by the Union".[434]

 Slovakia – Government of Slovakia stated that it would help with migration into Europe by receiving 200 migrants according to the EU plan, but on condition that the migrants are Christians.[435] Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico said: "I have only one question: who bombed Libya? Who caused problems in North Africa? Slovakia? No!" The Prime Minister proposed temporary refuge in his country for 500 migrants who have submitted requests for asylum in Austria, whose accommodation for refugees is overfilled, but as for 200 migrants that Slovakia will receive according to the EU plan, requires that these 500 are Christians as well. On 15 September 2015, Fico was reported saying that all crossing the border illegally would be detained.[436] Fico rejected European Commission plan to distribute migrants among EU member states, saying: "As long as I am prime minister, mandatory quotas will not be implemented on Slovak territory."[437] S&D Group leader has proposed to suspend Fico's SMER party from the Party of European Socialists (PES).[438]

 Sweden – As of 26 November, Sweden had received 146,000 asylum seekers in 2015, with a record of 39,000 applications in October. Most asylum seekers were Afghan, followed by Syrians and Iraqis.[439] In the beginning of November, the authorities warned they could no longer offer housing to all asylum seekers and on 12 November temporary border control was enacted (on the Swedish side) which reduced the number of migrants somewhat (migrants could still apply for asylum).[439] On 26 November 2015, Prime Minister Stefan Löfven said the system for welcoming migrants was about to collapse and that the cabinet would propose major new restrictions and measures to reduce the inflow of migrants. He called on other European countries to take more responsibility.[440] The government in December decided to introduce "carrier's responsibility" for trains and buses on the Öresund bridge which would introduce Swedish de facto border controls on the Danish side.[441]

 United Kingdom – British Home Secretary Theresa May said that it was important to help people living in war zones regions and refugee camps but "not the ones who are strong and rich enough to come to Europe".[442] British UKIP politician Nigel Farage stated that the exodus from Libya had been caused by NATO military intervention, approved by David Cameron and Nicolas Sarkozy, in the civil war in Libya.[443]

International

  • In April 2015, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticised the funding of search and rescue operations. Amnesty International says that the EU is "turning its back on its responsibilities and clearly threatening thousands of lives".[444][445]
Syrian refugees hosted in some Middle East countries (Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt); only a small fraction of all Syrian refugees have been resettled anywhere in the world. Data as of August 2015.[446]
  • Saudi Arabia offered to build 200 new mosques for Muslim refugees in Germany.[447]
  • Australian PM Tony Abbott said the tragedies were "worsened by Europe's refusal to learn from its own mistakes and from the efforts of others who have handled similar problems. Destroying the criminal people-smugglers was the centre of gravity of our border control policies, and judicious boat turnbacks was the key."[448]
  • In July 2013, Pope Francis visited the island of Lampedusa on his first official visit outside of Rome. He prayed for migrants, living and dead, and denounced their traffickers.[449] He expressed his concern about the loss of life and urged EU leaders to "act decisively and quickly to stop these tragedies from recurring".[450]
  • Lebanon's Education Minister Elias Bou Saab told British Prime Minister David Cameron that "as many as 2% of the refugees could be jihadis belonging to ISIS".[451]
  • U.S. President Barack Obama praised Germany for taking a leading role in accepting refugees.[452] In April 2016, Obama praised German Chancellor Angela Merkel for being on "the right side of history" with her open-border immigration policy.[453]
  • In January 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières denounced the EU for making it difficult for refugees to enter Europe.[454]
  • In March 2016, NATO General Philip Breedlove stated, "Together, Russia and the Assad regime are deliberately weaponizing migration in an attempt to overwhelm European structures and break European resolve. .. These indiscriminate weapons used by both Bashar al-Assad, and the non-precision use of weapons by the Russian forces - I can't find any other reason for them other than to cause refugees to be on the move and make them someone else's problem."[455] He also claimed that criminals, extremists and fighters were hiding in the flow of migrants.[456]
  • Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said: "It's quite simply stupid to open Europe's doors wide and invite in everyone who wants to come to your country. European migration policy is a total failure, all that is absolutely frightening."[457]

Political debate

European People's Party

Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republicans and former French president, compared EU migrant plan to "mending a burst pipe by spreading water round the house while leaving the leak untouched".[458] Following German Chancellor Angela Merkel's decision to allow tens of thousands of people to enter Germany, Sarkozy criticised her, saying that it would attract even greater amounts of people to Europe, where a significant part would "inevitably" end up in France due to the EU's free movement policies and the French welfare state. He also demanded that the Schengen agreement on borderless travel should be replaced with a new agreement providing border checks for non-EU citizens.[459]

Party of European Socialists

At this moment, more people in the world are displaced by conflict than at any time since the Second World War. ... Many die on the approach to Europe – in the Mediterranean – yet others perish on European soil. ... As social democrats the principle of solidarity is the glue that keeps our family together. ... We need a permanent European mechanism for fairly distributing asylum-seekers in European member states. ... War, poverty and the stark rise in inequality are global, not local problems. As long as we do not address these causes globally, we cannot deny people the right to look for a more hopeful future in a safer environment.

Sergei Stanishev, President of the Party of European Socialists[460]

Italian Prime Minister and Secretary of the Italian Democratic Party Matteo Renzi said the EU should forge a single European policy on asylum.[461] French Prime Minister Manuel Valls of the French Socialist Party stated, "There must be close cooperation between the European Commission and member states as well as candidate members."[462]

Eurosceptic parties

A Japanese-born Czech politician, Tomio Okamura, speaks at an anti-immigrant rally in Prague (17 October 2015)
(Tomio Okamura founded the party Freedom and Direct Democracy, which has connections with Marine Le Pen's movement in France)

According to The Wall Street Journal, the appeal of Eurosceptic politicians has increased.[435] On 10 September 2015, The Times (UK) reported that French anti-EU politician Marine Le Pen is "on course for presidency".[463]

Nigel Farage, leader of the British anti-EU United Kingdom Independence Party and co-leader of the eurosceptic Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group, blamed the EU "and Germany in particular" for giving "huge incentives for people to come to the European Union by whatever means" and said that this would make deaths more likely. Additionally, he said that the EU's Schengen agreement on open borders had failed and warned that Islamists could exploit the situation and enter Europe in large numbers, saying that "one of the ISIL terrorist suspects who committed the first atrocity against holidaymakers in Tunisia has been seen getting off a boat onto Italian soil".[464][465] In 2013, Farage had called on the UK government to accept more Syrian refugees,[466] before clarifying that those refugees should be Christian due to the existence of nearer places of refuge for Muslims.[467]

Europe of Nations and Freedom Co-President Marine Le Pen, leader of the French far-right National Front, accused Germany of looking to hire "slaves" by opening its doors to large numbers of asylum seekers among a debate in Germany whether there should be exceptions to the recently introduced minimum wage law for refugees.[468][469] Le Pen also accused Germany of imposing its immigration policy on the rest of the EU unilaterally.[470] Her comments were reported by the German[471] and Austrian press,[472] and were called "abstruse claims" by the online edition of Der Spiegel.[473] Centre-right daily Die Welt wrote that she "exploits the refugee crisis for anti-German propaganda".[474]

Geert Wilders, the leader of the Dutch Party for Freedom (a member of Europe of Nations and Freedom) who is known for his opposition to Islam, called the influx of people an "Islamic invasion" during a debate in the Dutch parliament, speaking about "masses of young men in their twenties with beards singing Allahu Akbar across Europe".[475] He also dismissed the idea that people arriving in Western Europe via Western Balkans are genuine refugees, stating: "Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia are safe countries. If you flee them then you are doing it for benefits and a house."[476]

See also

References

Notes

  1. Data for the rest of the year 2015 can be found in the Eurostat Asylum quarterly report.
  2. See[1][2][3][4][5]
  3. See[6][7][8][9]

