Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
|F/A-18E/F Super Hornet|
|A U.S. Navy F/A-18F Super Hornet on a mission over the Persian Gulf in September 2005|
|Role||Carrier-based multirole fighter|
|National origin||United States|
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
|First flight||29 November 1995|
|Primary users||United States Navy
Royal Australian Air Force
|Number built||500 as of April 2011|
|Program cost||Total procurement: US$48.09 billion (through FY2011)|
|Developed from||McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|
|Variants||Boeing EA-18G Growler|
The Boeing F/A-18E and F/A-18F Super Hornet are twin-engine carrier-capable multirole fighter aircraft variants based on the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. The F/A-18E single-seat and F/A-18F tandem-seat variants are larger and more advanced derivatives of the F/A-18C and D Hornet. The Super Hornet has an internal 20 mm M61 rotary cannon and can carry air-to-air missiles and air-to-surface weapons. Additional fuel can be carried in up to five external fuel tanks and the aircraft can be configured as an airborne tanker by adding an external air refueling system.
Designed and initially produced by McDonnell Douglas, the Super Hornet first flew in 1995. Full-rate production began in September 1997, after the merger of McDonnell Douglas and Boeing the previous month. The Super Hornet entered service with the United States Navy in 1999, replacing the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, which was retired in 2006; the Super Hornet serves alongside the original Hornet. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), which has operated the F/A-18A as its main fighter since 1984, ordered the F/A-18F in 2007 to replace its aging F-111C fleet. RAAF Super Hornets entered service in December 2010.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Notable accidents
- 7 Specifications (F/A-18E/F)
- 8 Notable appearances in media
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Super Hornet is an evolutionary redesign of the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. The Super Hornet's unique wing and tail configuration can be traced back to an internal Northrop project P-530, c. 1965; this had started as a substantial rework of the lightweight F-5E with a larger wing, twin tail fins and a distinctive leading edge root extension (LERX). Later flying as the Northrop YF-17 "Cobra", it competed in the United States Air Force's Lightweight Fighter (LWF) program to produce a smaller and simpler fighter to complement the larger McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle; the YF-17 lost the competition to the YF-16.
The Navy directed that the YF-17 be redesigned into the larger F/A-18 Hornet to meet a requirement for a multi-role fighter to complement the larger and more expensive Grumman F-14 Tomcat serving in fleet defense interceptor and air superiority roles. The Hornet proved to be effective but limited in combat radius. The concept of an enlarged Hornet was first proposed in the 1980s, which was marketed by McDonnell Douglas as Hornet 2000. The Hornet 2000 concept was an advanced F/A-18 with a larger wing and a longer fuselage to carry more fuel and more powerful engines.
The end of the Cold War led to a period of military budget cuts and considerable restructuring. At the same time, U.S. Naval Aviation faced a number of problems. The McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger II was canceled in 1991 after the program ran into serious problems; it was intended to replace the obsolete Grumman A-6 Intruder and LTV A-7 Corsair II. The Navy considered updating an existing design as a more attractive approach to a clean-sheet program. As an alternative to the A-12, McDonnell Douglas proposed the "Super Hornet" (initially "Hornet II" in the 1980s), an improvement of the successful previous F/A-18 models, which could serve as an alternate replacement for the A-6 Intruder. The next-generation Hornet design proved more attractive than Grumman's Quick Strike upgrade to the F-14 Tomcat, which was regarded as an insufficient technological leap over existing F-14s.
At the time, the Grumman F-14 Tomcat was the Navy's primary air superiority fighter and fleet defense interceptor. Then-Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney described the F-14 as 1960s technology, and drastically cut back F-14D procurement in 1989 before cancelling production altogether in 1991, in favor of the updated F/A-18E/F. The decision to replace the Tomcat with an all-Hornet Carrier Air Wing was controversial; Vietnam War ace and Congressman Duke Cunningham criticized the Super Hornet as an unproven design that compromised air superiority. In 1992, the Navy canceled the Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF), which would have been a navalized variant of the Air Force's Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. As a cheaper alternative to NATF, Grumman proposed substantial improvements to the F-14 beyond Quick Strike, but Congress rejected them as too costly and reaffirmed its commitment to the less expensive F/A-18E/F.
Testing and production
The Super Hornet was first ordered by the U.S. Navy in 1992. The Navy retained the F/A-18 designation to help sell the program to Congress as a low-risk "derivative", though the Super Hornet is largely a new aircraft. The Hornet and Super Hornet share many characteristics, including avionics, ejection seats, radar, armament, mission computer software, and maintenance/operating procedures. The initial F/A-18E/F retained most of the avionics systems from the F/A-18C/D's configuration at the time. The design would be expanded in the Super Hornet with an empty weight slightly greater than the F-15C.
The Super Hornet first flew on 29 November 1995. Initial production on the F/A-18E/F began in 1995. Flight testing started in 1996 with the F/A-18E/F's first carrier landing in 1997. Low-rate production began in March 1997 with full production beginning in September 1997. Testing continued through 1999, finishing with sea trials and aerial refueling demonstrations. Testing involved 3,100 test flights covering 4,600 flight hours. The Super Hornet underwent U.S. Navy operational tests and evaluations in 1999, and was approved in February 2000.
With the retirement of the F-14 in 2006, all of the Navy's combat jets are Hornet variants until the introduction of the F-35C Lightning II. The F/A-18E single-seat and F/A-18F two-seat aircraft took the place of the F-14 Tomcat, A-6 Intruder, Lockheed S-3 Viking, and KA-6D aircraft. An electronic warfare variant, the EA-18G Growler, replaces the EA-6B Prowler. The Navy calls this reduction in aircraft types a "neck-down". During the Vietnam War era, the Super Hornet's roles were performed by a combination of the A-1/A-4/A-7 (light attack), A-6 (medium attack), F-8/F-4 (fighter), RA-5C (recon), KA-3/KA-6 (tanker) and EA-6 (electronic warfare). It was anticipated that $1 billion in fleetwide annual savings would result from replacing other types with the Super Hornet. The Navy considers the Super Hornet's acquisition a success, meeting cost, schedule, and weight (400 lb, 181 kg below) requirements.
Improvements and changes
The Block II Super Hornet incorporates an improved active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, larger displays, the joint helmet mounted cuing system, and several other avionics replacements. Avionics and weapons systems that were under development for the prospective production version of the Boeing X-32 were used on the Block II Super Hornet. New-build aircraft received the APG-79 AESA radar beginning in 2005. In January 2008, it was announced that 135 earlier production aircraft were to be retrofitted with AESA radars.
In 2008, Boeing discussed the development of a Super Hornet Block III with the U.S. and Australian military, featuring additional stealth capabilities and extended range. In 2010, Boeing offered prospective Super Hornet customers the "International Roadmap", which included conformal fuel tanks, enhanced engines, an enclosed weapons pod (EWP), a next-generation cockpit, a new missile warning system, and an internal infra-red search and track (IRST) system. The EWP has four internal stations for munitions, a single aircraft can carry a total of three EWPs, housing up to 12 AMRAAMs and 2 Sidewinders. The next-generation cockpit features a 19 x 11 inch touch-sensitive display. In 2011, Boeing received a US Navy contract to develop a new mission computer.
