Florianus

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Florianus
46th Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 276
Predecessor Tacitus
Successor Probus
Died 276
Tarsus, Cilicia[1]
Full name
Marcus Annius Florianus (from birth to accession);
Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Augustus (as emperor)

Florianus (Latin: Marcus Annius Florianus Augustus;[2] died 276), also known as Florian, was Roman Emperor for a few months in 276.

Biography

Florian was reported be a maternal half-brother to the Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[4] Appointed Praetorian Prefect in Tacitus's army in his campaign against the Goths,[2] according to the available sources, he was chosen by the army in the West to succeed Tacitus in 276, without the Roman Senate consensus.[5] However he minted coins bearing the "SC" legend, thus showing some bonds to the Senate.[6]

Probus' rebellion

Florian was fighting the Heruli when the army in the East elected Probus.[7] Florian had the support of Italia, Gaul, Hispania, Britain, Africa, and Mauretania.[5] The two rival emperors met in battle in Cilicia; Florianus had the larger army, but Probus was a more experienced general and avoided a direct clash.[8] Florian's western army was not accustomed to the hot, dry eastern climate,[9] and Probus likely secured a small victory. Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus once their confidence was lost.[6] He died in September 276, having been emperor for only eighty-eight days.[1]

A family of the Brandenburg nobility called von Blumenthal claimed descent from Florianus in a fanciful legend which says that after his death his sons fled over the Alps and introduced viticulture to the north Germans.

Sources

Primary sources

Secondary sources

  • Mc Mahon, Robin, "Florian (276.D.)"[6] De Imperatoribus Romanis, (2000)
  • Jones, A.H.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 
  • Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Canduci, pg. 101
  2. 2.0 2.1 Jones, pg. 367
  3. This coin celebrates the AETERNITAS AVG, the eternal life of the emperor. However, Florianus ruled only eighty-eight days.
  4. Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, 17:4
  5. 5.0 5.1 Southern, pg. 127
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Roman Emperors - DIR Florian". roman-emperors.org. 
  7. Historia Augusta, Vita Probi, 10:1
  8. Gibbon, Ch. 12
  9. Southern, pg. 128
  10. "Roman Emperors - DIR Epitome of Sextus Aurelius Victor". roman-emperors.org. 
  11. "Historia Augusta • Life of the Emperor Tacitus". uchicago.edu. 
  12. "Eutropius: Abridgement of Roman History, Book 9". forumromanum.org. 
  13. "Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222-284". ancientsites.com. 
  14. "Zosimus, New History. London: Green and Chaplin (1814). Book 1.". tertullian.org. 

External links

Media related to Florianus at Wikimedia Commons

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Roman Emperor
276
Succeeded by
Probus