Foreign relations of Mongolia

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Foreign relations of Mongolia
State emblem of Mongolia.svg
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Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 184 states. Mongolia has formal diplomatic relations with 183 UN-states, the Holy See and the European Union.[1] Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.

It seeks neutral and cordial relations with many countries including in cultural and economic matters. It has a modest number of missions abroad.

Mongolia so far has no diplomatic relations with 9 independent states: These are Botswana, Niger, Djibouti, Swaziland, Belize, Bahamas, Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1961-06-25
 Angola 1976-02-10
 Benin 1977-04-02
 Botswana none
 Burkina Faso 1985-10-25
 Burundi 2013-07-08
 Cameroon 2015-04-13
 Cape Verde 1975-11-19
 Central African Republic 1970-06-18
 Chad 2014-04-04
 Comoros 2011-12-05
 Côte d'Ivoire 1986-07-06
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1975-02-04
 Djibouti none
 Egypt 1963-04-02

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Mongolia were established in 1964.[2] Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent.[3][4] In 2001, Mongolia sent policemen to Egypt to attend trainings sessions on anti-terrorism and the prevention of drug trafficking.[5] Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi and his wife A. Oyunbileg paid an official visit to Egypt in April 2004, during which he invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to pay him a return visit in Mongolia.[6] Almost exactly one year later, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit visited Mongolia, during which he began the planning of mutual visits of the ministers of finance of the two countries.[7]

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Egypt (Mongolian)

 Equatorial Guinea 2014-02-21
 Eritrea 2013-06-24
 Ethiopia 1967-01-24
 Gabon 2014-09-15
 Ghana 1965-12-07
 Guinea 1960-04-22
 Guinea-Bissau 1975-10-14
 Kenya 2012-03-22[8]
 Lesotho 1985-07-02
 Liberia 1976-04-23
 Libya 1976-06-16 Ties were established between the two nations when both had socialist governments. Mongolian delegates visited Libya in 1978, 1981, and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Libya (Mongolian)

 Madagascar 1979-05-11
 Malawi 2011-12-21
 Mali 1961-01-25
 Mauritania 1967-06-30
 Mauritius 2014-07-04
 Morocco 1970-07-14
 Mozambique 1975-09-27
 Namibia 1990-10-30
 Niger none
 Nigeria 1971-09-21
 Rwanda 2013-11-26
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-10-22
 Senegal 1985-12-12
 Seychelles 1981-08-21
 Sierra Leone 2013-09-27
 Republic of the Congo 1966-12-31
 Somalia 1971-02-28
 South Africa 1994-05-25
 South Sudan 2011-12-20
 Sudan 1970-07-07
 Swaziland none
 Tanzania 1967-01-17
 The Gambia 2011-12-22
 Togo 2013-09-06
 Tunisia 1977-02-15
 Uganda 2013-11-21
 Zambia 1978-10-02
 Zimbabwe 1984-08-30


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 2013-06-19
 Argentina 1971-09-07[1] Argentina is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia does not have any representation in Argentina.
 Aruba none
 Bahamas none
 Barbados none
 Belize none
 Bermuda none Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory. The UK is responsible for its foreign relations.
 Bolivia 1989-03-01[1]
 Brazil 1987-06-19[1]
 Canada 1973-11-30[1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 30, 1973. Canada is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Ulan Bator. Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa, and in 2002 opened an Honorary Consulate in Toronto. Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.[9]

 Cayman Islands none Cayman Islands is a British Overseas Territory. The UK is responsible for its foreign relations.
 Cuba 1960-12-07[1] Mongolia has an embassy in Cuba.
 Chile 1971-06-01[1]
 Colombia 1988-08-10[1]
 Costa Rica 1977-06-06[1]
 Dominica 2011-10-18[1]
 Dominican Republic 2010-05-27[1]
 Ecuador 1982-10-30[1]
 El Salvador 1999-07-14[1]
 Grenada 1980-07-25[1]
 Guatemala 2006-07-03[1]
 Guyana 1979-12-15[1]
 Haiti 2014-01-14[10]
 Honduras 2011-10-19[1]
 Jamaica 2012-10-26[10]
 Mexico 1975-09-25[1] Mongolia is represented in Mexico via its embassy in Washington, DC, USA and through an honorary consulate in Mexico City.[11] Mexico is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Seoul, South Korea and through an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar.[12]
 Nicaragua 1979-10-13[1]
 Panama 2012-01-17[1]
 Paraguay 2003-06-17[1]
 Peru 1997-05-30[1]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis none
 Saint Lucia 2014-09-27
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2011-10-13[1]
 Suriname 2013-09-27
 Trinidad and Tobago none
 United States 1987-01-27[1]

