29 July 1953 |
Buncrana, County Donegal, Ireland
|Occupation||Playwright, poet, translator|
|Notable works||The Factory Girls,
Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme,
Someone Who'll Watch Over Me,
Dolly West's Kitchen
Professor Frank McGuinness (born 29 July 1953) is an Irish writer. As well as his own works, which include The Factory Girls, Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme, Someone Who'll Watch Over Me and Dolly West's Kitchen, he is recognised for a "strong record of adapting literary classics, having translated the plays of Racine, Sophocles, Ibsen and Strindberg to critical acclaim". McGuinness has been Professor of Creative Writing at University College Dublin (UCD) since 2007.
McGuinness was born in Buncrana, a town located on the Inishowen Peninsula of County Donegal, Ireland. He was educated locally and at University College Dublin, where he studied Pure English and medieval studies to postgraduate level.
He first came to prominence with his play The Factory Girls, but established his reputation with his play about World War I, Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme, which was staged in Dublin's Abbey Theatre and internationally. The play made a name for him when it was performed at Hampstead Theatre, drawing comments about McGuinness's Irish Catholic background. It won numerous awards including the London Evening Standard Award for Most Promising Playwright for McGuinness and the Christopher Ewart-Biggs Memorial Prize. He has also written new versions of classic dramas, including works by Henrik Ibsen, Anton Chekhov, and Euripides, adapting the literal translations of others. In addition, he wrote the screenplay for the film Dancing at Lughnasa, adapting the stage play by fellow Ulsterman Brian Friel.
McGuinness's first poetry anthology, Booterstown, was published in 1994. Several of his poems have been recorded by Marianne Faithfull, including Electra, After the Ceasefire and The Wedding.
McGuinness previously lectured in Linguistics and Drama at the University of Ulster, Medieval Studies at University College, Dublin and English at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth. Then he was a writer-in-residence lecturing at University College Dublin before being appointed Professor of Creative Writing in the School of English, Drama and Film there.
Frank McGuinness has explained that: "My earliest writing was ... song writing. I would have loved to have been ... Paul McCartney ... Joni Mitchell." Desiring to write something "substantial", however, he "tossed a coin" between a play and a novel, and decided to write a play. The Glass God, a one-act play written by McGuinness for the company Platform Group Theatre, was premiered at the Lourdes Hall Theatre in Dublin in 1982. It was one of three one-act plays presented under the collective title of Shrapnel.
McGuinness' first full lenght play, The Factory Girls, also premiered in 1982, and dealt with a group of female workers facing redundancy from a small town in Donegal. McGuinness explained that he was inspired by "the women in [his] family". A critic has highlighted "its Wednesday to Sunday time frame", which betrays a Catholic imagery, as this is in fact "a passion play". "When I wrote 'The Factory Girls'," McGuiness has explained, "I desperately wanted to bring across the audience a sense that I came from a sophisticated background, I come from a background where language is very dangerous, where language is very layered."
His second play, Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching towards the Somme, was first staged in 1985. The play, about a group of Protestant soldiers in the First World War, was not primarily political in intent, but, according to the playwright, was originally inspired by "a great story". Observe the Sons of Ulster has been described as "a theater of ghosts", a play where "a community is figured as spectral".
The play which followed, Innocence, dealt with the painter Caravaggio. It took its name from one of his paintings, The Sacrifice of Isaak, about the Biblical story of the father whose faith is tested by God's request that he kill his son. In the painting, a sheep watches the sacrifice about to take place, and looks appalled at human cruelty, its innocence shattered. McGuinness was inspired by "this innocent sheep" who, at the end of the story, will be sacrificed instead of the child. "Only Caravaggio would remember the sheep" in the story, McGuinness says.
His next play, Carthaginians, premiered in 1989, was concerned with the Bloody Sunday events in Northern Ireland. In 1972, in Derry, British soldiers shot unarmed civilians who were taking part in a march against internment, and killed 14 people. McGuinness has described Carthaginians as "My play on the Catholic imagination...", stating that "the key word in [the play] is the word 'perhaps'". It has been claimed that this play should be placed primarily "within a body of translations and adaptations of ancient Greek tragedy in the Irish theatre of the 1980s and 1990s".
Someone Who'll Watch Over Me, first staged in 1992, is a play about the 1986 Lebanon hostage crisis. Many critics have pointed out that Ibsen is the main influence in the plays of McGuinness, something corroborated by the writer himself, who has also explained that "... there is of course another influence, that of Shakespeare...". It was this influence that triggered the composition of Someone Who'll Watch Over Me. In the author's own words: "I decided, right, lets grab the unicorn by the horn, and see what happens".
McGuinness has declared that he "wanted to construct a five act Shakespearean play", to use "narrative in a way that I hope no one had done before". He has described the play as "a big brute", adding that, among his works to date, "I suspect 'this play will last'".
The play Dolly West's Kitchen, premiered in 1999, is set during the Second World War in Buncrana. This time was euphemistically referred to in the Republic of Ireland as "The Emergency". McGuinness has explained that the arrival of US troops into the town of Buncrana was not only an invasion in terms of the military presence, but also an "invasion of sexuality", as the soldiers made quite an impression in the town. But the main theme in the play "... was to do with a gigantic sorrow in my life, which is that my mother died." This was the heart of the story, because, McGuinness explained, when the mother dies, "the children have to grow up".
