Expansion team

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An expansion team is a brand new team in a sports league, usually from a city that has not hosted a team in that league before, formed with the intention of satisfying the demand for a local team from a population in a new area. Sporting leagues also hope that the expansion of their competition will grow the popularity of the sport generally. The term is most commonly used in reference to the North American major professional sports leagues but is applied to sports leagues in other countries with a closed franchise system of league membership. The term comes from the expansion of the sport into new areas. That sometimes results in the payment of an expansion fee to the league by the new team and an expansion draft to populate the new roster.

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Reasons for expansion

In North America, expansion often takes place in response to population growth and geographic shifts of population. Such demographic change results in financial opportunities to engage with the new market as consumers of sports demand local teams to support. Major League Baseball (MLB) was limited to 16 teams located north and east of St. Louis, Missouri for the first half of the 20th century. During that time, the United States population doubled and expanded to the south and west. Rival interests explored the possibility of forming a rival league in the untapped markets. To forestall that possibility, one of the measures that MLB took was to expand by four teams in 1961 and 1962. Over the past four decades, MLB expanded further, to its current 30-team membership. In the context of MLB, the term "expansion team" is also used to refer to any of the 14 teams enfranchised in the second half of the 20th century.

Leagues that are new and/or financially struggling may also admit large numbers of expansion teams to pocket more revenue. Indoor American football leagues are notorious for doing so: the leagues can double the number of teams and have many new teams fail within a year or two.

When an expansion team begins play, it is generally stocked with less talented free agents and inexperienced players. Additionally, prospective owners may face expensive fees to the league as well as high startup costs such as stadiums and facilities. As a result, most expansion teams are known for their poor play during their first few seasons, which can be exacerbated by the fact that leagues sometimes expand by two or four teams in one season for scheduling reasons, such as eliminating the possibility of a team being without an opponent on a preferred date by an odd number of teams. In those cases, expansion teams must compete with their expansion rivals for available talent. Expansion teams are not usually doomed to mediocrity forever, as most leagues have policies which promote parity, such as drafts and salary caps, which gives some expansion teams the opportunity to win championships only a few years after their first season. The Arizona Diamondbacks won the 2001 World Series only three years after the team's founding in 1998 even though Major League Baseball is generally considered among the least conducive to parity because of the lack of a salary cap. The Milwaukee Bucks also won the 1971 NBA Finals in only their third year of existence, greatly helped by drafting Kareem Abdul-Jabbar in the 1969 draft and acquiring Oscar Robertson from Cincinnati Royals before the 1970-71 season began. The Chicago Fire won MLS Cup in 1998 in just their first year of existence in Major League Soccer. In 2011, the Portland Timbers started their MLS franchise, and they won the MLS Cup in 2015. The Florida Panthers made the Stanley Cup Finals in only their 3rd season in the National Hockey League (NHL) even though, like MLB, the league then had no salary cap. The National Football League, despite being considered the most generous in its revenue sharing and the strictest with its salary cap, has had far more difficulty bringing expansion teams up to par with their more established brethren: none of the four teams started with new rosters since 1995 (when the salary cap was imposed) won a Super Bowl (the Carolina Panthers have come closest, reaching the NFC Championship Game in their second season and reaching the Super Bowl twice, but have never won); the most recent addition to the league, the Houston Texans, took over a decade to reach the playoffs, and the Cleveland Browns have yet to win a playoff series in the nearly two decades since its return to the league in 1999.