The U.S. Government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. Williams, was not a resident there. Joseph E. Lake, the first resident ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Mongolia in May 1998, and Prime Minister Enkhbayar visited Washington in November 2001. Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage visited Mongolia in January 2004, and President Bagabandi came to Washington for a meeting with President George W. Bush in July 2004. President Bush, Mrs. Bush, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Mongolia in November 2005. It was the first ever visit of a U.S. President to Mongolia.[13][14] Defense Secretary Rumsfeld visited in October 2005 and Speaker of the House of Representatives Dennis Hastert visited Mongolia in August 2005. Agriculture Secretary Johanns led a presidential delegation in July 2006 in conjunction with Mongolia's celebration of its 800th anniversary. President Enkhbayar visited the White House in October 2007 and the two Presidents signed the Millennium Challenge Compact for Mongolia.

In 2008, the IRS presented a discussion of US Federal income tax to Director General Zorig Luvsandash from the General Department of National Taxation of the Republic of Mongolia.

In August, 2011, Joe Biden made the first visit to Mongolia by a sitting U.S. vice president since Henry Wallace toured the region in 1944.[15]

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and the United States (Mongolian)

 Uruguay 1997-10-07[1]
 Venezuela 1990-12-14[1]

East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 People's Republic of China 1949-10-16[1]

In the Post-Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation.[16] China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment as well as the destination for 48% of Mongolian exports.[17] Bilateral trade reached USD 1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006.[18] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade with the Asia Pacific region.[17] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, seeking to exploit the country's natural resources.[17][18] Mongolia and China have stepped up cooperation on fighting terrorism and bolstering regional security. China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[17]

 Japan 1972-02-24[1]

Japan has been a major ally of Mongolia since the advent of democracy in 1991, and remains the largest single donor. Japanese aid and loans to Mongolia between 1991 and 2003 equal $1.2 billion, equaling 70 percent of total aid and loans.

The two countries established a cultural exchange dialogue in 1974, a trade agreement in 1990, an air relations agreement in 1993, and an investment agreement in 2003. Trade between Mongolia and Japan in the first ten months of 2004 was $83.3 million. In addition, about 500 Mongolian students study in Japan.

Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj visited Japan in 2011, and the two countries made a joint announcement regarding a strategic alliance.

In 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu visited Mongolia, becoming the first to do so. Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi first visited Japan in 1998. Mongolia has an embassy in Tokyo, established in 1973. Japan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

 North Korea 1948-10-15[1]

Mongolia has an embassy in North Korea. Relations date back to 1948, when Mongolia recognised Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. North Korean refugees are a delicate issue between the two governments. In 2005, South Korean charity groups received from the Mongolian government an allocation of 1.3 square kilometres of land at an unspecified location 40 kilometres outside of Ulaanbaatar to establish a refugee camp.[19] However, as of November 2006, Miyeegombyn Enkhbold, Mongolia's prime minister, officially denied the existence of such camps. One scholar estimated that 500 North Korean refugees enter Mongolia each month, along with some legal migrant labourers who come under an inter-governmental agreement to work in light industry and infrastructure projects.[20]

 South Korea 1990-03-26[1]

Mongolians in South Korea form the largest population of Mongolian citizens abroad.[2]. Their numbers were estimated at 33,000 as of 2008.

South Korea established an embassy in Ulaanbaatar in 1990.[21] Mongolia established its embassy in Seoul in 1991. The relationship between the two countries has been defined by the Joint Mongolia-South Korean notice made during the visit of South Korean president Kim Dae-jung to Mongolia in 1990.