In 2007, Boeing stated that a passive Infrared Search and Track (IRST) sensor would be an available future option. The sensor, mounted in a modified centerline fuel tank, detects long wave IR emissions to spot and track targets such as aircraft; combat using the IRST and AIM-9X Sidewinder missiles is immune to radar jamming. In May 2009, Lockheed Martin announced its selection by Boeing for the IRST's technology development phase, and a contract followed in November 2011. As of September 2013[update], a basic IRST would be fielded in 2016 and a longer-range version in 2019; sequestration cuts in 2013 could cause two years of delays. An F/A-18F performed a flight equipped with the IRST system in February 2014, and Milestone C approval authorizing low-rate initial production (LRIP) was granted in December 2014.
Advanced Super Hornet
Boeing and Northrop Grumman self-funded a prototype of the Advanced Super Hornet. The prototype features a 50% reduction in frontal radar cross-section (RCS), conformal fuel tanks (CFT), and an enclosed weapons pod. Features could also be integrated onto the EA-18G Growler; using CFTs on the EA-18 fleet was speculated as useful to releasing underwing space and drag margin for the Next Generation Jammer. Flight tests of the Advanced Super Hornet began on 5 August 2013 and continued for three weeks, testing the performance of CFTs, the enclosed weapons pod (EWP), and signature enhancements. The U.S. Navy was reported pleased with the Advanced Super Hornet's flight test results, and hopes it will provide future procurement options.
In March 2013, the U.S. Navy was considering the widespread adoption of conformal fuel tanks, which would allow the Super Hornet to carry 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) of additional fuel. Budgetary pressures from the F-35C Lightning II and Pacific region operations were cited as reasons supporting the use of CFTs. Flight testing demonstrated CFTs could slightly reduce drag while expanding the combat range by 260 nautical miles. The prototype CFT weighed 1,500 lb, while production CFTs are expected to weigh 870 lb. Boeing stated that the CFTs do not add any cruise drag but acknowledged a negative impact imposed on transonic acceleration due to increased wave drag. General Electric's enhanced performance engine (EPE), increasing the F414-GE-400's power output from 22,000 lb to 26,400 lb of thrust per engine, was suggested as a mitigating measure. In 2009, development commenced on several engine improvements, including greater resistance to foreign object damage, reduced fuel burn rate, and potentially increased thrust of up to 20%.
In 2014, Boeing revealed a Super Hornet hybrid concept, equipped with the EA-18G Growler's electronic signal detection capabilities to allow for targets engagement using the receiver; the concept did not include the ALQ-99 jamming pod. Growth capabilities could include the addition of a long-range infrared search and track sensor and new air-to-air tracking modes.
In September 2014, Boeing readied plans to close its St. Louis production lines for the Super Hornet and F-15 in 2017. Chris Chadwick, president of Boeing Defense, Space and Security, told the Wall Street Journal that, although "we're still solidly behind them," the company could have decided by April 2015 whether to shut down both assembly lines and close the factory, but chose to keep the Super Hornet line going. Due to various Pentagon contracts, Boeing had enough orders to keep things running into 2017 to give Boeing the opportunity to firm up more international orders.
The Hornet and Super Hornet share many characteristics, including avionics, ejection seats, radar, armament, mission computer software, and maintenance/operating procedures. The Super Hornet is largely a new aircraft at about 20% larger, 7,000 lb (3,200 kg) heavier empty weight, and 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) heavier maximum weight than the original Hornet. The Super Hornet carries 33% more internal fuel, increasing mission range by 41% and endurance by 50% over the "Legacy" Hornet. The empty weight of the Super Hornet is about 11,000 lb (5,000 kg) less than that of the F-14 Tomcat which it replaced, while approaching, but not matching, the F-14's payload and range.[N 1] As the Super Hornet is significantly heavier than the "legacy" Hornet, the catapult and arresting systems must be set differently. To aid safe flight operations and prevent confusion in radio calls, the Super Hornet is informally referred to as the "Rhino" to distinguish it from earlier Hornets. (The "Rhino" nickname was previously applied to the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, which was retired from the fleet in 1987.)
The Super Hornet, unlike the previous Hornet, is designed so it can be equipped with an aerial refueling system (ARS) or "buddy store" for the refueling of other aircraft, filling the tactical airborne tanker role the Navy had lost with the retirement of the KA-6D and Lockheed S-3B Viking tankers. The ARS includes an external 330 US gal (1,200 L) tank with hose reel on the centerline, along with four external 480 US gal (1,800 L) tanks and internal tanks, for a total of 29,000 lb (13,000 kg) of fuel on the aircraft. On typical missions a fifth of the air wing is dedicated to the tanker role, which consumes aircraft fatigue life expectancy faster than other missions.
The forward fuselage is unchanged, but the remainder of the aircraft shares little with earlier F/A-18C/D models. The fuselage was stretched by 34 in (86 cm) to make room for fuel and future avionics upgrades and increased the wing area by 25%. However, the Super Hornet has 42% fewer structural parts than the original Hornet design. The General Electric F414 engine, developed from the Hornet's F404, has 35% additional thrust over most of the aircraft's flight envelope. The Super Hornet can return to an aircraft carrier with a larger load of unspent fuel and munitions than the original Hornet; this ability is known as "bringback", which for the Super Hornet is in excess of 9,000 lb (4,100 kg).
Other differences include intake ramps for the engines and two extra wing hard points for payload (for a total of 11), retaining previous hardpoints on the bottom centerline, wingtips, and two conformal fuselage positions. Among the most significant aerodynamic changes are the enlarged leading edge extensions (LEX) which provide improved vortex lifting characteristics in high angle of attack maneuvers, and reduce the static stability margin to enhance pitching characteristics. This results in pitch rates in excess of 40 degrees per second, and high resistance to departure from controlled flight.
Radar signature reduction measures
Survivability is an important feature of the Super Hornet design. The U.S. Navy took a "balanced approach" to survivability in its design. This means that it does not rely on very low-observable technology, i.e. stealth. Instead, its design incorporates a combination of signature reduction, advanced electronic-warfare capabilities, reduced ballistic vulnerability, the use of standoff weapons, and innovative tactics that collectively enhance the safety of the fighter and crew in an affordable manner.
The F/A-18E/F's radar cross-section was reduced greatly from some aspects, mainly the front and rear. The design of the engine inlets reduces the aircraft's frontal radar cross-section. The alignment of the leading edges of the engine inlets is designed to scatter radiation to the sides. Fixed fanlike reflecting structures in the inlet tunnel divert radar energy away from the rotating fan blades.
The Super Hornet also makes considerable use of panel joint serration and edge alignment. Considerable attention has been paid to the removal or filling of unnecessary surface join gaps and resonant cavities. Where the F/A-18A-D used grilles to cover various accessory exhaust and inlet ducts, the F/A-18E/F uses perforated panels that appear opaque to radar waves at the frequencies used. Careful attention has been paid to the alignment of many panel boundaries and edges, to direct reflected waves away from the aircraft in uniformly narrow angles.
The Super Hornet employs reportedly the most extensive radar cross section reduction measures of any contemporary fighter, other than the F-22 and F-35 as of 2004. While the F/A-18E/F is not a stealth fighter like the F-22, it will have a frontal radar cross-section an order of magnitude smaller than prior generation fighters. Additional changes for reducing RCS can be installed on an as-needed basis.