Citations

  1. "Europe migrant crisis". BBC News. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  2. Ruz, Camila (28 August 2015). "The battle over the words used to describe migrants". BBC News. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  3. "Europe's Migration Crisis". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  4. Rachman, Gideon (3 September 2015). "Refugees or migrants – what's in a word?". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  5. Smith-Spark, Laura (5 September 2015). "European migrant crisis: A country-by-country glance". CNN. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  6. "Europe's African Refugee Crisis: Is the Boat Really Full?". Der Spiegel. 15 April 2014.
  7. "UNHCR chief issues key guidelines for dealing with Europe's refugee crisis". UNHCR. "This is a primarily refugee crisis, not only a migration phenomenon".
  8. "European Refugee Crisis 2015: Why So Many People Are Fleeing The Middle East And North Africa". International Business Times. 3 September 2015. 
  9. "What You Need to Know About Europe's Refugee Crisis: Q&A". Bloomberg. 8 September 2015. 
  10. "Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts". BBC News. 18 February 2016. 
  11. "UNHCR viewpoint: 'Refugee' or 'migrant' – Which is right?". UNHCR. "The majority of people arriving this year in Italy and Greece especially have been from countries mired in war or which otherwise are considered to be 'refugee-producing' and for whom international protection is needed. However, a smaller proportion is from elsewhere, and for many of these individuals, the term 'migrant' would be correct."
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Refugee crisis: apart from Syrians, who is travelling to Europe?". The Guardian. 10 September 2015. 
  13. "Europe's Migration Crisis". Council on Foreign Relations. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Migrant crisis: Explaining the exodus from the Balkans". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  15. "Monthly Arrivals by Nationality to Greece, Italy and Spain". Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response - Mediterranean. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "Over 1 million arrivals in Europe by sea: UNHCR". Business Standard. 30 December 2015. 
  17. "Mediterranean Crisis 2015 at six months: refugee and migrant numbers highest on record". UNHCR. 1 July 2015. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 "UNHCR Global Trends –Forced Displacement in 2014". UNHCR. 18 June 2015. 
  19. Rod Nordland (31 October 2015). "A Mass Migration Crisis, and It May Yet Get Worse". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Record number of over 1.2 million first time asylum seekers registered in 2015" (PDF). EUROSTAT. 
  21. http://10news.dk/?p=2124
  22. http://www.futurus-thinktank.com/replacement-migration.html
  23. http://www.meforum.org/696/eurabia-europes-future
  24. Harvard Magazine, July-August 2009, Jonathan Shaw, http://harvardmagazine.com/2009/07/who-killed-the-men-england
  25. https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/04/the-muslim-migrant-invasion-and-the-collapse-of-europe
  26. https://pamelageller.com/2016/08/muslim-migrant-invasion-summer-inferno-of-sexual-assaults-in-sweden.html/
  27. "Schengen: Controversial EU free movement deal explained". BBC News. 14 September 2015. 
  28. "EU legal framework on asylum and irregular immigration 'on arrival'" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. 
  29. "Asylum in the EU: Facts and Figures" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. 
  30. "Dublin regulation leaves asylum seekers with their fingers burnt". The Guardian. 7 October 2011. 
  31. Official Journal L 239, 22 September 2000. (The Schengen acquis – Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement)
  32. "Carrieri sanctions". European Council on Refugees and Exiles. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. 
  33. "COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2001/51/EC supplementing the provisions of Article 26 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement". 
  34. Refugee crisis: Smugglers offer 'Bad weather discount' to migrants (International Business Times, 25 October 2015)
  35. Europe’s Refugee Crisis, An Agenda for Action (Human Rights Watch, 16 November 2015)
  36. "Analysis of the external dimension of the EU's asylum and immigration policies" (PDF). European Parliament. 
  37. "Way to Future of the Refugee crisis". Act Now News. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 "Immigration in the EU" (PDF). European Commission. 
  39. "Asylum and first time asylum applicants by citizenship, age and sex Annual aggregated data (rounded)". EUROSTAT. 
  40. "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015. 
  41. "Can immigration save a struggling, disappearing Japan?". Fortune. 20 November 2014.
  42. Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision. United Nations.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 "Asylum statistics". EUROSTAT. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  44. "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015. 
  45. "The Global Refugee Crisis, Region by Region". The New York Times. 26 August 2015. 
  46. "The dispossessed". The Economist. 18 June 2015. 
  47. "Syria Regional Refugee Response". UNHCR. 
  48. "Mapping Mediterranean migration". BBC. 15 September 2014. 
  49. "Greece completes anti-migrant fence at Turkish legends border". Kathimerini. 17 December 2012. 
  50. Krasimirov, Angel (14 January 2015). "Bulgaria to extend fence at Turkish border to bar refugee influx". Reuters. 
  51. *"Survivor: Smugglers locked hundreds in hold of capsized boat". Associated Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  52. "Pushed Back, Pushed Around". Human Rights Watch. 21 September 2009. 
  53. "Italy: ‘Historic’ European Court judgment upholds migrants’ rights". Amnesty International. 23 February 2012. 
  54. "Why Libya is springboard for migrant exodus". BBC News. 20 April 2015. 
  55. "Mare Nostrum Operation". Marina Militare. 
  56. "EC MEMO, Brussels, 7 October 2014, Frontex Joint Operation 'Triton' – Concerted efforts to manage migration in the Central Mediterranean". European Union, European Commission. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  57. The Italian government had requested additional funds from the EU to continue the operation but member states did not offer the requested support |https://news.vice.com/article/italy-is-about-to-shut-down-the-sea-rescue-operation-that-saved-more-than-90000-migrants-this-year |title=Italy Is About to Shut Down the Sea Rescue Operation That Saved More Than 90,000 Migrants This Year |work=Vice News |accessdate=19 April 2015
  58. "UK axes support for Mediterranean migrant rescue operation". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  59. The operation consisted of two surveillance aircraft and three ships, with seven teams of staff who gathered intelligence and conducted screening/identification processing. Its monthly budget was estimated at €2.9 million.
  60. 60.0 60.1 "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015. p. 59. 
  61. 61.0 61.1 "Migrant boat capsizes off Libya, 400 feared dead". Fox News Channel. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  62. "Latest Trends at external borders of the EU". Frontex. 2 February 2015. 
  63. "Migratory routes map". Frontex. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  64. "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015. p. 59. 
  65. "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. p. 14. 
  66. "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. p. 11. 
  67. "Mediterranean Crisis 2015 at six months: refugee and migrant numbers highest on record". UNHCR. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  68. "IOM Applauds Italy's Weekend Rescue at Sea of 2,800 Migrants". International Organization for Migration. 13 April 2015. 
  69. "Migrant Deaths Soar in Mediterranean". International Organization for Migration. 17 April 2015. 
  70. "Arrivals to Greece, Italy and Spain. January–December 2015" (PDF). UNHCR. 
  71. "European migrant crisis: Italy navy rescues 50 from dinghy". BBC. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  72. "European Union border agency: Number of migrants entering EU hits new monthly record in July". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  73. "FRAN Quarterly - Quarter 4" (PDF). Frontex. 
  74. "Risk analysis for 2016" (PDF). Frontex. 
  75. Miles, Tom (22 December 2015). "EU gets one million migrants in 2015, smugglers seen making $1 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  76. "Irregular Migrant, Refugee Arrivals in Europe Top One Million in 2015: IOM". IOM. 22 December 2015. 
  77. "A million refugees and migrants flee to Europe in 2015". UNHCR. 22 December 2015. 