 Republic of China (Taiwan) none

As the Republic of China did not recognize Mongolia until 1945, both countries did not exchange any diplomats between 1946 and 1949, and Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China in 1949, there have never been formal diplomatic relations between Mongolia and the Republic of China. Until the 1990s, the Republic of China still considered Mongolia part of its territory. The Republic of China (currently on Taiwan) has not renounced claim to Mongolia as one of its provinces, primarily out of concern that such a move would be viewed as a precursor to renouncing sovereignty over all of Mainland China and Taiwan independence. In 2002 several ROC officials and government agencies passed laws and made strong statements recognizing Mongolia’s sovereignty over the area (unofficially). "Outer Mongolia" was removed from the ROC's official maps and a representative office was established in Ulaanbaatar.

Citizens of the Republic of China may travel to Mongolia using Republic of China passports (as is the case for most countries except the PRC), but Mongolian visas are stapled into (and not applied directly onto) the passport and Mongolian immigration authorities stamp the stapled visa instead of the passport. This is also the case for Hong Kong visas and entry/exit stamps.

South East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brunei 1992-05-18[1]
 Burma 1956-09-26[1]
 Cambodia 1960-11-30[1]
 East Timor 2003-10-28[1]
 Indonesia 1956-12-22[1]
 Laos 1962-09-12[1]
 Malaysia 1971-09-08[1] Mongolia has not presented any ambassador to Malaysia for seven years due to the murder of a Mongolian citizen on the country, but later decided to appointing an ambassador on 2014.[22]
 Myanmar 1956-09-26[1] [23]
 Philippines 1973-10-11[1]
 Singapore 1970-06-11[1]
 Thailand 1974-03-05[1]
 Vietnam 1954-11-17[1] The two countries established diplomatic ties in 1954.[24] Mongolia has an embassy in Vietnam. The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[24] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[25]

South and Central Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1962-02-01[1] In December 2013 Mongolia re-established its Embassy in Kabul.[26][27]
 Bangladesh 1972-06-28[1]
 Bhutan 2012-01-18[1]
 India 1955-12-24[1]

India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. India was the first country outside the Soviet bloc to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. Since then, there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973, 1994, 2001 and 2004.

 Kazakhstan 1992-01-22[1] Mongolia has an embassy in Astana and a Consulate General in Almaty. Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

Ethnic Kazakhs make up the only significant ethnic minority in Mongolia.

 Kyrgyzstan 1992-04-22[1] Mongolian president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made an official visit to Kyrgyzstan in 2012.
 Maldives 1985-11-06[1]
   Nepal 1961-01-05[1]
 Pakistan 1962-07-06[1]
 Sri Lanka 1962-02-01[1]
 Tajikistan 1992-04-24[1]
 Turkmenistan 1992-04-23[1]
 Uzbekistan 1992-01-25[1]

West Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain 1998-05-16[1]
 Iran 1971-05-20[1]
 Iraq 1962-02-05[1]
 Israel 1991-10-02[1]
 Jordan 1981-05-21[1]
 Kuwait 1975-06-17[1]
 Lebanon 1998-02-05[1]
 Oman 1992-04-27[1]
 State of Palestine 1988-11-22[1]
 Qatar 1998-01-21[1]
 Saudi Arabia 2007-02-12[1]
 Syria 1967-07-31[1] Ties were established when both countries had socialist governments. Mongolian (from the then-ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) delegates have traveled to Egypt in 1978, 1982, 1985; while Syrian (Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party) delegates visited Mongolia in 1983, and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and (Mongolian)

 Turkey 1969-06-24[1]
 United Arab Emirates 1996-04-01[1]
 Yemen 1970-08-28[1]


Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to receive most-favoured-nation status from the European Union (EU). During 1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative programs and also provided loans and aid.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1949-05-24[1]
 Andorra 2011-11-21[1]
 Armenia 1992-02-21[1]
 Austria 1963-07-01[1]
 Azerbaijan 1992-04-16[1]
 Belarus 1992-01-24[1]
 Belgium 1971-07-08[1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1993-02-24[1]
 Bulgaria 1950-04-22[1]

Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia. Diplomatic relations between the two counties were first initiated on 22 April 1950. Due to the similar ideological situation in both countries, their relations witnessed a steady development up until the 1990s. Bilateral relations somewhat deteriorated for the next ten years. From 2001, though, they get back to a more positive track with the current Bulgarian president Georgi Parvanov making an official visit to Ulaanbaatar in the summer of 2007. Until the beginning of the 1990s Bulgaria was Mongolia's 3rd biggest trading partner. Agricultural products and light inddustry goods were the main exports. Due to the subsequent economical and political changes in both countries the volume of trade shrank considerably. The volume of trade between Bulgaria and Mongolia totaled $2 million for 2008, with the main exporter being Bulgaria.[30]

 Croatia 1993-03-10[1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 10, 1993.[31] Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Zagreb.

 Cyprus 1973-12-19[1]

Cyprus-Mongolia relations

 Czech Republic 1993-01-01[1]

Diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Czechoslovakia, which were established on 25 April 1950. In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia was Mongolia's second-largest trading partner, behind Russia. After the 1992 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Mongolia reaffirmed its relations with the newly formed Czech Republic in 1993.[36] However, in the 1990s, trade volumes declined sharply, though the Czech Republic still accounts for about 1% of Mongolia's imports. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Ulaanbaatar was formally reopened in 1999.[37] As of 2005, annual bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at US$5 million.[38] The Czech government has also been involved in various water supply development programs in Mongolia.

 Denmark 1968-08-05[1]
 Estonia 1991-11-20[1]
 Finland 1963-07-15[1]
 France 1965-04-27[1]
 Georgia 1992-05-12[1]
 Germany 1974-01-31[1]
 Greece 1967-03-03[1] Greece is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia is represented in Greece through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and an honorary consulate in Athens.
 Holy See 1992-04-04[1]
 Hungary 1950-04-28[1] Hungary has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Budapest
 Iceland 1974-06-04[1]
 Ireland 1998-12-22[1]
 Italy 1970-06-29[1]
 Latvia 1991-10-15[1]
 Liechtenstein 1998-03-18[1]
 Lithuania 1991-12-11[1]
 Luxembourg 1976-07-11[1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China).
 Malta 1979-08-08[1]
 Moldova 1992-01-30[1]
 Monaco 2008-05-22[1]
 Montenegro 2007-02-01[1]
 Netherlands 1972-03-06[1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Breda.
 Norway 1968-01-11[1]
 Poland 1950-04-14[1]
 Portugal 1974-07-26[1]
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data North Macedonia||1995-06-27[1]||
 Romania 1950-04-29[1]
 Russia 1921-11-05[1]

Relations between Mongolia and the Russian Federation have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when Soviet Russia was the closest ally of the Mongolian People's Republic. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals (in Darkhan and Erdenet). Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals (in Irkutsk, Kyzyl and Ulan Ude), and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Russia is a participating state, while Mongolia is a partner).

After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other republics were essential to contribute to stabilisation of the Mongolian economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination occurred because these new states were experiencing the same political and economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation[16] establishing a new basis of equality in the relationship. Mongolian President Bagabandi visited Moscow in 1999, and Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Mongolia in 2000[16] in order to sign the 25-point Ulaanbaatar Declaration, reaffirming Mongol-Russian friendship and cooperation on numerous economic and political issues.

 San Marino 2007-04-25[1]
 Spain 1977-07-05[1]
 Serbia 1956-11-20[1]
 Slovakia 1993-01-01[1]
 Slovenia 1993-02-18[1]
 Sweden 1964-06-30[1]
  Switzerland 1964-05-22[1]
 Turkey 1969-06-24[1]
 Ukraine 1992-01-21[1]
 United Kingdom 1963-01-23[1] First Western nation to establish diplomatic ties.
 European Union 1989-08-01[1]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta none[41]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972-09-15[1] The Mongolian Consulate was established in Canberra in March 1997. An Embassy was established in October 2008.[42] Sükhbaataryn Batbold became the first head of government to visit Australia in 2011. Australia is represented in Mongolia through its consulate-general in Ulan Bator.[43]
 Cook Islands none
 Fiji 1976-03-15[1]
 Kiribati 2014-01-15[10]
 Marshall Islands 2015-05-25[10]
 Federated States of Micronesia 2013-12-06
 Nauru 2011-10-13[1]
 New Zealand 1975-04-08[1]
 Niue none
 Palau 2013-09-25[1]
 Papua New Guinea 1976-06-16[1]
 Samoa 2011-12-21[1]
 Solomon Islands 2011-10-13[1]
 Tonga 2000-04-04[1]
 Tuvalu 2011-12-05[1]
 Vanuatu 2013-09-23[1]