Initially, the Super Hornet's avionics and software had a 90% commonality with that of the F/A-18C/D fleet at the time. Differences include an up-front Touchscreen control display; a large multipurpose color liquid-crystal display; and a fuel display. The Super Hornet has a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire system, as well as a digital flight-control system that detects and corrects for battle damage. Initial production models used the APG-73 radar, later replaced by the AN/APG-79 active electronically scanned array (AESA). The AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR (Advanced Targeting Forward Looking InfraRed), is the main electro-optical sensor and laser designator pod for the Super Hornet. The communications equipment consist of an AN/ARC-210 VHF/UHF radio and a MIDS low volume terminal for HAVE QUICK, SINCGARS and Link 16 connectivity.
The defensive countermeasures of Block I aircraft includes the AN/ALR-67(V)3 radar warning receiver, the AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispenser, the AN/ALE-50 towed decoy and the AN/ALQ-165 Airborne Self-Protect Jammer (ASPJ). Block II aircraft replace the ALQ-165 with the AN/ALQ-214 Integrated Defensive Countermeasures (IDECM) system, consisting of internally mounted threat receivers and optional self-protection jammers. Interior and exterior lighting on the Block II was changed to allow the use of night vision devices. The older ALE-50 decoys are being replaced by ALE-55 towed decoys, which can transmit jamming signals based on data received from the IDECM. The improved AN/ALQ-214 jammer was added on Block II aircraft.
Block II aircraft were fitted with the AN/APG-79 AESA radar, capable of executing simultaneous air-to-air and air-to-ground attacks, and providing higher quality high-resolution ground mapping at long standoff ranges. The AESA radar can also detect smaller targets, such as inbound missiles and can track air targets beyond the range of the aircraft's air-to-air missiles. VFA-213, the first Super Hornet squadron to fly AESA-equipped Super Hornets, became "safe for flight" (independently fly and maintain the F/A-18F) on 27 October 2006. The first Super Hornet upgraded with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) was delivered to VFA-213 on 18 May 2007. The JHMCS provides multi-purpose situational awareness, which includes high-off-boresight missile cuing. The Shared Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) is a high-resolution, digital tactical aerial reconnaissance system that features advanced day/night and all-weather capability. The Multifunctional Information Distribution System low volume communication terminal is being upgraded with the MIDS-JTRS system, which will allow a tenfold increase in bandwidth as well as compatibility with the Joint Tactical Radio System standards.
The Super Hornet achieved initial operating capability (IOC) in September 2001 with the U.S. Navy's Strike Fighter Squadron 115 (VFA-115) at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. VFA-115 was also the first unit to take their F/A-18 Super Hornets into combat. On 6 November 2002, two F/A-18Es conducted a "Response Option" strike in support of Operation Southern Watch on two surface-to-air missile launchers at Al Kut, Iraq and an air defense command and control bunker at Tallil air base. One of the pilots dropped 2,000 lb (910 kg) JDAM bombs from the Super Hornet for the first time during combat.
In support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq War), VFA-14, VFA-41 and VFA-115 flew close air support, strike, escort, SEAD and aerial refueling sorties. Two F/A-18Es from VFA-14 and two F/A-18Fs from VFA-41 were forward deployed to the Abraham Lincoln. The VFA-14 aircraft flew mostly as aerial refuelers and the VFA-41 fighters as Forward Air Controller (Airborne) or FAC(A)s. On 6 April 2005, VFA-154 and VFA-147 (the latter squadron then still operating F/A-18Cs) dropped two 500-pound (230 kg) laser-guided bombs on an enemy insurgent location east of Baghdad.
On 8 September 2006, VFA-211 F/A-18F Super Hornets expended GBU-12 and GBU-38 bombs against Taliban fighters and Taliban fortifications west and northwest of Kandahar. This was the first time the unit had participated in an active combat capacity using the Super Hornet.
During the 2006–2007 cruise with Dwight D. Eisenhower, VFA-103 and VFA-143 supported Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom and operations off the Somali coast. Alongside "Legacy Hornet" squadrons, VFA-131 and VFA-83, they dropped 140 precision guided weapons and performed nearly 70 strafing runs. The Super Hornet can operate from the French carrier Charles de Gaulle (R91).
In 2007, Boeing proposed additional F/A-18E/Fs to the U.S. Navy in a multi-year contract. As of October 2008, Boeing had delivered 367 Super Hornets to the U.S. Navy. On 6 April 2009, Defense Secretary Gates announced that the Department of Defense intended to acquire 31 F/A-18s in FY2010. Congress requested the DoD study a further multi-year contract so that a projected fighter shortfall could be averted; in 2006, the Navy was 60 fighters below its validated aircraft requirement. The FY2010 budget bill authorized a multiyear purchase agreement for additional Super Hornets. A multi-year contract was finalized on 28 September 2010, reported as saving $600 million over individual yearly contracts, for 66 Super Hornets and 58 Growlers to mitigate a four-year delay in the F-35 program.
On 7 August 2014, U.S. defense officials announced they had been authorized to launch bombing missions upon Islamic State forces in northern Iraq. The decision to take direct action was made to protect U.S. personnel in the city of Irbil and to ensure the safety of transport aircraft making airdrops to Yazidi civilians. Early on 8 August 2014, two Super Hornets took off from the George H.W. Bush and dropped 500 lb laser-guided bombs on a "mobile artillery piece" the militants had been using to shell Kurdish forces defending the city. Later that day, four more aircraft struck a seven-vehicle convoy and a mortar position.
Royal Australian Air Force
On 3 May 2007, the Australian Government signed a A$2.9 billion contract to acquire 24 F/A-18Fs for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) as an interim replacement for aging F-111s. The total cost with training and support over 10 years was expected to be A$6 billion (US$4.6 billion). The order was controversial. Air Vice Marshal (ret.) Peter Criss, a former Air Commander, said he was "absolutely astounded" that $6 billion would be spent on an interim aircraft, and cited evidence given by the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee that the Super Hornet Block I's specific excess power is inferior to the MiG-29 and Su-30 being operated, or ordered, by multiple air forces in South East Asia. Air Commodore (ret.) Ted Bushell stated that the F/A-18F could not perform the assigned role, and that the F-111 was suitable for the strategic deterrent/strike role until at least 2020. It was claimed the F/A-18F purchase may ease additional Australian Super Hornet sales, particularly if the F-35 program ran into more difficulty.
A review was announced on 31 December 2007, by the new Australian Labor government, as part of a wider review of the RAAF's combat aircraft procurement plans. The main reasons given were concerns over operational suitability, the lack of a proper review process, and internal beliefs that an interim fighter was not required. On 17 March 2008, the Government announced that it would proceed with plans to acquire all 24 F/A-18Fs. Defence Minister Joel Fitzgibbon said that the Super Hornet was an "excellent aircraft"; he also indicated that costs and logistical factors contributed to the decision: the F-111's retirement was "irreversible"; "only" the F/A-18F could meet the timeframe and that cancellation "would bring significant financial penalties and create understandable tensions between the contract partners."