  78. "Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response - Mediterranean". UNHCR. 
  79. LARRY BUCHANAN; SERGIO PEÇANHA (11 March 2016). "Europe Tries to Shut Down Routes as Migrant Flow Intensifies". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  80. 80.0 80.1 "Number of migrants arriving in Greece dropped in March". Frontex. 18 April 2016. 
  81. 81.0 81.1 "Number of migrants arriving in Greece dropped 90% in April". Frontex. 13 May 2016. 
  82. "Massive loss of life reported in latest Mediterranean tragedy". UNHCR. 20 April 2016. 
  83. "Italian coastguard and navy rescue 3,300 migrants off coast of Libya". Deutsche Welle. 27 June 2016.
  84. "Overwhelming majorities unhappy with EU’s handling of refugees". 6 June 2016. 1615 L. Street NW, Suite 800, Washington DC 20036 (202) 419-4300 | Main (202) 419-4349 | Fax (202) 419-4372 | Media Inquiries 
  85. (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Refugees/Migrants Response - Mediterranean". 
  86. (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Refugees/Migrants Response - Mediterranean". 
  87. "Frontex - News - European Border and Coast Guard Agency launches today". 
  88. "The number of asylum applicants in the EU jumped to more than 625 000 in 2014" (PDF). EUROSTAT. 
  89. "EU Member States granted protection to more than 185 000 asylum seekers in 2014" (PDF). EUROSTAT. 
  90. 90.0 90.1 "euronews – Data raises questions over EU's attitude towards asylum seekers". euronews.com. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  91. 91.0 91.1 "Which Countries Are Under the Most Strain in the European Migration Crisis?". The New York Times. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  92. "Asylum in the EU" (PDF). European Commission. 
  93. "Asylum and first time asylum applicants by citizenship, age and sex Monthly data (rounded)". Eurostat. 
  94. "EU Member States granted protection to more than 330 000 asylum seekers in 2015" (PDF). Eurostat. 20 April 2016. 
  95. "185 000 first time asylum seekers in the EU in the first quarter of 2015" (PDF). EUROSTAT. 18 June 2015. 
  96. "Over 210 000 first time asylum seekers in the EU in the second quarter of 2015" (PDF). EUROSTAT. 18 September 2015. 
  97. "More than 410 000 first time asylum seekers registered in the third quarter of 2015" (PDF). Eurostat. 
  98. 98.0 98.1 "Asylum quarterly report". EUROSTAT. 
  99. "476.649 Asylanträge im Jahr 2015". BAMF. 6 January 2016. 
  100. "Asylgeschäftsstatistik 12/2015". BAMF. 6 January 2016. 
  101. "Applications for asylum received, 2015" (PDF). Swedish Migration Agency. 
  102. "Asylum decisions, 2015" (PDF). Swedish Migration Agency. 
  103. "Over one million sea arrivals reach Europe in 2015". UNHCR. 30 December 2015. 
  104. 104.0 104.1 "More than 1 million asylum seekers reached Europe by sea this year: UNHCR". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 30 December 2015. 
  105. "How many migrants to Europe are refugees?". The Economist. 7 September 2015. 
  106. "It's not at war, but up to 3% of its people have fled. What is going on in Eritrea?". The Guardian. 22 July 2015. 
  107. "Migrant crisis: Who does the EU send back?". BBC News. 9 September 2015. 
  108. "Europe's forgotten migrants – the ones who aren't from Syria". Los Angeles Times. 16 September 2015. 
  109. http://www.migrationsverket.se/download/18.7c00d8e6143101d166d1aab/1451894593595/Inkomna+ans%C3%B6kningar+om+asyl+2015+-+Applications+for+asylum+received+2015.pdf
  110. "Europe's man problem". Politico Europe. 6 January 2016. 
  111. Sylvia Hui, Associated Press (11 October 2015). "Young and alone: Europe sees record surge of child refugees". Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  112. Rick Lyman (12 September 2015). "Eastern Bloc's Resistance to Refugees Highlights Europe's Cultural and Political Divisions". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  113. "Migratory routes map". Frontex. Retrieved 29 August 2015. 
  114. 114.0 114.1 "Refugees cross Croatia border in search of new route". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  115. Catherine Evans (11 November 2015). "Growing Number of Asylum Seekers Opt for Arctic Route to Enter Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  116. see also german wikipedia
  117. Alison Smale; Melissa Eddy (31 August 2015). "Migrant Crisis Tests Core European Value: Open Borders". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  118. Rick Lyman; Anemona Hartocollis; Alison Smale (4 September 2015). "Migrants Cross Austria Border From Hungary". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2015. 
  119. "The Latest: Austria, Germany to accept bused migrants". MSN. 
  120. Melissa Eddy; Dan Bilefsky (14 September 2015). "Austria, Slovakia and the Netherlands Introduce Border Controls". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  121. "Austria deploys army to boost refugee checks, Slovakia brings back border controls". RT English. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  122. "Austria says army will help impose tougher border checks". Reuters UK. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  123. Sewell Chan; Palko Karasz (19 September 2015). "Thousands of Migrants Flood into Austria". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  124. Palko Karasz; Barbara Surk (22 September 2015). "Austria Takes Role of Distribution Center for Germany-Bound Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  125. "Staatsgrenzen - Grenzlänge, Küstenlänge und Grenzländer aller Staaten der Welt". laenderdaten.de. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  126. "Austria to build Slovenia border fence to 'control' migrant flow". Yahoo News. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  127. "Migrant crisis: Austria to slash asylum claims". BBC News. 20 January 2016. 
  128. "Migrant crisis: Austria asylum cap begins despite EU anger". BBC News. 19 February 2016. 
  129. "Council lawyers: Austria’s refugee cap not illegal". 
  130. 130.0 130.1 "Hrvatska na udaru imigranata, krizne točke Bajakovo i Tovarnik". Večernji list. 
  131. 131.0 131.1 T.V. "Grabar KitaroviĆ: Hrvatska neće graditi zidove prema Srbiji kao Mađarska". Dnevnik.hr. 
  132. 132.0 132.1 "'HRVATSKA NEĆE GRADITI ZIDOVE AKO VAL IZBJEGLICA KRENE PREMA NAMA' Vesna Pusić iskazala prezir prema mađarskom rješenju". Jutarnji.hr. 
  133. "Croatian PM Pledges Help for Refugees". balkaninsight.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  134. 134.0 134.1 Rick Lyman; Dan Bilefsky (16 September 2015). "Migrants Clash With Police in Hungary, as Others Enter Croatia". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  135. "Ovako je danas bilo u Tovarniku: Preko polja se do Hrvatske probijala i djevojka u kolicima". index.hr. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  136. "FOTO, VIDEO: SITUACIJA SVE TEŽA Drama u Slavoniji: Vlaka još uvijek nema, a izbjeglice nemaju ni kapi vode! U Dugavama azilant gađao ciglom fotoreportera, s balkona hotela viču: 'Sloboda'". jutarnji.hr. 
  137. "Migrant crisis: Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  138. "If Germany Stops Receiving Refugees, Croatia Could Close Its Borders". 
  139. 139.0 139.1 139.2 139.3 Rick Lyman (16 October 2015). "Hungary to Close Its Border With Croatia in Migrant Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  140. 140.0 140.1 "Thousands of Migrants Surge into Slovenia in New Route". The New York Times. Associated Press. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  141. 141.0 141.1 141.2 Radul Radovanovic (18 October 2015). "Thousands stranded on new migrant route through Europe". The Associated Press, MSN. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  142. Yahoo News (18 December 2015). "Slovenia's fence on Croatia border threatening wildlife: WWF". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  143. Croatia (19 December 2015). "Istrians protest against razor wire fence on Croatia-Slovenia border". Hina. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  144. Croatia (7 January 2016). "Protest rally against razor fence at Slovenian-Croatian border crossing". Hina. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  145. New Kerala (9 March 2016). "Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia begin closure of Balkan route". Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  146. 146.0 146.1 "Overblik: Det skete da flygtningestrømmen nåede Danmark". Jyllands-Posten. 7 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  147. Melissa Eddy (9 September 2015). "Migrant Tide Bringing Out Europe's Best and Worst". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 
