|Republic of Fiji
|Motto: "Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui" (Fijian)
"Fear God and honour the Queen"
|Anthem: God Bless Fiji
and largest city
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|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
|•||Prime Minister||Frank Bainimarama|
|•||from the United Kingdom||10 October 1970|
|•||Republic||7 October 1987|
|•||Total||18,274 km2 (156th)
7,056 sq mi
|•||2012 estimate||858,038 (161st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|HDI (2014)|| 0.727
high · 90th
|Currency||Fijian dollar (FJD)|
|Time zone||FJT (UTC+12)|
|•||Summer (DST)||FJST (UTC+13)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||FJ|
Fiji (i// FEE-jee Fijian: Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Fijian: Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी Fiji Hindi: Ripablik ăph Phījī), is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles (2,000 km; 1,300 mi) northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north.
Fiji is an archipelago of more than 332 islands, of which 110 are permanently inhabited, and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres (7,100 sq mi). The farthest island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population of almost 860,000. The capital and largest city, Suva, is on Viti Levu. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres like Nadi (tourism) or Lautoka (sugar cane industry). Viti Levu's interior is sparsely inhabited due to its terrain.
Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific due to an abundance of forest, mineral, and fish resources. Today, the main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry and sugar exports. The country's currency is the Fijian dollar. Fiji's local government, in the form of city and town councils, is supervised by the Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development.
The majority of Fiji's islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago. Today, some geothermal activity still occurs on the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni. Fiji has been inhabited since the second millennium BC, and was settled first by Austronesians and later by Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century, and, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji was a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as a Commonwealth realm. A republic was declared in 1987, following a series of coups d'état.
In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power. When the High Court ruled in 2009 that the military leadership was unlawful, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the Constitution and reappointed Bainimarama. Later in 2009, Iloilo was replaced as President by Ratu Epeli Nailatikau. After years of delays, a democratic election was held on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won with 59.2% of the vote, and the election was deemed credible by international observers.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Society
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga. Its emergence can be described as follows:
Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, and all their Manufactures, especially bark cloth and clubs, were highly valued and much in demand. They called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, and it was by this foreign pronunciation, Fiji, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived; they may have had some influence on the new culture, and archaeological evidence shows that they would have then moved on to Samoa, Tonga and even Hawai'i.
The first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 5000 years ago. Lapita pottery shards have been found at numerous excavations around the country. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between these three nations[clarification needed] long before European contact is quite obvious with canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and even the Marquesas Islands.
Across 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from east to west, Fiji has been a nation of many languages. Fiji's history was one of settlement but also of mobility. Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes were quite rampant and very much part of everyday life. During the 19th century, Ratu Udre Udre is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement. According to Deryck Scarr ("A Short History of Fiji", 1984, page 3), "Ceremonial occasions saw freshly killed corpses piled up for eating. 'Eat me!' was a proper ritual greeting from a commoner to a chief." Scarr also reported that the posts that supported the chief's house or the priest's temple would have sacrificed bodies buried underneath them, with the rationale that the spirit of the ritually sacrificed person would invoke the gods to help support the structure, and "men were sacrificed whenever posts had to be renewed" (Scarr, page 3). Also, when a new boat, or drua, was launched, if it was not hauled over men as rollers, crushing them to death, "it would not be expected to float long" (Scarr, page 19). Fijians today regard those times as "na gauna ni tevoro" (time of the devil). The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles; as a result, Fiji remained unknown to the rest of the world.
The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman visited Fiji in 1643 while looking for the Great Southern Continent. Europeans settled on the islands permanently beginning in the 19th century. The first European settlers to Fiji were beachcombers, missionaries, whalers, and those engaged in the then booming sandalwood and bêche-de-mer trade.
Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau was a Fijian chief and warlord from the island of Bau, off the eastern coast of Viti Levu, who united part of Fiji's warring tribes under his leadership. He then styled himself as Tui Viti or King of Fiji, and then Vunivalu, or Protector, after the cession of Fiji to the United Kingdom. The British subjugated the islands as a colony in 1874, and the British brought over Indian contract labourers to work on the sugar plantations as the first governor of Fiji, Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon, adopted a policy disallowing the use of native labour or any interference in their culture or way of life. In 1875–76, an epidemic of measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, about one-third of the Fijian population. The population in 1942 was approximately 210,000 of whom 94,000 were Indians, 102,000 native Fijians, 2,000 Chinese and 5,000 Europeans.
The British granted Fiji independence in 1970. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 precipitated by a growing perception that the government was dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community. The second 1987 coup saw both the Fijian monarchy and the Governor General replaced by a non-executive president and the name of the country changed from Dominion of Fiji to Republic of Fiji and then in 1997 to Republic of the Fiji Islands. The two coups and the accompanying civil unrest contributed to heavy Indo-Fijian emigration; the resulting population loss resulted in economic difficulties and ensured that Melanesians became the majority.
In 1990, the new constitution institutionalised ethnic Fijian domination of the political system. The Group Against Racial Discrimination (GARD) was formed to oppose the unilaterally imposed constitution and to restore the 1970 constitution. In 1992 Sitiveni Rabuka, the Lieutenant Colonel who had carried out the 1987 coup, became Prime Minister following elections held under the new constitution. Three years later, Rabuka established the Constitutional Review Commission, which in 1997 wrote a new constitution which was supported by most leaders of the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian communities. Fiji was re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations.