The Block II package aircraft offered to the RAAF include installed engines and six spares, APG-79 AESA radars, Link 16 connectivity, LAU-127 guided missile launchers, AN/ALE-55 fiber optic towed decoys and other equipment. The government has also sought U.S. export approval for Boeing EA-18G Growlers. On 27 February 2009, Fitzgibbon announced that 12 of the 24 Super Hornets would be wired on the production line for future modification as EA-18Gs. The additional wiring would cost A$35 million. The final decision on conversion to EA-18Gs, at a cost of A$300 million, would be made in 2012.
The first RAAF Super Hornet was completed in 2009 and first flew from Boeing's factory in St. Louis, Missouri on 21 July 2009. RAAF crews began training in the USA in 2009. The RAAF's first five F/A-18Fs arrived at their home base, RAAF Base Amberley in Queensland, on 26 March 2010; and were joined by six more aircraft on 7 July 2010. Following the arrival of another four aircraft in December 2010, the first RAAF F/A-18F squadron was declared operational on 9 December 2010.
In December 2012, the Australian government sought information from the United States about the cost of acquiring a further 24 F/A-18Fs., which may be purchased to avoid a capability gap due to F-35 program delays. In February 2013, the U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale to Australia for up to 12 F/A-18E/F and 12 EA-18G Growler aircraft with associated equipment, training and logistical support. In May 2013, Australia announced they would retain the 24 F/A-18F instead of converting them, and will order 12 new EA-18Gs. In June 2014 Boeing was awarded the contract for the 12 EA-18Gs, and the first EA-18G for Australia was rolled out on July 29, 2015.
On 24 September 2014, eight RAAF F/A-18Fs, along with a tanker, an early warning aircraft, and 400 personnel arrived in the United Arab Emirates to take part in operations against Islamic State (IS) militants. On 5 October 2014, the RAAF officially started combat missions over Iraq, with a pair of F/A-18Fs armed with GPS guided bombs and a KC-30A refuelling aircraft; they returned safely to base without attacking targets. On 8 October 2014, an Australian Super Hornet conducted its first attack against IS forces, dropping two bombs on an ISIL facility in northern Iraq.
The Super Hornet is considered a contender to replace the CF-18 Hornet, a version of the F/A-18A and B models, operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force. Like the older Hornet, the Super Hornet's carrier-capable design would be well-suited to the potential use on rugged forward operational airfields of Northern Canada, while the Super Hornet's extended range would remove its predecessor's main deficiencies. Due to design commonalities, training and integration would be straightforward in transitioning to the Super Hornet.
In 2010, Canada decided on sole source selection of the F-35A. Boeing claimed the Canadian government ignored the Super Hornet's radar cross-section characteristics during the procurement process. In April 2012, Canada was reviewing its plans to procure the F-35 and may consider buying the Super Hornet instead.
In September 2013, Boeing provided Canada with cost and capability data for its Advanced F/A-18 Super Hornet, suggesting that a fleet of 65 aircraft would cost $1.7 billion less than a fleet of F-35s. The Advanced Super Hornet builds upon the Super Hornet design. The U.S. Navy buys Super Hornets for $52 million per aircraft, while the advanced version would cost $6–$10 million more per aircraft, depending on options selected.
As a result of the 2015 Canadian federal election, the new Liberal government indicated that it would launch a competition to replace the Canadian CF-18 fleet. During the election, Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau stated that his government would not buy the F-35. However, there has been no public refusal to buying the F-35 since the election. On 22 November 2016, the Liberal government announced its intention to immediately acquire 18 Super Hornets on an interim basis. A letter of request by the Canadian government was issued 14 March 2017 for 18 Super Hornets. 
In 2008, the Royal Danish Air Force was offered the Super Hornet. The Super Hornet is one of three fighter aircraft in a Danish competition to replace 48 F-16AM/BMs. The other contenders are the F-35A Joint Strike Fighter and the Eurofighter Typhoon. Denmark is a level-3 partner in the JSF program, and has invested US$200 million so far. The final selection was to be in mid-2015 where 24 to 30 fighters are expected. In April 2014, the Danish Ministry of Defence handed over a Request for Binding Information (RBI) that specifically listed the F/A-18F two-seat variant. In December 2015, the decision was postponed to 2016, with details of the final order pending political negotiations. In May 2016, the Danish minority government recommended to parliament that 27 F-35A fighters should be procured instead of 38 Super Hornets.
In June 2015, a working group set up by the Finnish MoD proposed starting the so-called HX Fighter Program to replace the Finnish Air Force's current fleet of F/A-18 Hornets, which will reach the end of their service life by the end of the 2020s. The group recognises five potential types: Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II and Saab JAS 39 Gripen. In May 2016 the Pentagon announced that two US manufacturers will respond to the information request regarding the fighter aqcuisition: Boeing with the Super Hornet, and Lockheed Martin with the F-35.
The request for information concerning the program was sent in early 2016; the five responses were received in November 2016. A call for tender will be sent in spring 2018 and the buying decision is scheduled to take place in 2021.
In May 2015, it was reported that the Kuwait Air Force was planning to order 28 F/A-18E/Fs with options for an additional 12. However, in June 2015 it was reported that Kuwait was considering a split purchase between the Eurofighter Typhoon and the F/A-18E/F. On 11 September 2015, Kuwait signed an agreement for 28 Eurofighter aircraft. In mid-November 2016, it was reported that a sale of 32 F/A-18E and 8 F/A-18F fighters to Kuwait had been approved by the U.S. State Department and Congress was notified.
Boeing offered Malaysia the Super Hornets as part of a buy-back package for its existing F/A-18 Hornets in 2002. However, the Super Hornet procurement was halted in 2007 after the government decided to purchase the Sukhoi Su-30MKM instead. But Chief Gen. Datuk Nik Ismail Nik Mohamaed of the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) indicated that the air force had not planned to end procurement of the Super Hornets, instead saying that it needed such fighters. In a separate deal, the RMAF's MiG-29 will be replaced in 2015. The F/A-18F Super Hornet is one of the leading contenders for the MiG-29 replacement MRCA program. Under the program, the RMAF is looking to equip three squadrons with 36 to 40 new fighter aircraft with an estimated budget of RM6 billion to RM8 billion (US$1.84 billion to US$2.46 billion). The other competitors are the Eurofighter Typhoon, Dassault Rafale and Saab JAS 39 Gripen.
Poland is planning to purchase 64 multirole combat aircraft from 2021 as part of that country's modernization plans. The new fighters will replace the Polish Air Force's fleet of Sukhoi Su-22M4 ground attack aircraft and Mikoyan MiG-29 fighter aircraft. The planned open tender procedure could include: Boeing's F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet, the newest variant of JAS 39E/F Gripen, Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon and the F-35 Lightning II.
The United Arab Emirates was reported to have asked for information on the Super Hornet in 2010.
In early 2011, Bulgaria was considering the F/A-18 Super Hornet, among other aircraft, as a replacement for its MiG-21 fleet.
In 2014, Boeing is working with Korean Airlines to offer the Advanced Super Hornet to the Republic of Korea Air Force as an alternative to their KF-X fighter program. Although a fighter based on the Super Hornet would save money, downgrading the program would not give South Korean industry as much knowledge as it would from developing a new fighter.