  148. 148.0 148.1 Melissa Eddy (9 September 2015). "Motorvej spærret i begge retninger: Flygtninge går fra Padborg mod Sverige". TV2 News Denmark. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  149. Kristian Corfixen (9 September 2015). "Flygtninge drejer af: Den sønderjyske motorvej er nu genåbnet". Politiken. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  150. Jonas Hamidavi R. Moestrup (12 October 2015). "28.800 flygtninge og migranter er kommet til Danmark på fem uger". TV2 News Denmark. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  151. "Regeringen indfører midlertidig grænsekontrol til Tyskland". www.politiko.dk. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  152. "Migrants' Journeys Stall in Italy, Near the French Border". The New York Times. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  153. "Top French court approves border controls with Italy". Yahoo News. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  154. "EU migrant crisis: Refugees shun France over red tape, unemployment and poor housing – Telegraph". Telegraph.co.uk. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  155. Naina Bajekal/Calais (1 August 2015). "Why Thousands of Migrants Are Risking Their Lives at Calais". Time. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  156. Haroon Siddique. "Calais drivers need more protection from migrants, says lorry group". the Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  157. "Will new mile-long Calais fence stop migrants?". BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  158. Lizzie Dearden (16 December 2015). "Refugee crisis: Hundreds of migrants storm Calais motorway attempting to board lorries heading to the UK". The Independent. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  159. Chrisafis, Angelique; Walker, Peter; Quinn, Ben (1 March 2016). "Calais 'Jungle' camp: clashes as authorities demolish homes". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  160. "Nach Räumung des "Dschungels": Frankreich eröffnet neues Flüchtlingslager am Ärmelkanal". spiegel.de (in German). Spiegel Online. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  161. "France opens new refugee camp, amid protest". euronews.com. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  162. "Turvapaikanhakijoiden määrä räjähti Torniossa: "Satoja tullut tänään"". iltalehti.fi. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  163. "Viime viikolla ennätyksellinen määrä turvapaikanhakijoita". iltalehti.fi. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  164. 164.0 164.1 "Interior Ministry: Finland set to reject two thirds of asylum seekers". YLE. 11 October 2015. 
  165. 165.0 165.1 "Reception centres use containers to house new arrivals". YLE. 28 November 2015. 
  166. 166.0 166.1 "Disappointed Iraqis cancel asylum applications". YLE. 24 November 2015. 
  167. "Finland adopts one-stop approach to slash asylum processing queues". YLE. 30 November 2015. 
  168. "Turvapaikkahakemusten käsittelyajat venyvät – "Täällä on tuhansia turvapaikanhakijoita monta vuotta"". YLE. 10 September 2015. 
  169. "Eurajoki resorting to containers to house asylum seekers". YLE. 13 November 2015. 
  170. "Interior Minister: Finland to set up asylum seeker repatriation centres". YLE. 3 December 2015. 
  171. "Russian border guard to STT: Russian security service behind northeast asylum traffic". Yle. 24 January 2016. 
  172. Deutscher Bundestag: Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, print version in English, November 2012 (PDF)
  173. REGULATION (EU) No 604/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 26 June 2013, English version (PDF)
  174. Will Hutton. "Angela Merkel's humane stance on immigration is a lesson to us all". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  175. Bertrand Benoit; Nicholas Winning (6 September 2015). "Germany Feels Backlash for Welcoming Migrants". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
  176. Katrin Bennhold; Melissa Eddy (6 September 2015). "German Quota System Highlights Possible Path and Pitfalls for Handling Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
  177. Melanie Amann, Matthias Gebauer und Horand Knaup (11 September 2015). "Länderinnenminister: "Sie öffnen die Grenzen und lassen uns im Stich"". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 September 2015. 
  178. Melissa Eddy; Alison Smale (13 September 2015). "Germany Announces Emergency Border Controls Amid Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  179. "Germany introduces 'temporary' controls along Austrian border". euronews. 13 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  180. Melissa Eddy; Rick Lyman; Alison Smale (13 September 2015). "Germany Orders Curbs at Border in Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  181. FRANZ SOLMS-LAUBACH und PETER TIEDE. "Behörden warnen in der Flüchtlingskrise: Zusammenbruch der Versorgung droht". Bild. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  182. Katrin Bennhold (28 October 2015). "Distinguishing Minors From Adults in a Tide of Young Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  183. Andrew Higgins (31 October 2015). "German Village of 102 Braces for 750 Asylum Seekers". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  184. Alison Smale (8 January 2016). "18 Asylum Seekers Are Tied to Attacks on Women in Germany". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  185. Jim Yardley (13 January 2016). "Sexual Attacks Widen Divisions in European Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  186. "2015: Mehr Asylanträge in Deutschland als jemals zuvor". BMI. 6 January 2016. 
  187. Germany admits 130,000 asylum seekers 'lost' raising fears over crime and terrorism J. Huggler, The Daily Telegraph, 26 Feb 2016
  188. Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Streit über Flüchtlingspolitik: Seehofer unterstellt Merkel "Herrschaft des Unrechts" - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Politik". 
  189. "Hunderte Millionen gegen die Flucht". Der Spiegel. 10 Oct 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  190. "Braunschweig, northern Germany, uncovers 300 cases of welfare fraud by asylum seekers". Deutsche Welle. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  191. 191.0 191.1 191.2 191.3 Yeginsu, Ceylan (16 August 2015). "Amid Perilous Mediterranean Crossings, Migrants Find a Relatively Easy Path to Greece". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2015. 
  192. Neely, Bill (13 August 2015). "Migrants Crisis: Refugees Attempt to Reach Greek Island of Lesbos". NBC News. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  193. Daley, Suzanne (4 August 2015). "On Island of Lesbos, a Microcosm of Greece's Other Crisis: Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  194. "Refugees and migrants outnumber Kastelorizo's residents". Protothema. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016. 
  195. "Migrant 'chaos' on Greek islands – UN refugee agency". BBC News. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  196. Pop, Valentina (7 August 2015). "Greek Government Holds Emergency Meeting Over Soaring Migrant Arrivals". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  197. "40 migrants 'killed by fumes' in hold of boat off Libya". Irish Independent. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  198. Check airlines such as http://turkishairlines.com or http://www.britishairways.com
  199. The Schengen acquis See Article 26
  200. Tim Arango (7 September 2015). "A New Wave of Migrants Flees Iraq, Yearning for Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  201. "Migrant crisis: EU threatens Greece over border controls". BBC News. 27 January 2016. 
  202. "EU issues deadline for Greece to remedy migration 'deficiencies'". Deutsche Welle. 12 February 2016. 
  203. "Migrant crisis: Nato deploys Aegean people-smuggling patrols". BBC News. 11 February 2016. 
  204. "Europe Migrant crisis: Greece seeks emergency funds from EU to shelter refugees". First Post. 1 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. 
