Lieutenant field marshal
in the Austrian Empire
|Rank insignia||Austro-Hungarian Army|
|Rank group||General officers|
Feldmarschall-Leutnant (in English: Field marshal lieutenant), short FML (historically also Feldmarschall-Lieutenant, or Feldmarschallleutnant, however as to official terms from 1867 by the Austrian military administration always Feldmarschalleutnant) was a distinguished military rank. It was introduced contemporary with the Field Marshal (German: Feldmarschall) rank in the 17th century. In German speaking countries the imperator usually appointed a Submashal or Lieutenant for the support of the field marshal. In this function as the personal deputy to the field marshal he was, among others, in charge of supervision, inspection and control of supply, storage, streets and guards.
The rank was already in use by the Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire from the 17th century until 1806. It was introduced as well to the Army of the Austrian Empire 1804–1866, and the Austro-Hungarian Army 1867–1918. The sequence of general ranks was as follows.
- Feldmarschall (Field Marshal)
- Generaloberst, introduced in 1915 (Colonel General)
- General der Infanterie, General der Kavallerie, and Feldzeugmeister (General of the infantry, General of the cavalry, and General of the artillery)
- Felmarschall-Leutnant (Field marshal lieutenant), (Hungarian: Altábornagy)
- Generalmajor (Major General)
At that time Field marshal lieutenant of the k.u.k. Army was equivalent to the Generalleutnant (Lieutenant general) of the Prussian Army (today comparable to an OF7, two-star rank). The normal assignment of Field marshal lieutenant was the commanding officer of a division-sized military formation. It was addressed in the honorific style Excellency.
In Austria the rank was used continuously after 1918 by the commander-in-chief (FML Adolf von Boog) of the so-called Volkswehr (People´s defence) until 1919. However, the Bundesheer of the First Republic adopted the designation, structure and sequence of the German ranks in 1920. Following the national tradition, in 1933 the Austrian ranks, insignia and uniforms were reintroduced, including Field marshal lieutenant rank. The ranks remained in use until the Anschluss in 1938.
The equivalent rank to Field marshal lieutenant in the Hungarian Army became the rank Altábornagy. Today it is still in use as NATO-equivalent OF-8 two-star rank corresponding to lieutenant general in English-speaking armed forces.
- Georg von Alten: Handbuch für Heer und Flotte. Band III, Berlin 1911
- Constantin von Wurzbach: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Österreich, 60 Bände, Wien 1856-1891
- Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 56 Bände, München-Leipzig 1875-1912
- Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950, bisher 12 Bände, Wien 1957 ff.
- Neue Österreichische Biographie (ab Band 10: Grosse Österreicher), bisher 21 Bände, Wien 1935-1982
- Felix Czeike: Historisches Lexikon Wien, 5 Bände, Wien 1992-1997
- Antonio Schmidt-Brentano: Kaiserliche und k.k. Generale 1618-1815, Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
- Antonio Schmidt-Brentano: Die k.k. bzw. k.u.k. Generalität 1816-1918, Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
- Adjustierungsvorschrift für die k.u.k. gemeinsame Armee, die k.k. Landwehr, die k.u. Landwehr, die verbundenen Einrichtungen und das Corps der Militär-Beamten. Gesamtausgabe Wien/Bozen 1912
- The abbreviation "OF" stands for "officer / officier"