Boeing proposed the Super Hornet to the Brazilian government. It was reported that the Super Hornet was selected as one of three finalists in Brazil's fighter competition in October 2008. Brazil has put forward an initial requirement for 36 aircraft, with a potential total purchase of 120 examples. However news of NSA's spying activity on Brazilian leaders has caused animosity between Brazil and the US. Brazil eventually dropped the Super Hornet from its final list and selected the Saab JAS 39 Gripen in December 2013.
For India's MMRCA competition, Boeing offered a customized variant called F/A-18IN, which included Raytheon's APG-79 AESA radar. In August 2008, Boeing submitted an industrial participation proposal to India describing partnerships with companies in India. The Indian Air Force (IAF) extensively evaluated the Super Hornets and conducted field trials in August 2009. However, in April 2011, the IAF eliminated F/A-18IN from the competition which was eventually won by the Dassault Rafale.
In October 2016, IHS Janes reported that India received three unsolicited bids to replace MiG-21 and Mig-27, including the Super Hornet.
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps has avoided the Super Hornet program and their resistance is so high that they would rather fly former Navy F/A-18Cs that have been replaced with Super Hornets. This is said to be because they fear that any Super Hornet buys will be at the cost of the F-35B STOVL fighters that they intend to operate from amphibious ships. As a concession, the Marine Corps has agreed to eventually equip five Marine fighter-attack squadrons (VMFA) with the F-35C carrier variant to continue to augment Navy carrier air wings as they currently do with the F/A-18C.
On 10 March 2009, Boeing offered the Super Hornet for Greece's Next-Generation Fighter Program.
On 1 August 2010, The Sunday Times reported that the British government was considering canceling orders for the F-35B and buying the Super Hornet instead for its Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers. It was stated that this would save the UK defense budget about £10 billion. An industry source suggested that the Super Hornet could be ski jump launched without catapults. The UK has reverted to a STOVL aircraft carrier equipped with F-35B fighters.
- F/A-18E Super Hornet: single seat variant.
- F/A-18F Super Hornet: two-seat variant.
- EA-18G Growler: Electronic warfare variant of the F/A-18F to replace the U.S. Navy's Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler.
- Advanced Super Hornet: Variant of the F/A-18F Super Hornet with Conformal Fuel Tanks (CFT) and has a further reduced radar cross section (RCS), with the option of a stealthy enclosed weapons pod and built-in IRST21 sensor system.
- United States Navy
- Pacific Fleet
- VFA-2 "Bounty Hunters" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-14 "Tophatters" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-22 "Fighting Redcocks" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-25 "Fist of the Fleet" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-27 "Royal Maces" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-41 "Black Aces" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-86 "Sidewinders" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-94 "Mighty Shrikes" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-97 "Warhawks" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-102 "Diamondbacks" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-113 "Stingers" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-115 "Eagles" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-122 "Flying Eagles" (Fleet Replacement Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F)
- VFA-137 "Kestrels" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-146 "Blue Diamonds" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-147 "Argonauts" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-151 "Vigilantes" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-154 "Black Knights" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-192 "Golden Dragons" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-195 "Dambusters" (F/A-18E)
- Atlantic Fleet
- VFA-11 "Red Rippers" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-31 "Tomcatters" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-32 "Swordsmen" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-81 "Sunliners" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-87 "Golden Warriors" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-103 "Jolly Rogers" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-105 "Gunslingers" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-106 "Gladiators" (Fleet Replacement Squadron, operates F/A-18A/B/C/D/E/F)
- VFA-136 "Knighthawks" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-143 "Pukin' Dogs" (F/A-18E)
- VFA-211 "Fighting Checkmates" (F/A-18F)
- VFA-213 "Black Lions" (F/A-18F)
- Test and Evaluation Units
- VX-9 Vampires (Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F and other aircraft)
- VX-23 Salty Dogs (Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F and other aircraft)
- VX-31 Dust Devils (Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F and other aircraft)
- NSAWC (Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center), F/A-18F, also operates other aircraft)
- Pacific Fleet
Each United States Navy squadron has a standard unit establishment of 10 or 12 aircraft.
A US Navy F/A-18F from VFA-122 Tactical Demonstration team crashed on 6 April 2011, killing both crew members. The crash occurred when the crew attempted to perform a loaded roll with too much speed and insufficient angle-of-attack. The loaded roll has since been removed from the Navy's F/A-18F flight demonstration routine.
- Crew: F/A-18E: 1 (pilot), F/A-18F: 2 (pilot and weapon systems officer)
- Length: 60 ft 1¼ in (18.31 m)
- Wingspan: 44 ft 8½ in (13.62 m)
- Height: 16 ft (4.88 m)
- Wing area: 500 ft² (46.5 m²)
- Empty weight: 32,081 lb (14,552 kg)
- Loaded weight: 47,000 lb (21,320 kg) (in fighter configuration))
- Max. takeoff weight: 66,000 lb (29,937 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric F414-GE-400 turbofans
- Dry thrust: 13,000 lbf (62.3 kN) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 22,000 lbf (97.9 kN) each
- Internal fuel capacity: F/A-18E: 14,400 lb (6,780 kg), F/A-18F: 13,550 lb (6,354 kg)
- External fuel capacity: 5 × 480 gal tanks, totaling 16,380 lb (7,381 kg)
- Maximum speed: Mach 1.8 (1,190 mph, 1,915 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m)
- Range: 1,275 nmi (2,346 km) clean plus two AIM-9s
- Combat radius: 390 nmi (449 mi, 722 km) for interdiction mission
- Ferry range: 1,800 nmi (2,070 mi, 3,330 km)
- Service ceiling: 50,000+ ft (15,000+ m)
- Rate of climb: 44,882 ft/min (228 m/s)
- Wing loading: 94.0 lb/ft² (459 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.93 (1.1 with loaded weight & 50% internal fuel)
- Design load factor: 7.6 g
- Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A2 Vulcan nose-mounted rotary cannon, 412 rounds
- Hardpoints: 11 total: 2× wingtips, 6× under-wing, and 3× under-fuselage with a capacity of 17,750 lb (8,050 kg) external fuel and ordnance
- Air-to-air missiles:
- Air-to-surface missiles:
- Anti-ship missile:
- SUU-42A/A Flares/Infrared decoys dispenser pod and chaff pod or
- Electronic countermeasures (ECM) pod or
- AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR Targeting pods or
- up to 3× 330 U.S. gallon (1,200 L) Sargent Fletcher drop tanks for ferry flight or extended range/loitering time or
- 1× 330 U.S. gal (1,200 L) tank and 4× 480 U.S. gal (1,800 L) tanks for aerial refueling system (ARS).
- Hughes APG-73 or Raytheon APG-79 Radar
- Northrop Grumman/ITT AN/ALE-165 self-protection jammer pod or BAE Systems AN/ALE-214 integrated defensive electronic countermeasures system
- Raytheon AN/ALE-50 or BAE Systems AN/ALE-55 towed decoy
- Northrop Grumman AN/ALR-67(V)3 radar warning receiver
- MIDS LVT or MIDS JTRS datalink transceiver
Notable appearances in media
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- List of fighter aircraft
- List of active United States military aircraft
- List of United States military aerial refueling aircraft
- "It (Super Hornet) has only 36 percent of the F-14's payload/range capability."
- U.S. Navy (21 April 2011). "Navy celebrates 500th Super Hornet, Growler delivery". defpro.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." costofwar.com. Retrieved: 22 September 2011.
