Experimental event rate
In epidemiology and biostatistics, the experimental event rate (EER) is a measure of how often a particular statistical event (such as response to a drug, adverse event or death) occurs within the experimental group (non-control group) of an experiment.^{[1]}
This value is very useful in determining the therapeutic benefit or risk to patients in experimental groups, in comparison to patients in placebo or traditionally treated control groups.
Three statistical terms rely on EER for their calculation: absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction and number needed to treat.
Control event rate
The control event rate (CER) is identical to the experimental event rate except that is measured within the scientific control group of an experiment.^{[2]}
Worked example
In a trial of hypothetical drug "X" where we are measuring event "Z", we have two groups. Our control group (25 people) is given a placebo, and the experimental group (25 people) is given drug "X".
Event "Z" in control group : 4 in 25 people Control event rate : 4/25
Event "Z" in experimental group : 12 in 25 people Experimental event rate : 12/25
Another worked example is as follows:
Example 1: risk reduction | Example 2: risk increase | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Experimental group (E) | Control group (C) | Total | (E) | (C) | Total | |
Events (E) | EE = 15 | CE = 100 | 115 | EE = 75 | CE = 100 | 175 |
Non-events (N) | EN = 135 | CN = 150 | 285 | EN = 75 | CN = 150 | 225 |
Total subjects (S) | ES = EE + EN = 150 | CS = CE + CN = 250 | 400 | ES = 150 | CS = 250 | 400 |
Event rate (ER) | EER = EE / ES = 0.1, or 10% | CER = CE / CS = 0.4, or 40% | EER = 0.5 (50%) | CER = 0.4 (40%) |
Equation | Variable | Abbr. | Example 1 | Example 2 |
---|---|---|---|---|
EER − CER | < 0: absolute risk reduction | ARR | (−)0.3, or (−)30% | N/A |
> 0: absolute risk increase | ARI | N/A | 0.1, or 10% | |
(EER − CER) / CER | < 0: relative risk reduction | RRR | (−)0.75, or (−)75% | N/A |
> 0: relative risk increase | RRI | N/A | 0.25, or 25% | |
1 / (EER − CER) | < 0: number needed to treat | NNT | (−)3.33 | N/A |
> 0: number needed to harm | NNH | N/A | 10 | |
EER / CER | relative risk | RR | 0.25 | 1.25 |
(EE / EN) / (CE / CN) | odds ratio | OR | 0.167 | 1.5 |
EER − CER | attributable risk | AR | (−)0.30, or (−)30% | 0.1, or 10% |
(RR − 1) / RR | attributable risk percent | ARP | N/A | 20% |
1 − RR (or 1 − OR) | preventive fraction | PF | 0.75, or 75% | N/A |
See also
References
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