The year 2000 brought along another coup, instigated by George Speight, which effectively toppled the government of Mahendra Chaudhry, who in 1997 had become the country's first Indo-Fijian Prime Minister following the adoption of the new constitution. Commodore Frank Bainimarama assumed executive power after the resignation, possibly forced, of President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara. Later in 2000, Fiji was rocked by two mutinies when rebel soldiers went on a rampage at Suva's Queen Elizabeth Barracks. The High Court ordered the reinstatement of the constitution, and in September 2001, to restore democracy, a general election was held which was won by interim Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase's Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua party.
In 2005, the Qarase government amid much controversy proposed a Reconciliation and Unity Commission with power to recommend compensation for victims of the 2000 coup and amnesty for its perpetrators. However, the military, especially the nation's top military commander, Frank Bainimarama, strongly opposed this bill. Bainimarama agreed with detractors who said that to grant amnesty to supporters of the present government who had played a role in the violent coup was a sham. His attack on the legislation, which continued unremittingly throughout May and into June and July, further strained his already tense relationship with the government.
In late November and early December 2006, Bainimarama was instrumental in the 2006 Fijian coup d'état. Bainimarama handed down a list of demands to Qarase after a bill was put forward to parliament, part of which would have offered pardons to participants in the 2000 coup attempt. He gave Qarase an ultimatum date of 4 December to accede to these demands or to resign from his post. Qarase adamantly refused either to concede or resign, and on 5 December the president, Ratu Josefa Iloilo, was said to have signed a legal order dissolving the parliament after meeting with Bainimarama.
In April 2009, the Fiji Court of Appeal ruled that the 2006 coup had been illegal. This began the 2009 Fijian constitutional crisis. President Iloilo abrogated the constitution, removed all office holders under the constitution including all judges and the governor of the Central Bank. He then reappointed Bainimarama as prime minister under his "New Order" and imposed a "Public Emergency Regulation" limiting internal travel and allowing press censorship.
For a country of its size, Fiji has fairly large armed forces, and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping missions in various parts of the world. In addition, a significant number of former military personnel have served in the lucrative security sector in Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion.
Fiji covers a total area of some 194,000 square kilometres (75,000 sq mi) of which around 10% is land.
Fiji is the hub of the South West Pacific, midway between Vanuatu and Tonga. The archipelago is located between 176° 53′ east and 178° 12′ west. The 180° meridian runs through Taveuni but the International Date Line is bent to give uniform time (UTC+12) to all of the Fiji group. With the exception of Rotuma, the Fiji group lies between 15° 42′ and 20° 02′ south. Rotuma is located 220 nautical miles (410 km; 250 mi) north of the group, 360 nautical miles (670 km; 410 mi) from Suva, 12° 30′ south of the equator.
Fiji consists of 332 islands (of which 106 are inhabited) and 522 smaller islets. The two most important islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, which account for about three-quarters of the total land area of the country. The islands are mountainous, with peaks up to 1,324 metres (4,341 ft), and covered with thick tropical forests.
The highest point is Mount Tomanivi on Viti Levu. Viti Levu hosts the capital city of Suva, and is home to nearly three-quarters of the population. Other important towns include Nadi (the location of the international airport), and Lautoka, Fiji's second city with large sugar cane mills and a seaport.
The main towns on Vanua Levu are Labasa and Savusavu. Other islands and islandgroups include Taveuni and Kadavu (the third and fourth largest islands, respectively), the Mamanuca Group (just off Nadi) and Yasawa Group, which are popular tourist destinations, the Lomaiviti Group, off Suva, and the remote Lau Group. Rotuma, some 270 nautical miles (500 km; 310 mi) north of the archipelago, has a special administrative status in Fiji.
The climate in Fiji is tropical marine and warm year round with minimal extremes. The warm season is from November to April and the cooler season lasts from May to October. Temperature in the cool season still averages 22 °C (72 °F).
Rainfall is variable, with the warm season experiencing heavier rainfall, especially inland. Winds are moderate, though cyclones occur about once a year (10–12 times per decade).
Politics in Fiji normally take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic wherein the Prime Minister of Fiji is the head of government and the President the Head of State, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji, and the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
2006 military takeover
Citing corruption in the government, Commodore Josaia Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, Commander of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, staged a military takeover on 5 December 2006 against the prime minister that he had installed after the 2000 coup. There had been two military coups in 1987 and one in 2000. The commodore took over the powers of the presidency and dissolved the parliament, paving the way for the military to continue the takeover. The coup was the culmination of weeks of speculation following conflict between the elected prime minister, Laisenia Qarase, and Commodore Bainimarama. Bainimarama had repeatedly issued demands and deadlines to the prime minister. A particular issue was previously pending legislation to pardon those involved in the 2000 coup. Bainimarama named Jona Senilagakali as caretaker prime minister. The next week Bainimarama said he would ask the Great Council of Chiefs to restore executive powers to the president, Ratu Josefa Iloilo.