- "Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 President's Budget Submission: Navy Justification Book Volume 1 Aircraft Procurement, Navy Budget Activities 1–4" (PDF). U.S. Department of Defense. March 2014. pp. 1–9. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2014-04-01. Retrieved 2014-05-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Baugher, Joe (20 July 2009). "Northrop YF-17 Cobra". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 27 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 0-07-134696-1.
- "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet." Boeing. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.
- Donald 2004, p. 45.
- Rogoway, Tyler. "TOP GUN Day Special: The Super Tomcat That Was Never Built". jalopnik.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Donald, David. "Northrop Grumman F-14 Tomcat, U.S. Navy today". Warplanes of the Fleet. London: AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1.
- Donald 2004, pp. 13, 15.
- Young, J., R. Anderson and R. Yurkovich. "A Description of the F/A-18E/F Design and Design Process" (F/A-18E intended to replace A-6 and F-14D). 7th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, AIAA-98-4701, St. Louis, Missouri, 2–4 September 1998.
- Kopp, Dr Carlo (June 2001). "Flying the F/A-18F Super Hornet". ausairpower.net. Australian Aviation. Retrieved 27 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Frost, Patricia (28 March 1997). "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Approved For Low-Rate Production". Boeing.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Frost, Patricia (22 September 1997). "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Enters Production at Boeing". Boeing. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Operational and Test Evaluation of F/A-18E/F and F-22 review to Senate Armed Services Committee" (PDF). Armed-services.senate.gov. 22 March 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Nathman, John, Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. "DoD Special Briefing on "Super Hornet" Operation Evaluation Results." June 2011/https://web.archive.org/web/20110608225404/http://www.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=1013 Archived June 8, 2011 at the Wayback Machine Defenselink.mil, 15 September 2000. Retrieved: 8 July 2011.
- "The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet: Tomorrow's Air Power Today". National Defense Industrial Association. 4 July 2008. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "F/A-18 fact file." U.S. Navy, 13 October 2006. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.
- Ozburn, Marguerite. "F/A-18E/F Block II upgrades add to Super Hornet's potent arsenal." Boeing Frontiers, June 2005. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.
- Fulghum, David A. "Navy Details New Super Hornet Capabilities." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 25 February 2007. Retrieved: 256 July 2011. February 2012/https://web.archive.org/web/20120223114652/http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_generic.jsp?channel=awst&id=news/aw022607p2.xml Archived February 23, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Reed, John. "Boeing: F-35 hasn’t yet won in Japan." DoD Buzz, 16 December 2011.
- Jennings, Faith. "Raytheon to Provide Revolutionary AESA Capabilities to 135 F/A-18s." Raytheon, 23 January 2008. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.
- Fulghum, David. A. "Boeing Plans Sixth Generation Fighter With Block 3 Super Hornet" (subscription required). Aviation Week, 30 January 2008. Retrieved: 17 February 2008.
- Tournade, Sara. "Boeing well positioned for future strike-fighter market." January 2012/https://web.archive.org/web/20120126124018/http://www.boeing.com/Features/2011/06/bds_pas_future_strike_mkt_06_21_11.html Archived January 26, 2012 at the Wayback Machine Boeing, 21 June 2011. Retrieved: 18 December 2011.
- Minnick, Wendell. "Boeing Unveils New Hornet Options at Aero India". Defense News, 8 February 2011.
- Nativi, Andy. "Boeing Reveals Details Of International F-18." Aviation Week, 4 November 2011.[dead link]
- Barrie, Douglas, Amy Butler and Robert Wall. "Manufacturers Vie To Close Fighter Gap." Aviation Week, 30 July 2010. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.[dead link]
- "Testing the next-generation Super Hornet." Flight International, 12 July 2011. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.
- "Boeing Receives US Navy Contract to Develop New Mission Computer for Super Hornet and Growler." Space Media Network, 15 November 2011.
- Frost, Patricia. "Boeing Selects Supplier for Super Hornet Block II Infrared Search and Track Capability." Boeing, 2 July 2007.
- Greenert, Admiral Jonathan (18 September 2013). "Statement Before The House Armed Services Committee On Planning For Sequestration In FY 2014 And Perspectives Of The Military Services On The Strategic Choices And Management Review" (PDF). US House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kelly, Heather (18 May 2009). "Lockheed Martin Awarded Technology Development Contract for F/A-18E/F Infrared Search and Track Program". Lockheed Martin Press Release. Archived from the original on 23 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hilliard, Melissa (22 November 2011). "Lockheed Martin Awarded U.S. Navy F/A-18 E/F IRST Sensor System EMD Contract". Archived from the original on 25 November 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Infrared Search and Track for US Navy Super Hornets to enter Low-Rate Initial Production." Navyrecognition.com, 6 December 2014.
- Andrea Shalal-Esa. "Boeing aims to keep building F/A-18 jets through 2020". Fox Business. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Boeing: Advanced Super Hornet makes its debut August 2013/https://web.archive.org/web/20130831111223/http://www.boeing.com/boeing/Features/2013/08/bds_adv_super_hornet_08_28_13.page Archived August 31, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Boeing to demo Super Hornet enhancements in summer Flightglobal.com, 9 April 2013
- "Boeing Pushing Airframe Envelope". Defense News. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Boeing shows off advanced Super Hornet demonstrator." Flight International, 28 August 2013.
- "Advanced Super Hornet Demonstrates Significant Stealth, Range Improvements." Deagel, 28 August 2013.
- "Navy pleased with "Advanced" Super Hornet tests, wants more Growlers." Flight International, 7 April 2014.
- Norris, Guy. "Future Options: Conformal fuel tank attracts Navy interest as part of possible Super Hornet upgrade" (subscription required). Aviation Week and Space Technology, 16 December 2013, pp. 28-29.
- US Navy may add conformal fuel tanks to F/A-18E/F Super Hornet fleet Flightglobal.com, 20 March 2013.
- Norris, Guy. "GE Eyes More Powerful Engine For Super Hornets, Growlers." Aviation Week, 14 May 2009. Retrieved: 25 July 2011.[dead link]
- Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing's Super Hornet seeks export sale to launch 20% thrust upgrade." Flight International, 12 May 2009.
- "Boeing plots hybrid Super Hornet/Growler future." Flight International, 25 June 2014.
- Cameron, Doug, and Robert Wall. "Fighter jet may vanish from Boeing's horizon." Wall Street Journal, 19 September 2014. p.B1 and B5.
- Eckstein, Megan (2015-07-22). "Boeing Plans to Keep Super Hornet Line Open After Positive Signs From Congress, International Customers". US Naval Institute.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Eckstein, Megan (2016-04-27). "Pentagon Still Unsure If It Needs More Growlers; Boeing Says Production Restart Would Be Possible". US Naval Institute.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kress, Bob; Gilchrist, Rear Admiral USN ret. Paul (February 2002). "F-14D Tomcat vs. F/18 E/F Super Hornet". Flight Journal Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Boeing Super Hornet Demonstrates Aerial Refueling Capability". Boeing Global Strike Systems. 14 April 1999. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Donald 2004, p. 76.
- Majumdar, Dave (1 April 2014). "UCLASS Could Be Used as Tanker for Carrier Air Wing". news.usni.org. U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE. Retrieved 3 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Donald 2004, pp. 49–52.