  205. "More than 50,000 migrants and refugees stranded in Greece". H KAΘHMEPINH. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  206. Pablo Gorondi (9 June 2015). "Hungary seeks to tighten south border, hold illegal migrants". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  207. "Hungary to fence off border with Serbia to stop migrants". Reuters. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  208. Pablo Gorondi (19 June 2015). "Hungary's leader says Hungary will protect Europe's borders". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  209. "EU Warns Against New 'Walls' As Hungary Plans Fence on Serbia Border". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  210. "Orbán: Nyár végére megépül a kerítés". mno.hu. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  211. Anemona Hartocollis; Dan Bilefsky; James Kanter (3 September 2015). "Hungary Defends Handling of Migrants Amid Chaos at Train Station". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  212. "Migrants cling to Hungarian train west, lawmakers debate sealing border". Reuters. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  213. "Over 1,000 migrants leave Budapest train station on foot for Austria". Agence France-Presse. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  214. Dan Bilefsky (4 September 2015). "Blocked by Rail, Migrants Set Out for Germany on Foot". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  215. "Migrant crisis: Hungary to bus migrants to Austria border". BBC News. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  216. "+++ Refugee crisis – live updates +++". DW.COM. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  217. "Hungary seals border with razor wire". euronews. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  218. 218.0 218.1 Helene Bienvenu; Dan Bilefsky (15 September 2015). "Hungary Detains Migrants in Border Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  219. "Kaos na mađarskoj granici: Izbjeglice probili ogradu, čula se pucnjava, policija mlatila ljude". index.hr. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  220. "UŽIVO: SUZAVAC PRIMIRIO IZBJEGLICE NA GRANICI KOD ZAPREŠIĆA! Hrvatski policajci izbačeni s vlaka u Mađarskoj: 'Nisu razoružani, samo su ih evidentirali. Ništa dramatično se nije dogodilo...'". jutarnji.hr. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  221. "More than 24,000 refugees enter Hungary over weekend". Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  222. Barbara Surk; Stephen Castle (17 October 2015). "Hungary Closes Border, Changing Refugees' Path". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  223. "Breaking News: Hungary Declares State Of Emergency As Migrant Crisis Turns Unpredictable". Hungary Today. Retrieved 21 March 2016. 
  224. Hungary Declares State of Emergency Over Migrants (novinite.com 9 March 2016)
  225. "Sbarchi e richieste di asilo 1997–2014". Fondazione Ismu. 
  226. The Guardian http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/24/libyas-people-smugglers-how-will-they-catch-us-theyll-soon-move-on
  227. 227.0 227.1 Scammell, Rosie (7 June 2015). "Mediterranean migrant crisis: number of arrivals in Italy in 2015 passes 50,000". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  228. Daunt, Joe (22 April 2015). "Video: The EU migrant crisis explained in 90 seconds – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  229. "Mapping Mediterranean migration". BBC. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  230. "Analisi: Paolo Gentiloni". Pagella Politica. 22 February 2015. 
  231. "Hundreds of Migrants Believed Dead in Shipwreck Off Libya, Says UNHCR". The Wall Street Journal. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  232. "Statistiche immigrazione". Italian Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. 
  233. 233.0 233.1 233.2 "UNHCR" (PDF). Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  234. "Malta needs EU help to cope with its immigration crisis". The Guardian. 4 August 2013.
  235. "Rescued migrants refusing to be brought to Malta". The Times. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  236. "It-78 immigrant li ma riedux jidħlu f'Malta se jittieħdu l-Italja". TVM (in Malti). 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  237. "This Spanish city in Africa has become hugely symbolic of Europe's migrant crisis". The Week. 21 August 2015.
  238. "euronews – Over 100 migrants attempt to storm Melilla enclave". euronews.com. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  239. Morel, Sandrine (8 September 2015). "Uneasy calm descends over Melilla, Spain's heavily fortified African enclave". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  240. Edwards, Sam (21 November 2015). "A decade of violence at Spain's forgotten African border shows why Europe's new fences alone are bound to fail". El País. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  241. Bloul, Scheherazade (17 November 2015). "Amnesty International Calls for Spain to Cease Cooperation with Morocco on Migration Policy". Morocco World News. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  242. "Two dead as migrants storm Spain's African border at Ceuta". The Local. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  243. Calderwood, Imogen (25 March 2016). "Spanish Civil Guard discover migrants hiding in cars' false bottoms". Mail Online. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  244. Andrew Higgins (9 October 2015). "Avoiding Risky Seas, Migrants Reach Europe With an Arctic Bike Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2015. 
  245. "Migrants Caught in Limbo at Russia Norway Border As Neither Country Wants Them". Breitbart. 
  246. "Slovenia Reinstating Controls at Border with Hungary". sloveniatimes.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  247. "Slovenian police pepper spray migrants at border". Yahoo!. 19 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  248. "Slovenia Admits Some 1,500 Refugees, Some Proceed to Austria". sloveniatimes.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  249. "Begunce z Obrežja pospešeno odvažajo v notranjost države". Dolenjski list. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  250. "Slovenia calls for EU help amid record influx of refugees". euronews. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  251. "Slovenian police helicopter films Croatian police officers directing migrants to Slovenia across the green border and the Sotla river". policija.si. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  252. "Šefic: Croatian travesty on inhuman Slovenians :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". rtvslo.si. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  253. "V ŽIVO: Pretep v sprejemnem centru Brežice, policija je uporabila plinski razpršilec". 24ur.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  254. "Slovenia to impose "hurdles" on border to control migrant flow :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". rtvslo.si. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  255. "Slovenian troops start erecting border fence :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". rtvslo.si. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  256. "ORF" (in German). Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  257. "Slovenia deploys army to Schengen zone border to tackle refugee influx". DW.COM. Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  258. Riksdagsförvaltningen. "Särskilda åtgärder vid allvarlig fara för den allmänna ordningen eller den inre säkerheten i landet – riksdagen.se". Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  259. Migrant crisis: Sweden operator cancels trains on bridge link BBC News website. Retrieved 23 December 2015
  260. 260.0 260.1 "Bara 48 asylsökande till Skåne under måndagen". Sydsvenskan. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  261. 261.0 261.1 "Färre än 100 nobbade på Kastrup". Sydsvenskan. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  262. "Papperslösa tar taxi över Bron". Sydsvenskan. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  263. Dansk taxachauffør anholdt for menneskesmugling til Sverige | Nyheder | DR
  264. "Flyktingström bakom stor ökning av MRSA". Sydsvenskan. 2 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  265. "Sweden and Finland plan to expel up to 100,000 failed asylum seekers". The Daily Telegraph. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  266. "Sweden to deport up to 80,000 asylum-seekers". Associated Press. 28 January 2016. 
  267. 267.0 267.1 Ben Hubbard (26 September 2015). "Money Flows With Refugees, and Life Jackets Fill the Shops". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  268. "Macedonia Allows Migrants to Legitimately Transit Country". Voice of America. Associated Press. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  269. 269.0 269.1 269.2 269.3 Sly, Liz (18 September 2015). "8 reasons Europe's refugee crisis is happening now". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  270. Emma Graham-Harrison. "Cheering German crowds greet refugees after long trek from Budapest to Munich". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  271. 271.0 271.1 271.2 271.3 271.4 271.5 271.6 271.7 271.8 271.9 Sarah Almukhtar; Josh Keller; Derek Watkins (16 October 2015). "Closing the Back Door to Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  272. "The Latest: Hundreds Seek to Cross Turkey-Greece Border". The New York Times. Associated Press. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  273. Costas Kantouris; Konstantin Testorides (28 November 2015). "Migrants clash with Macedonian police on Greek border". Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  274. Suzanne Daley (9 December 2015). "Thousands of Migrants Stranded in Greece as Route North Is Narrowed". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  275. Euronews (7 February 2016). "More problems at FYROM-Greek border slows refugees' journey north". 
  276. [1]. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  277. "Russia shuts arctic border to Norway over ′security reasons′ – News – DW.COM – 24.01.2016". DW.COM. 