On 4 January 2007, the military announced that it was restoring executive power to president Iloilo, who made a broadcast endorsing the actions of the military. The next day, Iloilo named Bainimarama as the interim prime minister, indicating that the military was still effectively in control. In the wake of the takeover, reports emerged of alleged intimidation of some of those critical of the interim regime.
On 9 April 2009, the Court of Appeal overturned the High Court decision that Cdre. Bainimarama's takeover of Qarase's government was lawful and declared the interim government to be illegal. Bainimarama agreed to step down as interim PM immediately, along with his government, and president Iloilo was to appoint "a distinguished person independent of the parties to this litigation as caretaker Prime Minister, ...to direct the issuance of writs for an election."
On 10 April 2009, President Iloilo suspended the Constitution of Fiji, dismissed the Court of Appeal and, in his own words, "appoint[ed] [him]self as the Head of the State of Fiji under a new legal order". As President, Iloilo had been Head of State prior to his abrogation of the Constitution, but that position had been determined by the Constitution itself. The "new legal order" did not depend on the Constitution, thus requiring a "reappointment" of the Head of State. "You will agree with me that this is the best way forward for our beloved Fiji", he said. Bainimarama was re-appointed as Interim Prime Minister; he, in turn, re-instated his previous cabinet.
On 2 May 2009, Fiji became the first nation ever to have been suspended from participation in the Pacific Islands Forum, for its failure to hold democratic elections by the date promised. Nevertheless, it remains a member of the Forum.
On 1 September 2009, Fiji was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations. The action was taken because Cdre. Bainimarama failed to hold elections by 2010 as the Commonwealth of Nations had demanded after the 2006 coup. Cdre. Bainimarama stated a need for more time to end a voting system that heavily favoured ethnic Fijians at the expense of the multi-ethnic minorities. Critics, however, claimed that he had suspended the constitution and was responsible for human rights violations by arresting and detaining opponents.
In his 2010 New Year's address, Cdre. Bainimarama announced the lifting of the Public Emergency Regulations (PER). The PER had been put in place in April 2009 when the former constitution was abrogated. The PER had allowed restrictions on speech, public gatherings, and censorship of news media and had given security forces added powers. He also announced a nationwide consultation process leading to a new Constitution under which the 2014 elections will be held.
On 14 March 2014, the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group voted to change Fiji's full suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations to a suspension from the councils of the Commonwealth, allowing them to participate in a number of Commonwealth activities, including the 2014 Commonwealth Games.[non-primary source needed] The suspension was lifted in September 2014.
A general election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won with 59.2% of the vote, and the election was deemed credible by a group of international observers from Australia, India and Indonesia.
Armed forces and law enforcement
The military consists of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) with a total manpower of 3,500 active soldiers and 6,000 reservists, and includes a Navy Unit of 300 personnel.
The Land Force comprises the Fiji Infantry Regiment (regular and territorial force organised into six light infantry battalions), Fiji Engineer Regiment, Logistic Support Unit and Force Training Group. The two regular battalions are traditionally stationed overseas on peacekeeping duties.
The Law Enforcement branch is composed of:
Fiji is divided into Four Major Divisions which are further divided into 14 provinces. They are:
- Central Division has 5 provinces: Naitasiri, Namosi, Rewa, Serua, and Tailevu.
- Eastern Division has 3 provinces: Kadavu, Lau, and Lomaiviti.
- Northern Division has 3 provinces: Bua, Cakaudrove, and Macuata.
- Western Division has 3 provinces: Ba, Nadroga-Navosa, and Ra.
Fiji was also divided into 3 Confederacies or Governments during the reign of Seru Epenisa Cakobau, though these are not considered political divisions, they are still considered important in the social divisions of the indigenous Fijians:
|Burebasaga||Ro Teimumu Vuikaba Kepa|
|Tovata||Ratu Naiqama Tawake Lalabalavu|
Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, Fiji is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Some progress was experienced by this sector when Marion M. Ganey, S.J., introduced credit unions to the islands in the 1950s. Natural resources include timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil, and hydropower. Fiji experienced a period of rapid growth in the 1960s and 1970s but stagnated in the 1980s. The coup of 1987 caused further contraction.
Economic liberalisation in the years following the coup created a boom in the garment industry and a steady growth rate despite growing uncertainty regarding land tenure in the sugar industry. The expiration of leases for sugar cane farmers (along with reduced farm and factory efficiency) has led to a decline in sugar production despite subsidies for sugar provided by the EU; Fiji has been the second largest beneficiary of sugar subsidies after Mauritius. Fiji's vital gold mining industry based in Vatukoula, which shut down in 2006, was reactivated in 2008.
Urbanisation and expansion in the service sector have contributed to recent GDP growth. Sugar exports and a rapidly growing tourist industry – with tourists numbering 430,800 in 2003 and increasing in the subsequent years – are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji is highly dependent on tourism for revenue. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji in the 1980s, the 1990s, and 2000 had a severe impact on the economy, which shrank by 2.8% in 2000 and grew by only 1% in 2001.
