First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War

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Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. The First Goryeo-Khitan War was a 10th-century conflict between the kingdom of Goryeo and the Liao dynasty (the Khitan Empire) near what is now the border between China and North Korea. It occurred in 993 and was the first of the Goryeo-Khitan Wars, which were continued with the Second Goryeo-Khitan War (1010) and Third Goryeo-Khitan War (1018).

In 993, the Khitan invaded Goryeo's northwest border with 800,000 troops.[1][2] They forced Goryeo to end its tributary relations with the Song dynasty, to become a Liao tributary state and to adopt Liao's calendar.[3][1][4][5][6][7] With Goryeo's agreement of these requirements, the Khitan withdrew. Liao gave Goryeo permission to incorporate the land between the border of Liao and that of Goryeo, which was occupied by Jurchen tribes that were troublesome to Liao, up to the Yalu River.[8][9] In spite of the settlement, Goryeo continued to communicate with Song,[10] having strengthened its defenses by building fortresses in the newly gained northern territories.[1]

See also

Notes

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  8. Yun 1998, p.64: "By the end of the negotiation, Sô Hûi had ... ostensibly for the purpose of securing safe diplomatic passage, obtained an explicit Khitan consent to incorporate the land between the Ch’ôngch’ôn and Amnok Rivers into Koryô territory."
  9. Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p.102: "Until the 980s Khitan-Koryǒ relations had been at arm’s length, for the Jurchen tribes and Ting-an had provided a buffer zone between Koryǒ's northern frontier and the Liao border". p.103: "Koryǒ was left free to deal with the Jurchen tribes south of the Yalu Valley".
  10. Hyun 2013, p.106: "Even though the Goryeo court agreed to set up tribute exchanges with the Liao court, that same year [=994] it also sent an envoy to the Song court to appeal, but in vain, for military assistance against the Khitan."

References

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