International organisation participation


Mongolia did not join the UN until 1961 because repeated threats to veto by the Republic of China, who considered Mongolia to be part of its territory (see China and the United Nations).

See also


  1. 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 1.016 1.017 1.018 1.019 1.020 1.021 1.022 1.023 1.024 1.025 1.026 1.027 1.028 1.029 1.030 1.031 1.032 1.033 1.034 1.035 1.036 1.037 1.038 1.039 1.040 1.041 1.042 1.043 1.044 1.045 1.046 1.047 1.048 1.049 1.050 1.051 1.052 1.053 1.054 1.055 1.056 1.057 1.058 1.059 1.060 1.061 1.062 1.063 1.064 1.065 1.066 1.067 1.068 1.069 1.070 1.071 1.072 1.073 1.074 1.075 1.076 1.077 1.078 1.079 1.080 1.081 1.082 1.083 1.084 1.085 1.086 1.087 1.088 1.089 1.090 1.091 1.092 1.093 1.094 1.095 1.096 1.097 1.098 1.099 1.100 1.101 1.102 1.103 1.104 1.105 1.106 1.107 1.108 1.109 1.110 1.111 1.112 1.113 1.114 1.115 1.116 1.117 1.118 1.119 1.120 1.121 1.122 1.123 1.124 1.125 1.126 1.127 1.128 1.129 1.130 "LIST OF STATES WITH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 26 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Mongolian president discusses cooperation with Egyptian counterpart in Cairo". The Ulaanbaatar Post. 2004-05-03. Retrieved 2007-10-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Missions Abroad". Embassy of Mongolia, Washington D.C. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Mongolian president discusses cooperation with Egyptian counterpart". BBC. 2004-05-03. Retrieved 2007-10-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Mongolia: Policemen to be trained in Egypt". Daily News, Ulaanbaatar. 2001-09-03. Retrieved 2007-10-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "President in Egypt". The Presidential Office of Mongolia. 2004-04-27. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "President meets with Egyptian MFA". The Presidential Office of Mongolia. 2005-04-24. Retrieved 2007-10-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Nelles, Wayne (December 2000). "Mongolian-Canadian Education, Training and Research Cooperation: A Brief History, 1973-2000". Canadian and International Education. 29 (2): 91.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Metawise LLC. "Diplomatic relations of Mongolia  : : News and information about Mongolia, Mongolian language lessons". Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "ГХЯ". Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Consulados Honorarios". Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Joint Statement Between Mongolia and the United States of America". 21 November 2005. Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service Office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 57
  15. Robb, Greg, "The subtleties of Biden’s trip to Mongolia", MarketWatch, August 16, 2011, 11:10 AM EDT. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service Office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 55
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 ""Pan-Mongolism" and U.S.-China-Mongolia relations". Jamestown Foundation. 2005-06-29. Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-15. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. 18.0 18.1 "China breathes new life into Mongolia". Asia Times. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2008-06-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Lee, Wonhee (6 September 2005). "Center Offers Haven For North Korean Defectors in Mongolia". Radio Free Asia.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Mongolia not planning camps for North Korea". Gulf Times, Qatar. 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. South Korean embassy in Ulaanbaatar
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  24. 24.0 24.1 Vietnamese agency reviews Mongolia ties before president's visit. Hanoi: Vietnam News Agency. 2000-04-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Mongolia, Vietnam sign new cooperation document". Financial Times. 2003-01-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Элчин сайд О. Дамбийням Афганистаны Ерөнхийлөгчид итгэмжлэх жуух бичгээ барилаа (Mongolian)
  27. "ГХЯ". Retrieved 21 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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External links