The tourism sector recovered quickly, however, with visitor arrivals reaching pre-coup levels in 2002, resulting in a modest economic recovery which continued into 2003 and 2004 but grew by a mere 1.7% in 2005 and by 2.0% in 2006. Although inflation is low, the policy indicator rate of the Reserve Bank of Fiji was raised by 1% to 3.25% in February 2006 due to fears of excessive consumption financed by debt. Lower interest rates have so far not produced greater investment in exports.
However, there has been a housing boom due to declining commercial mortgage rates. The tallest building in Fiji is the fourteen-storey Reserve Bank of Fiji Building in Suva, which was inaugurated in 1984. The Suva Central Commercial Centre, which opened in November 2005, was planned to outrank the Reserve Bank building at seventeen stories, but last-minute design changes ensured that the Reserve Bank building remained the tallest.
Trade and investment with Fiji have been criticised due to the country's military dictatorship. In 2008, Fiji's interim Prime Minister and coup leader Frank Bainimarama announced election delays and said that Fiji would pull out of the Pacific Islands Forum in Niue, where Bainimarama was to have met with Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark.
Fiji has a significant amount of tourism with the popular regions being Nadi, the Coral Coast, Denarau Island, and Mamanuca Islands. The biggest sources of international visitors by country are Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Fiji has a significant number of soft coral reefs, and scuba diving is a common tourist activity.
Fiji's attraction is primarily its white sandy beaches and aesthetically pleasing islands with all-year-round tropical weather. In general, Fiji is a mid-range priced holiday/vacation destination with most of the accommodations in this range. It also has a variety of world class five-star resorts and hotels. More budget resorts are being opened in remote areas, which will provide more tourism opportunities.
Official statistics show that in 2012, 75% of visitors stated that they came for a holiday/vacation. Honeymoons are very popular as are romantic getaways in general. There are also family friendly resorts with facilities for young children including kids' clubs and nanny options.
Fiji has several popular tourism destinations. The Botanical Gardens of Thursten in Suva, Sigatoka Sand Dunes, and Colo-I-Suva Forest Park are three options on the mainland (Viti Levu). A major attraction on the outer islands is scuba diving.
Most visitors arriving to Fiji on short term basis in 2012 were from the following countries or regions of residence:
|8||Other Asian countries||13,576|
|Total number of visitors||660,590|
The Nadi International Airport is located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north of central Nadi and is the largest Fijian hub. Nausori International Airport is about 23 kilometres (14 mi) northeast of downtown Suva and serves mostly domestic traffic. The main airport in the second largest island of Vanua Levu is Labasa Airport located at Waiqele, southwest of Labasa Town. The largest aircraft handled by Labasa Airport is the ATR42. Airports Fiji Limited (AFL) is responsible for the operation of 15 public airports in the Fiji Islands. These include two international airports: Nadi international Airport, Fiji’s main international gateway, and Nausori Airport, Fiji’s domestic hub, and 13 outer island airports. Fiji's main airline was previously known as Air Pacific, but is now known as Fiji Airways.
Fiji's larger islands have extensive bus routes that are affordable and consistent in service. There are bus stops, and in rural areas buses are often simply hailed as they approach. Buses are the principal form of public transport and passenger movement between the towns on the main islands. Buses also serve on roll-on-roll-off inter-island ferries. Bus fares and routes are heavily regulated by the Land Transport Authority (LTA). Bus and taxi drivers hold Public Service Licenses (PSVs) issued by the LTA.
Taxis are licensed by the LTA and operate widely all over the country. Apart from urban, town-based taxis, there are others that are licensed to serve rural or semi-rural areas. The flagfall for regular taxis is F$1.50 and tariff is F$0.10 for every 200 meters. For taxis that are allowed to charge Value Added Tax (VAT), the flagfall is F$1.50 and tariff is F$0.30 for the first 200 meters, and F$0.11 for every 200 meters thereafter. Taxis operating out of Fiji's international airport, Nadi charge a flagfall of F$5. The elderly and Government welfare recipients are given a 20% discount on their taxi fares.
Inter-island ferries provide services between Fiji's principal islands and large vessels operate roll-on-roll-off services, transporting vehicles and large amounts of cargo between the main island of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, and other smaller islands.
The 2007 census found that the permanent population of Fiji was 837,000. The population density at the time was 45.8 inhabitants per square kilometre. The life expectancy in Fiji was 72.1 years. Since the 1930s the population of Fiji has increased at a rate of 1.1% per year. The population is dominated by the 15–64 age segment. The median age of the population was 27.9, and the gender ratio was 1.03 males per 1 female.
The population of Fiji is mostly made up of native Fijians, who are Melanesians (54.3%), although many also have Polynesian ancestry, and Indo-Fijians (38.1%), descendants of Indian contract labourers brought to the islands by the British colonial powers in the 19th century. The percentage of the population of Indo-Fijian descent has declined significantly over the last two decades due to migration for various reasons. Indo-Fijians suffered reprisals for a period after the Fiji coup of 2000. There is also a small but significant group of descendants of indentured labourers from the Solomon Islands.
About 1.2% are Rotuman—natives of Rotuma Island, whose culture has more in common with countries such as Tonga or Samoa than with the rest of Fiji. There are also small but economically significant groups of Europeans, Chinese, and other Pacific island minorities. The total membership of other ethnic groups of Pacific Islanders is about 7,300.