Most teams are considered as an expansion team usually in their first season and sometimes in their second season, but especially for purists, Major League Baseball teams can be considered "expansion teams" indefinitely. A team that moves to another location and/or changes its name is not an expansion team. If it moves, it is known as a relocated ',and if the name changes, the team is known as a renamed team. In response to a negative attitude that some fans have towards relocated teams,[according to whom?] there have recently been instances where relocating clubs change their identity completely; name, colours and mascot; but because the roster is the same and the league does not expand as a result, they are not regarded as expansion teams. One of two noted exceptions are the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL): when the Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore, an agreement was reached for which the history of the pre-1996 Cleveland Browns remained in that city and was claimed by the post-1999 Browns when the league placed a new franchise there even though the actual team and roster had moved to Baltimore to become the Ravens.[citation needed]The other noted exception are the New Orleans Pelicans, who were previously known as the New Orleans Hornets after relocating to New Orleans from Charlotte, N.C., in 2002. After the 2012 sale of the Hornets, new owner Tom Benson changed the name, colors and mascot from Hornets to Pelicans. The Charlotte Hornets segment of the franchise's history was sold to the then-Charlotte Bobcats (themselves formerly considered a 2004 expansion team) and the 2002 New Orleans Hornets are now officially regarded as an expansion team.

Cities and regions with large populations that lack a team are generally regarded to be the best candidates for new teams. As these leagues grow, the number of expansion teams The European Super League in rugby league has added teams from France and Wales to cover a great demographic spread.

A-League

2007

2009

2010

2012

Arena Football League

2011

2014

2015

Australian Football League

1908

1925

1987

1991

1995

1997

2011

2012

Canadian Football League

1993

1994

  • Baltimore Stallions (technically defunct) – The Stallions were the most successful team in the CFL's U.S. experiment, winning the Grey Cup in 1995. However, the impending relocation of the NFL's Cleveland Browns to Baltimore led the team to depart for Montreal, where it became the current version of the Montreal Alouettes. Despite this history, the CFL does not recognize the link between the Stallions and Alouettes, instead treating the Alouettes as a continuation of past CFL teams in Montreal.
  • Las Vegas Posse (defunct) – Also part of the CFL's failed U.S. experiment.
  • Shreveport Pirates (defunct) – Also part of the CFL's failed U.S. experiment.

1995

2002

2014

Indian Premier League

2011

Jim Beam Cup

2008

Kontinental Hockey League

2009

2010

2011

  • Lev Poprad
    • This team, based in Slovakia, was purchased after its first KHL season (2011–12) by Czech interests. It was disbanded and replaced by the similarly named Lev Praha. The latter team folded at the end of the 2013–14 season.

2012

2013

Major League Baseball

1961

1962

1969

1977

1993

1998

Major League Lacrosse

2006

2009

2012

2014

  • Florida Launch (Though the league considers it an expansion, it was a relocation of the management and player assets from the Hamilton Nationals, though the name, colors and team history remained in Hamilton)

Major League Soccer

1998

2005

2006

  • Houston Dynamo- History of this franchise is treated as follows:
  • 2005- Franchise established in Houston from San Jose as an expansion team. The history of San Jose Earthquakes was inactive until the franchise was reactivated in 2007.

2007

2009

2010

2011

2012

2015

2017

2018

National Basketball Association

1961

1966

1967

1968

1970

1974

1976

1980

1988

  • Miami Heat
  • Charlotte Hornets – The history of this franchise is detailed as follows:
    • 2002 – Franchise moves to New Orleans, keeping the Hornets name until becoming the New Orleans Pelicans prior to the 2013–14 season.
    • 2004 – The NBA returns to Charlotte with the expansion Charlotte Bobcats franchise.
    • 2014 – Following the New Orleans team's name change, the Bobcats reclaim the Hornets name effective with the 2014–15 season. In addition, the Hornets, Pelicans, and NBA agree that all history and records of every previous NBA team in Charlotte (including the original Charlotte Hornets) would belong to the revived Hornets.[1]

1989

1995

2002

  • New Orleans Hornets (now New Orleans Pelicans) – Following the 2014 assumption of the original Charlotte Hornets' history by the revived Charlotte Hornets, the Pelicans are now officially considered an expansion team that began play in the 2002–03 season.[1]

National Basketball League

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1988

1990

1992

1993

1998

1999

2004

2006

2007

National Football League

Only extant teams are listed. Two charter franchises, the Chicago (now Arizona) Cardinals and Chicago Bears (originally Decatur Staleys), are still active.