  278. "TASS: World – Finnish border guards block 15 Mideast, African immigrants in Russia's Murmansk region". TASS. 
  279. TASS: World - Finland prohibits crossing border with Russia on bikes - media
  280. La Sicilia Multimedia. "Renzi chiama Hollande Salvini: "Tragedia annunciata"" (in Italian). lasiciliaweb.it. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  281. "Renzi: "Subito un vertice Ue, siamo pronti a bloccare la partenza dei barconi"". Il Mattino (in Italian). Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  282. "Italian PM Matteo Renzi condemns 'new slave trade' in Mediterranean". BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  283. "Migrants' ship headed for Italy capsizes north of Libya". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 April 2015. 
  284. 284.0 284.1 "Med migrant boat disaster". BBC. 18 April 2015. 
  285. 285.0 285.1 285.2 "EU leaders call for emergency talks after 700 migrants drown off Libya". Reuters. 19 April 2015. 
  286. "Europe should back action to protect migrants in Mediterranean: Mogherini". Reuters/Yahoo. 19 April 2015. 
  287. "Prime Minister Matteo Renzi defends Italy's response to migrants drowning in the Mediterranean". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  288. "Naufraga un pesquero con 700 inmigrantes a bordo cerca de la costa de Libia". Antena3.com. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  289. "EU's Tusk considers special summit after migrants drown". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  290. "Med faces humanitarian crisis, not just wreck, says Renzi". ANSA.it. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  291. "Mediterranean migrant deaths: PM calls for action after boat disaster". BBC News. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  292. "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Joint Foreign and Home Affairs Council: Ten point action plan on migration". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  293. * Reinforce the Joint Operations in the Mediterranean, namely Triton and Poseidon, by increasing the financial resources and the number of assets. We will also extend their operational area, allowing us to intervene further, within the mandate of Frontex; * A systematic effort to capture and destroy vessels used by the smugglers. The positive results obtained with the Atalanta operation should inspire us to similar operations against smugglers in the Mediterranean; * Europol, Frontex, EASO and Eurojust will meet regularly and work closely to gather information on smugglers' modus operandi, to trace their funds and to assist in their investigation; * EASO to deploy teams in Italy and Greece for joint processing of asylum applications; * Member States to ensure fingerprinting of all migrants; * Consider options for an emergency relocation mechanism; * A EU wide voluntary pilot project on resettlement, offering a number of places to persons in need of protection; * Establish a new return programme for rapid return of irregular migrants coordinated by Frontex from frontline Member States; * Engagement with countries surrounding Libya through a joined effort between the Commission and the EEAS; Initiatives in Niger have to be stepped up. * Deploy Immigration Liaison Officers (ILO) in key third countries, to gather intelligence on migratory flows and strengthen the role of the EU Delegations.
  294. "HMS Richmond and HMS Enterprise rescue 541 migrants from the Med". The Daily Telegraph. 29 October 2015.
  295. "Two more migrant boats issue distress calls in Mediterranean". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  296. "Migrants' bodies brought ashore as EU proposes doubling rescue effort". Reuters. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  297. 297.0 297.1 "EU to triple funding for 'Operation Triton' to tackle Mediterranean migrant crisis". IBT. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  298. Pollak, Sorcha (5 May 2015). "LÉ Eithne to be dispatched in migrant search on May 8th". The Irish Times. 
  299. "Europe's response: "Face-saving not a life-saving operation"". Amnesty International. Retrieved 24 April 2015. [dead link]
  300. IT Navy Biography (pdf)
  301. Kanter, James (18 May 2015). "E.U. Agrees to Naval Intervention on Migrant Smugglers". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  302. "Migrant crisis: EU to begin seizing smugglers' boats". BBC News. 7 October 2015. 
  303. "Migrant crisis: Europe gears up to seize smugglers". BBC News. 7 October 2015. 
  304. "On the Mediterranean refugee patrol with the Bundeswehr". Deutsche Welle. 22 April 2016.
  305. "EU backs military action against Med people smugglers". Yahoo News. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  306. "EU to expand Mediterranean anti-smuggler force". EUobserver. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  307. "EU approves military action against people smugglers in Mediterranean – reports". RT English. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  308. "Parliament agrees on binding refugee quotas". Euranet Plus inside. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  309. "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Joint Foreign and Home Affairs Council: Ten point action plan on migration". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  310. Justin Huggler, Andrew Marszal, Angela Merkel calls for new rules for distributing asylum seekers in Europe, The Daily Telegraph dated 24 April 2015
  311. "David Cameron insists he 'cares' about refugees amid criticism from Tories". The Daily Telegraph. 4 September 2015. 
  312. "Jean Asselborn 'ashamed' of Hungary PM Orban". Luxemburger Wort. 
  313. "Eastern European countries may be forced accept quotas for migrants". The Daily Telegraph. 18 September 2015. 
  314. Ian Traynor. Refugee crisis: east and west split as leaders resent Germany for waiving rules . The Guardian. 5 September 2015.
  315. "Nemůžeme s uprchlíky šoupat jako s dobytkem, odmítla vláda znovu kvóty". Novinky.cz. 9 September 2015. 
  316. "Ukrainian refugees should be among voluntarily accepted – Zeman". ČTK. 17 September 2015. 
  317. "Malí Syřané se měli léčit v Motole, rodina obratem odjela do Německa [Little Syrians were supposed to get treatment in Motol Hospital, a family immediately left to Germany]". Mladá fronta DNES. 9 November 2015. 
  318. Rick Lyman; Steven Erlange; Aurelien Breeden (7 September 2015). "A Steady Flow Staggers into Europe, Outpacing Pledges of Shelter". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  319. "UK to accept 20,000 refugees from Syria by 2020". BBC. 7 September 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  320. Holly Yan; Arwa Damon (7 September 2015). "Migrant crisis: More troubles in Hungary as Austria, Germany near tipping point". CNN. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  321. "Migrant crisis: Why EU deal on refugees is difficult". BBC News. 25 September 2015. 
  322. "Migrant crisis: EU ministers approve disputed quota plan". BBC News. 22 September 2015. 
  323. "Justice and Home Affairs Council, 22/09/2015". Council of the European Union. 
  324. James Kanter (22 September 2015). "European Union Ministers Approve Plan to Distribute Refugees". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  325. "EU quota plan forced through against eastern European states' wishes". The Daily Telegraph. 23 September 2015.
  326. "EU braces for turbulent summit after divisive deal on refugee quotas". The Guardian. 23 September 2015.
  327. "Eritrean refugees flown from Italy to Sweden in first EU quota relocation". The Guardian. 9 October 2015. 
  328. Elisabetta Povoledo (9 October 2015). "Italy Sends Eritreans to Sweden as E.U. Migrant Relocations Begin". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2015. 
  329. Andrew Higgins (25 October 2015). "European Leaders Look Again for a Unified Response to Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  330. "Poland says it cannot accept migrants under EU quotas, following attacks in Paris". The Independent. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  331. "Poland says cannot take migrants under EU quotas without guarantees after Paris attacks". Reuters. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  332. Rick Lyman; Alison Smale (15 November 2015). "Paris Attacks Shift Europe's Migrant Focus to Security". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  333. 333.0 333.1 Eldar Emric, Demetri Nellas, and the Associated Press (14 November 2015). "Paris Attacks Provoke Fresh Migrant Fears in Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  334. "Hotspots für Flüchtlinge: Das hässliche Gesicht Deutschlands und der EU". – DEUTSCHE WIRTSCHAFTS NACHRICHTEN. 12 December 2015. 