Relationships between ethnic Fijians and Indo-Fijians in the political arena have often been strained, and the tension between the two communities has dominated politics in the islands for the past generation. The level of political tension varies among different regions of the country.
Within Fiji, the term Fijian refers solely to indigenous Fijians: it denotes an ancestral ethnicity, not a nationality. Constitutionally, citizens of Fiji are referred to as "Fiji Islanders" though the term Fiji Nationals is used for official purposes. In August 2008, shortly before the proposed People's Charter for Change, Peace and Progress was due to be released to the public, it was announced that it recommended a change in the name of Fiji's citizens. If the proposal were adopted, all citizens of Fiji, whatever their ethnicity, would be called "Fijians". The proposal would change the English name of indigenous Fijians from "Fijians" to itaukei, the Fijian language endonym for indigenous Fijians.
Deposed Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase reacted by stating that the name "Fijian" belonged exclusively to indigenous Fijians, and that he would oppose any change in legislation enabling non-indigenous Fijians to use it. The Methodist Church, to which a large majority of indigenous Fijians belong, also reacted strongly to the proposal, stating that allowing any Fiji citizen to call themselves "Fijian" would be "daylight robbery" inflicted on the indigenous population.
In an address to the nation during the constitutional crisis of April 2009, military leader and interim Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama, who has been at the forefront of the attempt to change the definition of "Fijian", stated:
I know we all have our different ethnicities, our different cultures and we should, we must, celebrate our diversity and richness. However, at the same time we are all Fijians. We are all equal citizens. We must all be loyal to Fiji; we must be patriotic; we must put Fiji first.
In May 2010, Attorney-General Aiyaz Sayed-Khaiyum reiterated that the term "Fijian" should apply to all Fiji nationals, but the statement was again met with protest. A spokesperson for the Viti Landowners and Resource Owners Association claimed that even fourth-generation descendants of migrants did not fully understand "what it takes to be a Fijian", and added that the term refers to a legal standing, since legislation affords specific rights to "Fijians" (meaning, in legislation, indigenous Fijians). Fiji academic Brij Lal, although a prominent critic of the Bainimarama government, said he "would not be surprised" if the new definition of the word "Fijian" were included in the government's projected new Constitution, and that he personally saw "no reason the term Fijian should not apply to everyone from Fiji".
Fijian is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken in Fiji. It has 350,000 first-language speakers, which is less than half the population of Fiji, but another 200,000 speak it as a second language. The 1997 Constitution established Fijian as an official language of Fiji, along with English and Fiji Hindi, and there has been discussion about establishing it as the "national language", though English and Hindi would remain official. Fijian is a VOS language.
The Fiji Islands developed many dialects, which may be classified in two major branches — eastern and western. Missionaries in the 1840s chose an Eastern dialect, the speech of Bau Island off the southeast coast of the main island of Viti Levu, to be the written standard of the Fijian language. Bau Island was home to Seru Epenisa Cakobau, the chief who eventually became the self-proclaimed King of Fiji.
|Fijian||bula||yadra (Pronounced Yandra)||moce (Pronounced Mothe)|
|Fiji Hindi||नमस्ते (namaste)||सुप्रभात (suprabhat)||चलता हूँ (Chalta hu)|
According to the 2007 census, 64.4% of the population at the time was Christian, followed by 27.9% Hindu, 6.3% Muslim, 0.8% non-religious, 0.3% Sikh, and the remaining 0.3% belonging to other religions. Among Christians, 54% were counted as Methodist, followed by 14.2% Catholic, 8.9% Assemblies of God, 6.0% Seventh-day Adventist, 1.2% Anglican, with the remaining 16.1% belonging to other denominations.
The largest Christian denomination is the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma. (The general secretary is Revd Tuikilakila Waqairatu.) With 34.6% of the population (including almost two-thirds of ethnic Fijians), the proportion of the population adhering to Methodism is higher in Fiji than in any other nation. In 2012, permission was granted by the government for Methodists to hold their annual conference, for the first time in four years, with the conditions that the conference not coincide with the national Hibiscus Festival and should only last for three days, and that no political matters were to be discussed, only church matters.
Roman Catholics have their proper Metropolitan Archdiocese of Suva, whose province also includes the dioceses of Raratonga (on the Cook Islands, for those and Niue, both New Zealand-associated countries) and Tarawa and Nauru (with see at Tarawa on Kiribati, also for Nauru) and the Mission Sui Iuris of Tokelau (again with New Zealand). This reflects that much major Roman Catholic missionary activity was conducted through the former Apostolic Prefecture (created in 1863 from the Apostolic Vicariate of Central Oceania), then Apostolic Vicariate of Fiji, which has since been promoted to Archdiocese of Suva, which spans the whole of Fiji.
Furthermore, the Assemblies of God, the Seventh-day Adventists and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) are significant. Fiji also is the base for the Anglican Diocese of Polynesia (part of the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia). These and other denominations have small numbers of Indo-Fijian members; Christians of all kinds comprise 6.1% of the Indo-Fijian population.