- "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet – maritime strike attack aircraft." naval-technology.com. Retrieved: 9 September 2011.
- Elward 2001, p. 77.
- Peterson, Donald (June 2002). "Ready On Arrival: Super Hornet Joins The Fleet: An Evolutionary Design Delivers Revolutionary Capabilities". Sea Power. Navy League. Archived from the original on 20 June 2002.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Elward 2001, pp. 74–75.
- "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet." Boeing. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Gaddis, Capt. "BD". "F/A-18 & EF-18G Program brief." U.S. Navy, 24 April 2007.
- "F/A-18-E/F Super Hornet... Leading Naval Aviation into the 21st Century." U.S. Navy, 17 August 2009. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Donald 2004, pp. 50–51, 56.
- "USN looking at adding conformal fuel tanks on F/A-18E/F--also a look at Super Hornet RCS reduction measures - The DEW Line". The DEW Line. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Winchester 2006, p. 166.
- "Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornet". airframer.com. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pike, John. "AN/ALE-55 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy." Globalsecurity.org, 16 August 2010.
- "New APG-79 AESA Radars for Super Hornets." Defense Industry Daily, 26 April 2005. Retrieved: 8 July 2011.
- "New U.S. Navy Radar Detects Cruise Missiles." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 30 April 2007.
- Cormier, Nicolette (8 July 2002). "F/A-18 AESA – New Technology Revolutionizes Radar Benefits". U.S. Navy. Retrieved 28 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Boeing (8 January 2007). "Boeing F/A-18E/F Block 2 Super Hornets Flying at Naval Air Station Oceana". Boeing.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Boeing Dual-Cockpit Cueing System Introduced to U.S. Navy Squadron." defense-aerospace.com. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- Clemons, John. "Raytheon Awarded Navy Contract to Increase SHARP System Capability." Raytheon, 4 October 2006.
- Rosenberg-Macaulay, Barry. "MIDS JTRS systems poised to bring IP networking to the aerial tier." defensesystems.com, 2011. Retrieved: 12 February 2011.
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- "USS Carl Vinson CVN-70 History." uscarriers.net, 4 August 2010. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- "Strikes Continue: ISAF Air Component Commander Visits Big E." U.S. Navy, 9 November 2006. Retrieved: 9 September 2011.
- "USS Enterprise aircraft deliver lethal sting of bombs to enemy in Afghanistan", Stars and Stripes, 13 October 2006.
- Moore, Lt. Shannon. "CVW-7 Sailors Complete an Eight-Month Deployment." U.S. Navy, 22 May 2007. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- "U.S. F/A-18E Hornet operates from French Aircraft Carrier". theaviationist.com. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Trimble, Stephen. "US Navy Super Hornet deal could cut JSF numbers." Flight International, 23 July 2007.
- Brett, Mary Ann and Philip Carder. "Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet a Finalist in Brazil Fighter Aircraft Competition." Boeing, 1 October 2008.
- "DoD News Briefing With Secretary Gates From The Pentagon." August 2011/https://web.archive.org/web/20110806163729/http://www.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=4396 Archived August 6, 2011 at the Wayback Machine defenselink.mil, 6 April 2009. Retrieved: 9 September 2011.
- "Navy F/A-18E/F and EA-18G Aircraft Procurement and Strike Fighter Shortfall: Background and Issues for Congress." July 2009/https://web.archive.org/web/20090707085613/http://opencrs.com/document/RL30624 Archived July 7, 2009 at the Wayback Machine opencrs.com. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Tilghman, Andrew. "Gates: Fighter gap ignores real-world demand." navytimes.com, 8 June 2006. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea. "US defense compromise authorizes F/A-18 multiyear deal." Forbes. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.[dead link]
- Tilghman, Andrew. "Bill would give go-ahead to buy Super Hornets." navytimes.com, 25 June 2009. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Leiser, Ken. "Boeing lands $5.3 billion fighter jet contract with Navy." stltoday.com, 29 September 2010. Retrieved: 29 September 2010.
- U.S. fighters pound militants in northern Iraq - Militarytimes.com, 7 August 2014
- USN carries out air strike on Iraqi militants - Flightglobal.com, 8 August 2014
- Naval Power Bolsters U.S. Airstrikes in Iraq - Defensetech.org, 8 August 2014
- "Super Hornet Acquisition Contract Signed." defence.gov.au, 5 March 2007. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- "Australia to Acquire 24 F/A-18F Super Hornets". minister.defence.gov.au. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The 7.30 Report: Nelson stands by fighter jet decision." Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 15 March 2007.
- Criss, Peter. "There is nothing super about this Hornet." The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 March 2007. Retrieved: 9 May 2007.
- Baker, Richard. "The Hornet's nest." The Age, 9 July 2007.
- "Acceptance for Super Hornets A44-202 and A44-204." Defence.gov.au, 26 February 2010. Retrieved: 16 June 2011.
- Allard, Tom. "Axe set to fall on Nelson's fighters." The Sydney Morning Herald, 31 December 2007. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
- "Govt to keep Super Hornets." The Age, 17 March 2008.
- "Government clears Super Hornets deal." The Age, 17 March 2008.
- Dunlop, Tim. "Super Hornets are go." December 2008/https://web.archive.org/web/20081201211829/http://blogs.news.com.au/news/blogocracy/index.php/news/comments/super_hornets_are_go/ Archived December 1, 2008 at the Wayback Machine news.com.au, 18 March 2008.
- "Australia – F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Aircraft" (PDF). U.S. Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 6 February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dodd, Mark (15 August 2008). "RAAF likes the sound of the Growler". The Australian. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Smith, Jack. "Super Hornets wired for future upgrades." Department of Defence, 27 February 2009. Retrieved: 9 September 2011.
- Carder, Phillip. "Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet for Australia Takes Flight." Boeing, 21 July 2009.
- "Super Hornets arrive in south-east Queensland." ABC News, 26 March 2010. Retrieved: 15 July 2011.
- Hurst, Daniel. "Pilots buzzing as Super Hornets arrive." The Brisbane Times, 6 July 2010.
- Waldron, Greg. "Australia’s first F/A-18F squadron declared operational." Flight International, 9 December 2010.
- "Joint Media Release: Australia’s future Air Combat Capability." Minister for Defence and Minister for Defence Materiel (Australian Government Department of Defence), 13 December 2012.
- Taylor, Charles and Paul Ebner. "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft". Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 28 February 2013.
- "Australia plans to buy 12 EA-18G Growlers." Washingtonexaminer.com, 3 May 2013.
- "Boeing: Boeing Australia - RAAF EA-18G Growler Rollout". Boeing. Retrieved 12 November 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Boeing Unveils First Royal Australian Air Force Growler". News Releases/Statements. Boeing. Retrieved 12 November 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Australian Air Force fighter jets and personnel arrive in UAE to prepare anti-IS operations - Armyrecognition.com, 24 September 2014
-  Australian Super Hornet fighter jets complete first armed mission over Iraq. Retrieved on 6 October 2014.
-  RAAF conducts first Iraq combat mission. Retrieved on 6 October 2014.