  335. James Kanter (15 December 2015). "E.U. Pushes to Take Over Border Security at Migrant Pressure Points". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  336. 336.0 336.1 "An Eu 'Safe Countries of Origin' List" (PDF). Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  337. "Migration summit: "We are in a race against time to save Schengen" – Tusk". Times of Malta. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  338. James Kanter (12 November 2015). "Europe Nears Accord With Turkey to Stem Tide of Refugees". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  339. Agence France-Presse (12 February 2016). "Turkish president threatens to send millions of Syrian refugees to EU". The Guardian. 
  340. "Migrant crisis: EU approves 3 bn-euro fund for Turkey". BBC News. 3 February 2016. 
  341. "Turkey dismisses EU plan to resettle refugees in return for sealing sea route". The Guardian. 10 February 2016. 
  342. "Feilschen um Formulierungen" (in German). Tagesschau. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  343. "Harte Verhandlungen über türkische Vorschläge" (in German). Tagesschau. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  344. Rankin, Jennifer (7 March 2016). "Resettling Syrians, aid and visa changes on table at EU-Turkey migration summit". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  345. Stephanie Nebehay; Gabriela Baczynska (8 March 2016). "U.N., rights groups say EU-Turkey migrant deal may be illegal". Reuters. Retrieved 8 March 2016. 
  346. 346.0 346.1 "Migrant crisis: EU-Turkey deal comes into effect". BBC News. Retrieved 21 March 2016. 
  347. "EU-Turkey Agreement: Questions and Answers". European Commission. 
  348. 348.0 348.1 Migrant crisis: Deportations resume from Greece to Turkey. BBC News. Published on April 8, 2016.
  349. "TR-Ankara: IPA — construction of reception and removal centres". publictenders.net. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  350. "UNHCR redefines role in Greece as EU-Turkey deal comes into effect". UNHCR. 22 March 2016. 
  351. "Refugee crisis: key aid agencies refuse any role in 'mass expulsion'". The Guardian. 23 March 2016. 
  352. Migrants given 24-hour deadline to reach Europe after Turkey and EU agree 'historic' deal M. Holehouse, R. Akkoc and N. Squires, The Daily Telegraph, 18 Mar 2016
  353. 353.0 353.1 "Turkey’s President Erdogan threatens to blow up EU migrant deal". The Australian. 9 April 2016.
  354. "Defying EU, Hungary suspends rules on asylum seekers". Reuters. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  355. "Germany opens its gates: Berlin says all Syrian asylum-seekers are welcome to remain, as Britain is urged to make a 'similar statement'". The Independent. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  356. "Germany 'to reinstate border controls' as country struggles with influx of refugees – live". The Independent. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  357. "The Latest: Merkel says no legal limit to refugee numberse". KVOA. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  358. "Change in Czech refugee policy". The Prague Post. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  359. Migrant crisis: Austria 'to end emergency migrant measures'. BBC News. 7 September 2015.
  360. "Denmark has shut down its rail link as refugees surge into Scandinavia". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  361. Migrant crisis: Germany to start temporary border controls. BBC News
  362. "Policisté chystají zálohy pro dohled na hranici". novinky.cz. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  363. Migrant crisis: Austria to deploy troops. BBC News.
  364. "Migrant crisis: Hungarian army stages border protection exercise". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  365. Europe migrant crisis: Hungary PM calls for €3bn Syria aid package. BBC News. 12 September 2015.
  366. "European migrant crisis: Hungary hits back at Austria's criticism of 'Nazi-like' asylum seeker policies". ABC.au. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  367. "Report: Refugees bused from Röszke to Austrian border". Budapest Business Journal. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  368. Refugees start sit-down hunger strike in southern Hungary – media reports, RT
  369. Refugee crisis: Hungary declares state of emergency at Serbian border – live updates, The Guardian
  370. Than, Krisztina (16 September 2015). "Hungarian police fire water cannon and tear gas at migrants". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  371. Holehouse, Matthew (18 September 2015). "Refugee crisis: Croatia seals border crossings with Serbia". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  372. "Traiskirchen Symptom systematischer Mängel im Umgang mit Asylwerbern" (in Deutsch). Amnesty International Österreich. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  373. Lyman, Rick (5 April 2015). "Bulgaria Puts Up a New Wall, but This One Keeps People Out". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  374. "Bulgaria keeps migrants out with 50 miles of razor wire along Turkish border". Daily Mail. 
  375. "Potvrđene najave: Hrvatska će morati primiti 1064 izbjeglice". 24sata.hr (in hrvatski). Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  376. "Španjolska neće primiti 3000 izbjeglica, dio ide u Hrvatsku". N1 HR. 
  377. "JE LI HRVATSKA SPREMNA ZA IZBJEGLIČKI VAL? Želimo školovane izbjeglice, najbolje s djecom". jutarnji.hr. 
  378. "Croatia president blames Angela Merkel for refugee crisis". The Daily Telegraph. 22 September.
  379. "Most Czechs reject refugees from Syria, Africa – poll". CeskeNoviny.cz. 23 July 2015.
  380. "MAPPED: How many refugees each European country will take under EU plans". Daily Express. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  381. "EC failed in solving migration, quotas make no sense – Czech PM". ČTK. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  382. "President cites disease, terrorist sleeper cells as causes for concern". The Prague Post. Retrieved 5 September 2015. 
  383. "Finance Minister Andrej Babiš calls on NATO to destroy human smugglers’ ships". Radio Prague. 9 September 2015.
  384. "Czech minister Babis criticises NATO´s stance on refugees". CeskeNoviny.cz. 10 September 2015.
  385. "Kalousek: Sebevědomá země jako Česko by se neměla bát tří tisíc uprchlíků" (in Czech). ČT24. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  386. "Karel Schwarzenberg: Řveme, jako by nám uprchlíci řezali krky" (in Czech). Mladá fronta E15. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  387. "Czech Republic can accept 7,000–15,000 refugees now – minister". ČTK. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2015. 
  388. "Migrant crisis: Denmark-Germany rail links suspended". BBC News. 9 September 2015.
  389. 389.0 389.1 S. Aiyar; B. Barkbu; N. Batini; H. Berger; E. Detragiache; A. Dizioli; C. Ebeke; H. Lin; L. Kaltani; S. Sosa; A. Spilimbergo; P. Topalova (16 January 2016). "The Refugee Surge in Europe: Economic Challenges" (PDF). IMF. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  390. Emma Henderson (22 December 2015). "Denmark has responded to critics of its plan to strip jewellery from refugees". The Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  391. 391.0 391.1 Nina Larson/AFP (15 January 2016). "As Danes debate, Swiss already seizing refugees' cash". The Local. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  392. 392.0 392.1 Sören Billing/AFP (26 January 2016). "Denmark passes controversial bill to take migrants' valuables". The Local. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  393. Ritzau (26 January 2016). "Holland kan også inddrage asylansøgeres værdigenstande". Jyllands Posten. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  394. Gordon Darroch (25 January 2016). "Netherlands claimed more than £500,000 from refugees in four years". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  395. Erik Jensen (22 January 2016). "Tyskland tager også flygtninges penge". Politiken. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  396. "Yes, Denmark really wants to strip refugees of jewellery". Channel 4 News. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. The UN refugee agency UNHCR told Channel 4 News the idea "beggars belief". 
  397. Zawadzki, Sabina (20 December 2015). "Danish MEP quits party over plan to take refugee valuables". Reuters. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  398. "Danish police refuse to seize refugee jewelry and cash – News – 22.12.2015". DW.COM. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  399. "Loven der satte Danmark på alverdens forsider er aldrig blevet brugt". nyheder.tv2.dk. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  400. "Matti Vanhanen: Suomi valmistautuu rajatarkastuksiin – syy löytyy Pohjois-Suomesta". Uusi Suomi. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  401. STT-IS. "Orpo: Pohjois-Suomeen tehostettu rajavalvonta". Ilta-Sanomat. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  402. IS. "Sipilä: Rajavalvontaa tiivistetään – vapaa liikkuvuus ei toimi". Ilta-Sanomat. 