Hindus belong mostly to the Sanatan sect (74.3% of all Hindus) or else are unspecified (22%). The small Arya Samaj sect claims the membership of some 3.7% of Hindus in Fiji. Muslims are mostly Sunni (96.4%) following the Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with a small Ahmadiyya minority (3.6%). The Sikh religion comprises 0.9% of the Indo-Fijian population, or 0.4% of the national population in Fiji. Their ancestors originated from the Punjab region of India; they are a fairly recent wave of immigrants who did not live through[clarification needed] the indenture system. The Bahá'í Faith has over 21 local Spiritual Assemblies throughout Fiji, and Baha'is live in more than 80 localities. The first Baha'i in the islands was a New Zealander who arrived in 1924. There is also a small Jewish population of about 60 people. Every year the Israeli Embassy organises a Passover celebration with about 50-60 people attending.
Primary school education in Fiji is compulsory, and free for eight years. As of 2001, attendance was decreasing due to security concerns and the burden of school fees, often due to the cost of transport. Following the government coup in May 2000, more than 5,000 students were reported to have left school.
Fiji's culture is a rich mosaic of indigenous Fijian, Indo-Fijian, Asian and European traditions, comprising social polity, language, food (coming mainly from the sea, plus casava, dalo (taro) and other vegetables), costume, belief systems, architecture, arts, craft, music, dance, and sports.
While indigenous Fijian culture and traditions are very vibrant and are integral components of everyday life for the majority of Fiji's population, Fijian society has evolved over the past century with the introduction of traditions such as Indian and Chinese as well as significant influences from Europe and Fiji's Pacific neighbours, particularly Tonga and Samoa. Thus, the various cultures of Fiji have come together to create a unique multicultural national identity.
Fiji's culture was showcased at the World Exposition held in Vancouver, Canada, in 1986 and more recently at the Shanghai World Expo 2010, along with other Pacific countries in the Pacific Pavilion.
Holidays and festivals
This is a list of holidays celebrated in Fiji:
The exact dates of public holidays vary from year to year, but the dates for the next year can be found at the Fiji Government Web Site
The following holidays are no longer celebrated in Fiji:
Sports are very popular in Fiji, particularly sports involving physical contact. Fiji's national sport is Rugby Sevens.
Rugby Union is the most-popular team sport played in Fiji.
The Fiji national sevens side is one of the most popular and successful rugby sevens teams in the world, and has won the Hong Kong Sevens a record twelve times since its inception in 1976. Fiji has also won the Rugby World Cup Sevens twice — in 1997 and 2005 (coincidentally, the two times it has been held in Hong Kong). The Fiji national rugby union sevens team is currently the reigning Sevens World Series Champions in World Rugby and will feature in the Rugby sevens at the Summer Olympics in 2016.
The national rugby union team is very successful given the size of the population of the country, and has competed at five Rugby World Cup competitions, the first being in 1987, where they reached the quarter-finals. The Fiji national side did not match that feat again until the 2007 Rugby World Cup when they upset Wales 38–34 to progress to the quarter-finals where they nearly beat the eventual Rugby World Cup winners, South Africa. Fiji also defeated the British and Irish Lions in 1977.
Fiji competes in the Pacific Tri-Nations and the IRB Pacific Nations Cup. The sport is governed by the Fiji Rugby Union which is a member of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and contributes to the Pacific Islanders rugby union team. At the club level there are the Skipper Cup and Farebrother Trophy Challenge.
The Fiji national rugby union team is a member of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance (PIRA) formerly along with Samoa and Tonga. In 2009, Samoa announced their departure from the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, leaving just Fiji and Tonga in the union. Fiji is currently ranked eleventh in the world by the IRB (as of 28 December 2015).
Fiji is one of the few countries where rugby union is the main sport. There are about 80,000 registered players from a total population of around 950,000. One of the problems for Fiji is simply getting their players to play for their home country, as many have contracts in Europe or with Super Rugby teams, where monetary compensation is far more rewarding. The repatriated salaries of its overseas stars have become an important part of some local economies. In addition, a significant number of players eligible to play for Fiji end up representing Australia or New Zealand; notable examples are Fiji-born cousins and former New Zealand All Blacks, Joe Rokocoko and Sitiveni Sivivatu, current All Black Waisake Naholo as well as Australian Wallabies former winger, Lote Tuqiri and current wallabies' Tevita Kuridrani, Henry Speight. Fiji has won the most Pacific Tri-Nations Championships of the three participating teams.
The Fiji national rugby league team, nicknamed the Bati (pronounced [mˈbatʃi]), represents Fiji in the sport of rugby league football and has been participating in international competition since 1992. It has competed in the Rugby League World Cup on three occasions, with their best results coming when they made consecutive semi-final appearances in the 2008 Rugby League World Cup and 2013 Rugby League World Cup. The team also competes in the Pacific Cup.