- Australia launches first airstrike in Iraq - Militarytimes.com, 8 October 2014
- Rogoway, Tyler. "The Right Fighter For Canada Is The Super Hornet, Not The F-35". jalopnik.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Aviation companies decry F-35 purchase". CBC News. 5 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Campion-Smith, Bruce. "Ottawa to overhaul purchase of F-35 fighter jets in wake of Auditor General’s report". Toronto Star, 2 April 2012.
- "Competition heats up as Ottawa reviews options to procure costly F-35 fighter jets". Hilltimes.com, 5 September 2013
- Berthiaume, Lee; Ivison, John. "Liberals planning to buy Super Hornet fighter jets before making final decision on F-35s, sources say". National Post, 5 June 2016.
- "Liberals to buy 18 Boeing Super Hornet fighter jets to fill 'capability gap'". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 November 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Canada sends letter of request to US for interim F/A-18s
- "Boeing offers F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to Denmark". defenseworld.net. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Warwick, Graham. "Boeing Submits Danish Super Hornet Proposal". Aviation Week, 28 August 2008. March 2012/https://web.archive.org/web/20120307150056/http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=defense&id=news/FA18082808.xml&headline=Boeing%20Submits%20Danish%20Super%20Hornet%20Proposal Archived March 7, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Brett, Mary Ann and Philip Carder. "Boeing, US Navy Offer Super Hornet for Denmark Fighter Competition" Boeing, 27 August 2008.
- "Denmark Prioritizes Jobs in New Fighter Competition". Defense News. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- defense-aerospace.com Denmark Starts Fighter Evaluation Process to Replace F-16 12 April 2014
- "Denmark Further Postpones Fighter Selection Until 2016". Defense News. Retrieved 18 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Danish Government Recommends Buying 27 F-35s". defensenews.com. 12 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Status on Danish fighter competition: Government recommends 27 F-35A – no decision yet". 16 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Working group proposes multi-role fighters to replace F/A-18 aircraft". 11 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Yhdysvallat tarjoaa kahta konetyyppiä Hornetin seuraajaksi". 2 May 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Finnish Defence Forces' Logistics Command received responses concerning the replacement of the Hornet aircraft" (press release). FI: Ministry of Defence. 22 November 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Kuwait to order Boeing F/A-18 fighters worth $3 bn". AFP via Business Insider. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kuwait, Italy Discuss Eurofighter Buy. Defense News,
- "Kuwait Opts For Eurofighter Typhoon". Aviation Week. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Kuwait, Qatar Deals Move Forward, Likely Putting Boeing Fighter Jet Production Into the 2020s". Defense News, 17 November 2016.
- "Super Hornets, Awacs may feature in RMAF modernisation plans". Utusan Malaysia, 16 April 2007. Retrieved: 5 September 2008.
- John Gilbert. "Three fighter jet makers to submit leasing bids". themalaysianreserve.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Polskie F-35 od 2021? February 2014/https://web.archive.org/web/20140226090607/http://www.altair.com.pl/news/view?news_id=12775 Archived February 26, 2014 at the Wayback Machine (Polish)
- Poland to buy 64 fifth-generation fighters
- "Boeing zainteresowany polskim rynkiem. F-18 zamiast F-35?". defence24.pl. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- william. "Poland to procure 64 Multi-Role jet fighters starting delivery in 2021". airrecognition.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Tran, Philip. "UAE May Ditch Rafale: Hornet a Surprise Competitor for $10B Deal". defensenews.com, 13 September 2010. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
- "Bulgarian Defense Chief Gets Saab Offer on Gripen Fighter Jets". Novinite, 4 February 2011.
- "Wordt dit de vervanger van de Belgische F-16's?" De Morgen, 12 March 2014. Retrieved: 13 March 2014.
- Boeing Still Interested In South Korea’s KF-X - Aviationweek.com, 11 December 2014
- Trimble, Stephen. "Brazil names three finalists for F-X2 contract, rejects three others". Flight International, 6 October 2008.
- Mallén, Patricia Rey (16 December 2013). "Brazil Says No To $4B Fighter Jet Deal With France's Dassault; Not A Victory Yet For Boeing, Saab". International Business Times. Retrieved 28 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Osborne, Anthony (18 December 2013). "Brazil Selects Gripen For F-X2 Requirement". Aviation Week. Retrieved 19 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Nelson, Brian; Sharma, Kapil (24 April 2008). "Boeing Delivers Proposal to Equip Indian Air Force with Super Hornet Fighters". Boeing. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Nelson, Brian; Rangachari, Swati (4 August 2008). "Boeing Submits Combat Aircraft Industrial-Participation Proposal to Indian Government". Boeing. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "F-18 comes in first, trials begin". Times of India, 18 August 2009. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Bajaj, Vikas. "U.S. Loses Bids to Supply Jets to India". The New York Times, 28 April 2011. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
- Bedi, Rahul (14 October 2016). "India renews search for MiG replacement". IHS Janes.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cavas, Christopher P. "Navy: Super Hornet rep for problems untrue". marinecorpstimes.com, 17 June 2010. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- Butler, Amy. "Marines Sign on for F-35C". Aviation Week, 14 March 2011. Retrieved: 24 March 2012.
- Guse, Paul; Carder, Phillip (10 March 2009). "Boeing to Offer Super Hornet for Greece's Next-Generation Fighter Program". Boeing. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Boeing withdraws Super Hornet from Swiss contract race". Flightglobal.com, 30 April 2008. Retrieved: 16 August 2013.
- Clark, Colin, "UK May Borrow F-18s For Carriers: F-35Bs May Be Scrapped". dodbuzz.com, 31 August 2010. Retrieved: 1 September 2010.
- Buliavac, Joseph M. "The aircrew of an F/A-18F Super Hornet, assigned to the "Fighting Redcocks" of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 22, wait to launch from Catapult 3 during night flight operations." navy.mil, 2 December 2007. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- "CSFWP Link." lemoore.navy.mil. Retrieved: 16 August 2010. January 2009/https://web.archive.org/web/20090113155742/http://www.lemoore.navy.mil/vfa-122/ Archived January 13, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Mike Eiman. "NASL crash caused by practice mistakes". Hanford Sentinel. Retrieved 1 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet." Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved: 16 August 2010.
- "F/A-18E Hornet".blogspot.com. Retrieved: 31 January 2011.
- "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 2011-10-26. Retrieved 9 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "F/A-18F Super Hornet" Fighterworld. Retrieved: 20 February 2013
- Thrust (44,000) / Loaded weight with 50% internal fuel (39800)
- NATOPS A1-F18EA-NFM-200 summary of store drag index numbers, p. 39.
- Donald, David. "Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet", Warplanes of the Fleet. London: AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 978-1-88058-889-5.
- Elward, Brad. Boeing F/A-18 Hornet (WarbirdTech, Vol. 31). North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 978-1-58007-041-6.
- Elward, Brad. The Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet & EA-18G Growler: A Developmental and Operational History. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. 2013. ISBN 978-0-76434-041-3.
- Holmes, Tony. US Navy Hornet Units of Operation Iraqi Freedom. London: Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-1-84176-801-4.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 978-0-07134-696-2.
- Winchester, Jim. The Encyclopedia of Modern Aircraft. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-59223-628-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.|
- F/A-18 U.S. Navy fact file, and F/A-18 Navy history page
- F/A-18E/F Super Hornet page and F/A-18 Schematics on GlobalSecurity.org