1921

1925

1930

1932

1933

1936

1950

Three teams joined the NFL after a partial merger with the rival All-America Football Conference (AAFC):

  • Baltimore Colts (original) – Not to be confused with the later franchise of the same name, this team folded after the 1950 season.
  • Cleveland Browns – The subsequent history of this franchise is treated as follows:
    • 1996 – The team moves to Baltimore, becoming the Ravens.
    • 1999 – Following the 1999 revival of the Browns, the revived Browns received sole possession of history and records from the Ravens' time in Cleveland. All history and records since the move to Baltimore remain with the Ravens.
For more details, see Cleveland Browns relocation controversy.

1953

1960

1961

1966

1967

1970

1976

1995

1996

  • Baltimore Ravens – Following the 1999 assumption of the Cleveland Browns' history by the revived Cleveland Browns, the Baltimore Ravens are officially an expansion team that began play in the 1996 season.

2002

National Hockey League

1909

1917

1924

1925

1926

1967

1970

1972

1974

1979

1991

1992

1993

1998

1999

2000

National Lacrosse League

1989

1990

1992

1995

1996

1998

2000

2001

2002

2005

2006

2007

2009

National Rugby League

1910

1920

1921

1935

1947

1967

1982

1988

1995

1998

1999

2007

National Women's Soccer League

2014

2016

New South Wales Cup

2007

Northern Territory Football League

2006

Ontario Hockey League

1991

1995

1998

Philippine Basketball Association

1978

  • Filmanbank Bankers

1979

1980

  • CDCP Shippers

1983

  • Manhattan

1984

  • Manila Beer

1985

1986

1988

1990

1993

1999

2000

2002

2006

  • Welcoat Dragons (from the PBL, note that the promotion and relegation system was not used .)

2014

Pro12

2010

  • Aironi – A team formed specifically for the competition by several existing clubs in Northern Italy, with Viadana the lead side. The team folded when the Italian Rugby Federation (FIR) revoked its professional license effective with the end of the 2011–12 Pro12 season; it was replaced by the FIR-operated Zebre.
  • Benetton Treviso – Founded in 1932, it competed in Italian domestic leagues before joining what is now known as Pro12.

Quebec Major Junior Hockey League

2005

2012

Queensland Cup

2008

Super League (Australia)

1997

Super League

1995

2006

2009

  • Celtic Crusaders (later Crusaders Rugby League) – An expansion team only in the sense that they were invited into Super League. The club were established in 2005. After the 2011 season, the club folded due to financial problems; their effective successor club, the North Wales Crusaders, currently compete in Championship 1, two levels below Super League.
  • Salford City Reds – Also technically not an expansion team; they have existed since 1873, and played in Super League as recently as the 2007 season.

2012

  • Widnes Vikings – An expansion team only in the sense that they have been invited into the now-franchised Super League. The club have existed since 1875, were founding members of what is now the Rugby Football League in 1895, and participated in Super League as recently as 2005.

Super Rugby

2006

2011

2016

United Football League (2009)

2010

2011

Victorian Football League

1998

2001

Vodacom Cup

2010

  • Welwitschias (a developmental side for the Namibia national rugby union team).
    • This was the second time Namibia participated in the competition; it entered a team from 1999 to 2001. The team withdrew from the competition after the 2011 season due to financial constraints.
  • Pampas XV (a developmental side for the Argentina national rugby union team)
    • Argentina left the Vodacom Cup after the 2013 season, choosing instead to enter the IRB Pacific Cup from 2014. At that time, it was also expected that Argentina would be added to Super Rugby in the near future,[2] and the country would eventually receive a Super Rugby team beginning in 2016.

VTB United League

2010

West Australian Football League

1997

Western Hockey League

1991

1992

1995

1996

2001

2003

2006

2007

Women's National Basketball Association

1997

1998

1999

2000

2006

2008

Women's National Basketball League

1983

  • AIS (defunct)

1984

1986

1989

1990

1992

2001

2007

2008

2015

Women's Professional Soccer

2010

2011

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Charlotte Hornets Name Returns to Carolinas". Charlotte Hornets. May 20, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Radical changes as Argentina plans for the future". ESPN Scrum. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>