Members of the team are selected from a domestic Fijian competition, as well as from competitions held in New Zealand and Australia. For the 2000, 2008 and 2013 World Cups, the Bati were captained by Lote Tuqiri, Wes Naiqama and the legendary Petero Civoniceva respectively. Fiji have also produced stars like Akuila Uate, Jarryd Hayne, Kevin Naiqama, Semi Tadulala, Marika Koroibete, Apisai Koroisau, Sisa Waqa and the Sims brothers Ashton Sims, Tariq Sims and Korbin Sims
Rugby war dance (Cibi and Bole)
Tradition holds that the original Cibi was first performed on the rugby field back in 1939 during a tour of New Zealand, when then Fijian captain Ratu Sir George Cakobau felt that his team should have something to match the Haka of the All Blacks. The 'Cibi' had perhaps been used incorrectly though, as the word actually means "a celebration of victory by warriors," whereas 'Bole' is the acceptance of a challenge.
Association football was traditionally a minor sport in Fiji, popular largely amongst the Indo-Fijian community, but with international funding from FIFA and sound local management over the past decade, the sport has grown in popularity in the wider Fijian community. It is now the second most-popular sport in Fiji after rugby (union 15's and union 7's).
The Fiji Football Association is a member of the Oceania Football Confederation. The national football team defeated New Zealand 2–0 in the 2008 OFC Nations Cup, on their way to a joint-record third-place finish. However, they have never reached a FIFA World Cup to date. Fiji won the Pacific Games football tournament in 1991 and 2003.
Cricket is a minor sport in Fiji. The Cricket Fiji is an Associate member of International Cricket Council. Fiji U19 cricket team won the 2015 edition of the tournament, and consequently qualified for the 2016 Under-19 World Cup, becoming the first team outside of Papua New Guinea to qualify from the region.
- Outline of Fiji
- Index of Fiji-related articles
- Visa policy of Fiji
- Bua (Fijian Communal Constituency, Fiji)
- Fiji Meteorological Service
- Foreign relations of Fiji
- Telecommunications in Fiji
- "Section 4 of Fiji Constitution". servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 3 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Annual official estimate" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. Unknown parameter
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- "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 13. Retrieved 14 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji Reignites Daylight Saving Time on November 29". timeanddate.com. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "FJST – Fiji Summer Time". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 24 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- In February 2011, the Prime Minister's Office issued a statement saying that the name of the state had been officially changed to the Republic of Fiji, and that the name written in the 1997 constitution was now void (constitution is suspended since April 2009). See "Country is now officially called Republic of Fiji". Fijivillage.com. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Yavunivakavulewa ni Matanitu Tugalala o Viti (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Fijian language version). fiji.gov.fj
- रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी का संविधान (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Fijian Hindi language version)
- "Fiji: People". United States of America State department. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "CIA World Factbook – Fiji – Economy". CIA. 19 August 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji – Our Government". fiji.gov.fj. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji Geography". fijidiscovery.com. 2005. Retrieved 15 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji: History". infoplease.com. 2005. Retrieved 15 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji's president takes over power". BBC. 10 April 2009. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Perry, Nick; Pita, Ligaiula (29 September 2014). "Int'l monitors endorse Fiji election as credible". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- About Fiji, section on Europeans in Fiji. Fiji High Commission to the United Kingdom.
- Schutz, Albert J. (December 1974). "The Forerunners of the Fijian Dictionary". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 83 (4): 443–457. JSTOR 20705027.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Barbour, Thomas (1923). "The Frogs of the Fiji Islands". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 75: 111–115. JSTOR 4063878.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Scarr, Deryck (1984). Fiji: A short history. Institute for Polynesian Studies, Brigham Young University—Hawaii Campus. ISBN 0939154366. OCLC 611678101.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sanday, Peggy Reeves (1986) Divine hunger: cannibalism as a cultural system, Cambridge University Press, p. 151, IBNS 0521311144.
- Sanday, Peggy Reeves (1986) Divine hunger: cannibalism as a cultural system, Cambridge University Press, p. 166, IBNS 0521311144.
- Pacific Peoples, Melanesia/Micronesia/Polynesia at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 March 2005), Central Queensland University.
- Abel Janszoon Tasman Biography, www.answers.com.
- Oceania – A Short History of Fiji, Jane Resture's Oceania Page
- “Historical Time line”. Fiji government.
- “Timeline: Fiji”. BBC News.
- “World Battlefronts: Yanks in the Cannibal Isles”. Time. 26 October 1942.
- Lal, Brij V (April 2003). "Fiji Islands: From Immigration to Emigration". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 14 June 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 28 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fiji Government Online Portal: Our Country. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Phil Taylor (6 December 2006). "Fiji – alone under the gun". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Commander hands back executive authority to Ratu Iloilo". FijiVillage.com. 4 January 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "I support army takeover: Iloilo". Fijilive. 4 January 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "President swears in interim PM". Fijilive. 5 January 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- President's Address to the Nation at the Wayback Machine (archived 18 August 2009), fiji.gov.fj (10 April 2009).
