In basketball, a four-point play is the rare occasion when an offensive player shoots and makes a three-point field goal while simultaneously being hit by a defensive player, resulting in a shooting foul and one free throw being awarded, or a two-point field goal and is intentionally or flagrantly fouled on the shot and is awarded two free throws. If the player makes his/her free throws, (s)he will have scored four points on a single possession. The short-lived American Basketball League first introduced the four-point play to the game of basketball, and it was later adopted by the American Basketball Association during its inaugural season. The National Basketball Association (NBA) introduced that rule in 1979; FIBA in 1984; the NCAA in 1986 (men only) and 1987 (women); middle and high schools in 1987; and the WNBA in 1997.
Sam Smith of the Chicago Bulls completed the first four-point play in NBA history on October 21, 1979, in a game against the Milwaukee Bucks. As of January 6, 2016[update], Jamal Crawford is the league's career leader in regular-season four-point plays with 46.
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