  403. "Presidentti Niinistö hurjan ennustuksensa toteutumisesta: "Valitettavasti sillä tiellä ollaan"". Uusi Suomi. 
  404. "Migrant crisis: Hungarian PM Viktor Orban proposes EU border force to patrol Greek frontier". International Business Times. 23 September 2015. 
  405. "Migrant crisis: Germany 'can take 500,000 asylum seekers a year'". BBC News. 8 September 2015.
  406. Hill, Jenny (30 July 2013). "Immigration fuels rising tension in Germany". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  407. Fenton, Siobhan (25 July 2015). "Pegida". The Independent. London. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  408. "Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In". Sky News. 5 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
  409. "Germans welcome thousands of newly arrived refugees". Deutsche Welle. 6 September 2015. 
  410. "Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees". Reuters. 6 September 2015. 
  411. Alison Smale (23 September 2015). "Where the Refugees Pour into Germany, a 24-Hour Window". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  412. "Viktor Orbán, Bavaria’s hardline hero". Politico. 23 September 2015.
  413. "Refugee crisis: Many migrants falsely claim to be Syrians, Germany says as EU tries to ease tensions". The Daily Telegraph. 25 September 2015.
  414. "Berlin calls for sanctions on EU states that reject refugee quotas". Deutsche Welle. 15 September 2015.
  415. "Germany: Coalition split on transit zones". DW.COM. 
  416. 416.0 416.1 Eldar Emric, Demetri Nellas, and the Associated Press (14 November 2015). "Paris Attacks Provoke Fresh Migrant Fears in Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  417. Alison Smale (28 November 2015). "Merkel, While Refusing to Halt Migrant Influx, Works to Limit It". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  418. Feher, Margit (18 August 2015). "Hungary Deploys 'Border Hunters' to Keep Illegal Immigrants Out". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  419. "Migration crisis: Hungary PM says Europe in grip of madness". The Guardian. 3 September 2015. 
  420. "Hungary PM rejects Merkel's 'moral imperialism' in refugee crisis". Yahoo News. 23 September 2015.
  421. "‘People in Europe are full of fear’ over refugee influx". The Washington Post. 3 September 2015.
  422. "Hungary adopts list of safe countries of origin and safe third countries". asylumineurope.org. 
  423. "Hungary PM Tells US, Australia to Take Some of Europe's Migrants". NDTV. 2 October 2015.
  424. Legorno, Giovanni (28 April 2015). "Italian Towns Push Back on Growing Burden of Europe's Migrant Crisis". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 August 2015. 
  425. "Italy’s Mafia learns to profit from the migration crisis". Financial Times. 24 July 2015
  426. "'Bigger than drugs': how the Mafia profits from the Mediterranean migrant crisis". ABC News. 29 June 2015
  427. "Pope thanks Italy for migrant rescue effort, says huge numbers means Europe must pitch in more". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  428. "PM says Lithuanian government not considering to accept more refugees". BNS. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  429. Sansone, Kurt (13 September 2015). "Migrant wall will not stop problem, Joseph Muscat says". The Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  430. "Hungary and Malta call for 'global migrant quotas' to ease Europe burden". The Daily Telegraph.. 1 October 2015.
  431. JSK Internet. "Preparations for taking 2,000 refugees". Ministry of the Interior. 
  432. "Poland's Duda Blasts EU `Dictate of the Strong' on Migrants". Bloomberg. 8 September 2015.
  433. "Portugal prepares for migrants". theportugalnews.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 
  434. "Romania to accept refugees if admitted to Schengen". EurActiv. 8 September 2015. 
  435. 435.0 435.1 Troianovski, Anton (19 August 2015). "Migration Crisis Pits EU's East Against West". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  436. "End of Schengen? EU countries toughen border control". RT English. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  437. "This East-West split over EU refugee quotas will have long-lasting consequences". The Daily Telegraph. 24 September 2015.
  438. "Refugee crisis reveals fundamental splits in European political parties". EurActiv. 24 September 2015.
  439. 439.0 439.1 Många flyktingar söker sig till Sverige – trots nya åtgärder (Swedish) Dagens Nyheter, 27 October 2015
  440. David Crouch (24 November 2015) Sweden slams shut its open-door policy towards refugees The Guardian.
  441. Särskilda åtgärder vid allvarlig fara för den allmänna ordningen eller den inre säkerheten i landet (Swedish)
  442. "Mother Angela: Merkel's Refugee Policy Divides Europe". Der Spiegel. 21 September 2015.
  443. Holehouse, Matthew (19 April 2015). "Nigel Farage: David Cameron 'directly caused' Libyan migrant crisis". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  444. "EU faces fury after new migrant shipwreck tragedy". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  445. "EU: Mediterranean Deaths Warrant Crisis Response". Human Rights Watch. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  446. Syria's refugee crisis in numbers, Amnesty International, 4 September 2015
  447. "Saudi Arabia offers Germany 200 mosques – one for every 100 refugees who arrived last weekend". The Independent. 11 September 2015.
  448. "EU should follow Australia's example and send back migrant boats, says Tony Abbott". The Daily Telegraph. London. 21 April 2015. 
  449. "Pope Francis visits Italy's migrant island of Lampedusa". BBC News. 8 July 2013. 
  450. "Libya migrant boat sinking: Up to 700 feared dead as migrant ship capsizes in waters south of Italy". 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  451. "Refugee crisis: Lebanese minister warns of Isis jihadis infiltrating Europe as migrants". International Business Times. 15 September 2015.
  452. "Obama tells Merkel he appreciates her leadership on migrant crisis". Deutsche Welle. 27 August 2015.
  453. "Barack Obama says Angela Merkel 'on right side of history' over pro-refugee stance". ABC News. 24 April 2016.
  454. "Migration: European policies dramatically worsened the so-called 2015 “refugee crisis”". Médecins Sans Frontières. 19 January 2016. 
  455. "NATO Commander: Russia uses Syrian refugees as 'weapon' against West". Deutsche Welle. 2 March 2016. 
  456. "Migrant crisis: Russia and Syria 'weaponising' migration". BBC News. 2 March 2016. 
  457. "France and Russia blast Merkel's refugee policy". The Local. 12 February 2016.
  458. "Nicolas Sarkozy compares EU migrant plan to 'fixing a burst water pipe with water'". The Daily Telegraph. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  459. "Crise des migrants : le plan de Sarkozy" [Migrant crisis: Sarkozy's plan]. Le Figaro (in French). 
  460. "European response to dire refugee crisis urgently needed". Party of European Socialists. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  461. "Migrant crisis: Austria holds suspected people smugglers". BBC News. 31 August 2015. 
  462. "French PM Valls urges EU solidarity amid unprecedented migrant crisis". euronews.com. 31 August 2015. 
  463. "Le Pen on course for presidency as mayors reject migrants'". The Times (London). 
  464. "Video: Thousands of Isis fighters could use migrant crisis to 'flood' into Europe, Nigel Farage warns – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. 4 September 2015. 
  465. "Nigel Farage: EU has opened doors to migration exodus of biblical proportions". The Daily Telegraph. 1 September 2015. 
  466. "Nigel Farage calls on government to let Syrian refugees into UK". The Guardian. 
  467. Mason, Rowena (30 December 2013). "Nigel Farage rows back on call to grant asylum to Syrian refugees". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  468. "BWIHK-Präsident will Mindestlohn für Flüchtlinge aufweichen (BWIHK President wants to soften Minimum Wage Rules for Refugees) (in German)". Die Welt. 
  469. "Ausnahmen für Asylbewerber – Landkreise wollen Mindestlohn senken (Exceptions for Asylum Seekers – Organization of Districts wants to lower Minimum Wage) (in German)". N-TV.de. 
  470. "French far-right leader says Germany seeking 'slaves' in migrants". Reuters (US). 
  471. "Newsblog zu Flüchtlingen (in German)". Der Tagesspiegel. 
  472. "Le Pen: Deutschland sieht in Flüchtlingen "Sklaven" (in German)". Die Presse. 
  473. "Front National unterstellt Deutschland Interesse an Arbeitssklaven". Der Spiegel. 
  474. "Berlin will mit Flüchtlingen "Sklaven rekrutieren" (in German)". Die Welt. 
  475. "Wilders tells Dutch parliament refugee crisis is 'Islamic invasion'". Reuters (US). 
  476. "Wilders tells Dutch parliament refugee crisis is 'Islamic invasion'". Breitbart News (London). 

Further reading

External links