- Statement by Forum Chair on suspension of the Fiji military regime from the Pacific Islands Forum; PIFS Press Statement (21/09), 2 May 2009
- "Chair of Pacific Islands Forum says Fiji has been suspended". Radio New Zealand International. 2 May 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji suspended from the Commonwealth". Commonwealth.org. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji suspended from Commonwealth". BBC News. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fiji flag flies again following Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group decision. thecommonwealth.org. 17 March 2014
- "Fiji rejoins Commonwealth as a full member". The Commonwealth. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Home. Police.gov.fj. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Fiji Corrections Service. Corrections.org.fj. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Fiji Economy and Politics,Economy and Politics in Fiji,Economy and Politics at Fiji. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- DailyFinance (29 November 2010). "Fiji Water Leaves Fiji: 4 Things to Know About the Shutdown". Aolnews.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Zealand, New (19 August 2008). "Democracy hopes dashed after Fiji pulls out of Pacific Forum". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 May 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Arrivals information at the Wayback Machine (archived 6 January 2007). Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics.
- Fiji Travel Information and Travel Guide. Lonely Planet. Retrieved April 2010.
- Fiji Bureau of Statistics. Statsfiji.gov.fj. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- VISITOR ARRIVALS - NUMBER BY COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE, Fiji Bureau of Statistics
- Top 3 - Germany: 7,841 ; France - 4,375 ; Italy - 2,994 - VISITOR ARRIVALS FROM CONTINENTAL EUROPE
- Airports Fiji Limited. Retrieved April 2010.
- Airports Fiji Limited – Outer Islands. Airportsfiji.com. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Gibson, Nevil (14 May 2012). "Air Pacific reverts to original Fiji Airways name". National Business Review. Retrieved 14 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Land Transport Authority – "Steering Fiji Safely". Ltafiji.com. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Land Transport Authority – "Steering Fiji Safely". Ltafiji.com. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Taxi drivers told to be fair. Fbc.com.fj (7 October 2012). Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Fiji Islands: From Immigration to Emigration. Migration Information Source.
- "Future bleak for Fiji's Indians". BBC News. July 2000.
- "Dealing with the dictator". The Australian (Sydney). 16 April 2009.[dead link]
- Minority Rights Groups International. "Fiji Islands Overview". Retrieved 3 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Charter proposes common Fijian name at the Wayback Machine (archived 17 August 2008), Fiji Live (4 August 2008).
- "The Name “Fijian” Belongs to Indigenous – Qarase", FijiVillage, 8 August 2008
- "Communalism is ‘to love thy neighbour'", Fiji Times (29 August 2008).
- PM Bainimarama – Address to the nation following appointment of Cabinet at the Wayback Machine (archived April 18, 2009), fiji.gov.fj (11 April 2009).
- "All Fiji nationals to be known as Fijians, says AG". Radio New Zealand International. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Bainimarama hits back at critics". Television New Zealand. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Padma Lal expulsée des îles Fidji", ABC Radio Australia, 14 January 2010
- "Decree on term Fijian could be imminent". Radio New Zealand International. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fijian Language. Fiji-faqs.com. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Population by Religion and Province of Enumeration". 2007 Census of Population. Fiji Bureau of Statistics. June 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> - Percentages are derived from total population figures provided in the source
- Methodist Recorder (Issue 8060, 14 June 2012) p. 3
- "Graceful trees mark anniversary". Baha'i World News Service. 12 April 2005. Retrieved 9 December 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 7 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Fiji". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Pacific Pavilion unveils artist's renditions". Shanghai World Expo 2010 website En.expo2010.cn. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "2015 Public Holidays". The Fijian Government. Retrieved 7 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fiji dumps Queen's birthday holiday. ABC News, Australia (1 August 2012).
- "Public holidays clarified". Ministry of Information, Fiji. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Oceanian Nations Cup 2008". Retrieved 6 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bahadur, Gaiutra (2014). Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. The University of Chicago. ISBN 978-0-226-21138-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Jalil, Mohammad Muaz (2014). "Employment Dynamics in Key Agricultural Sectors of the Fijian Economy" (PDF). Market Development Facility-Fiji Islands.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Wright, Ronald (1986). On Fiji Islands. Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 5 December 2006. ISBN 0-670-80634-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Traces the colonisation of the Fiji Islands, explains how the Fijians have managed to keep their language and culture intact, and describes modern Fiji society.
- Derrick, Ronald Albert (1951). The Fiji Islands: A Geographical Handbook. Govt. Print. Dept Fiji, 334 pages, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 11 July 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Details on Fiji its history and Geography.
- Lal, Brij V. (1992). Broken Waves: A History of the Fiji Islands in the Twentieth Century. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1418-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Details of Fiji's History, Geography, Economy.
- Mückler, Hermann (2002). "Back to the Chessboard: The Coup and the Re-Emergence of Pre-colonial Rivalries in Fiji". In Kolig, Erich; Mückler, Hermann (eds.). Politics of Indigeneity in the South Pacific. Hamburg: LIT Verlag. pp. 143–158. ISBN 3-8258-5915-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Miller, Korina; Jones, Robyn; Pinheiro, Leonardo (2003). Fiji. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-134-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Derrick, Ronald Albert (1957). A History of Fiji. Suva, Fiji: Government Printer.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- David Routledge: Matanitu – The Struggle for Power in Early Fiji, University of the South Pacific, Suva 1985
- Scarr, Deryck (1984). Fiji: A Short History. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-86861-319-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Waterhouse, Joseph (1998). The King and People of Fiji. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1920-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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