The First Celtiberian (or Spanish) War was the first of a series of three wars known as the Celtiberian Wars. It was fought between the advancing legions of the Roman Republic and the Celtiberian tribes of Hispania Citerior from 181 to 179 BC.
In 181, several tribes along the Ebro, especially the Lusones, rebelled against Roman rule. Appian cites their reason as a lack of land on which to live. They were quickly put down by the consul Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and scattered. Some fled to Complega, then a newly fortified city, from which they made demands on the Roman general, but after his approach they fled.
In 179, Flaccus was succeeded by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Gracchus quickly went to the rescue of the besieged city of Caravis and then took the city of Complega. He divided up the land among the poor and signed treaties with all of the tribes. His success in establishing peace made him much admired in both Hispania and Rome, where he arrived to a triumph.
In the latter year, war also broke out in Hispania Ulterior between the Romans and the Lusitanians.