The play Gates of Gold, premiered in 2002, was commissioned by The Gate Theatre in Dublin to celebrate its anniversary. The theatre was founded by Micheál Mac Liammóir and Hilton Edwards, who were lifelong partners in life and work. McGuinness has explained that he "wanted to write a play that was a great celebration of homosexual marriage, love, partnership". The playwright has a drawing of MacLiammoir, by Norah McGuinness, in his sitting room, a work "which I bought with the royalties of the Factory Girls" so the actor is a constant presence in McGuinness' life. Gates of Gold looks at the dying days of MacLiammoir, because McGuinness wanted to write "something darker and stranger", and less predictable.
Premiered in 2007, There Came a Gipsy Riding asks the question of "how do you survive the greatest loss, the loss of a child...", to conclude that "you don't recover, but you do learn to live with it". A critic described this "impressive drama" as "a concentrated piece that intricately dissects a middle-class family at war with itself following the suicide of one of their three children".
The play The Hanging Gardens, premiered in 2007, is concerned with Alzheimer's disease, and the devastating effect it has on its sufferers and the people around them. McGuinness explained that: "I hope the audience laughs. And that they’re shocked. I try to give them something more than they expect."  One reviewer declared that the play "holds us, moves us, alarms us."
Frank McGuinness’ first novel, ‘Arimathea’, was published in 2013. It has been described as “[a] story of salvation”. The book is set in a village in Donegal in 1950, registering the effect of the arrival of an Italian painter who “came from out foreign and . . . spoke wild funny”. The story, told from the point of view of various characters, is inspired by a historic Italian artist who was commissioned to paint the Stations of the Cross in the catholic church of Buncrana in the 1900s. McGuinness wrote the book as research for his play The Hanging Gardens, but never thought it would be published as a novel. The story of the play deals with a novelist who contracts Alzheimer’s disease, and progressively loses control of his mind; and in order to understand the character better, McGuinness decided to try to write a novel that that man could have written, and the result was 'Arimathea'. In addition to this piece of work, McGuinness also conducted other research for the play, by interviewing people with experience of elderly parents being affected by Alzheimer’s disease.
While one reviewer claimed that “there is nothing like [this novel] in the history of Irish fiction”, another stated that Arimathea is “a distinctively Irish book, and one in which echoes of Joyce vie with those of Máirtín Ó Cadhain”. Many commentators pointed out that this choral novel, told in a series of monologues, makes good use of Frank McGuinness’ experience in the theatre, including his ability to render individualised voices. His background as a poet may also have been relevant to Arimathea’s investment on suggestion as method and silence as idea. “[T]he final effect” of the novel, as one reviewer put it, “is to lead the reader to consider those voices not yet heard, and the private agonies that are never shared”.
McGuinness’ short story “Paprika” was published in 2014. It appeared in a collection of new stories by Irish writers. "Paprika" is a tale of murder, centred on a disgruntled, mentally unstable operatic white tenor, who is currently playing the role of Othello in an opera, wearing blackface. The story is told through “the pompous voice” of the protagonist, “who veers between grandiosity and despair”. Structured as a fluid but self-conscious monologue, the piece has various levels of association, starting from a subversion ─or an update─ of the plot of Shakespeare’s play ‘Othello’, including an investigation on the performance of identity, dissecting the 'logic' of inequality, and employing “[t]he shards of childhood”, to “pierce the narrative in an unusual and thought-provoking [way].”
Frank McGuinness’s first opera libretto was Thebans, produced in 2014 at the English National Opera in London. The opera is a version of the trilogy of plays by Sophocles. He was invited to write the libretto by composer Julian Anderson. Adapting this substantial body of work onto a single story 100 minutes long was a considerable challenge. Recalling his initial conversations with the composer, McGuinness explained: “The first thing I said was: I know it will have to be much, much shorter. We looked at a two-page speech. "I can get this down to six lines," I told him – and then did just that.” The Theban trilogy, made of Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone, has been occasionally performed as a chronologically ordered, three-play show. For his version, McGuinness made the decision to change the traditional order in the story. He explained that “I've always thought that putting [the play Antigone] at the end of the evening short-changes it remarkably. Although it's the final part of the trilogy, it never feels like the end; in fact, it almost feels as if it were by a different writer.” While some critics did not approve of the switch, they still described the opera as “distinctly impressive”.
McGuinness’ priority in producing the libretto was to make the original text accessible to a contemporary audience. “I'm trying to make this accessible", McGuinness declared, "and to write as beautiful a text as I can for the singers to sing. And that is what I think they are, these stories that have haunted us: they are something beautiful, something brutal, and the beauty and brutality confound each other.” The original trilogy is “revered as a foundational document of western civilisation”, and one of the main achievements of this “dazzling new opera”, a reviewer pointed out, was that “it blows apart this crippling reverence and presents the drama afresh” 
One reviewer underlined the fact that “McGuinness has whittled Sophocles’s plays down to a succession of very short, simple lines that can be easily heard when sung across an auditorium”, and that “Anderson’s music fills the emotional space around these lines”, to conclude that “[f]or all the antiquity of its roots, Thebans may point to the future of opera”. Another reviewer declared that Frank McGuinness “has supplied what seems an eminently settable, elegant condensation of the drama”, and that the opera as a whole offers “[t]he superb assurance of the writing metallically intent but underpinned by a novel harmonic richness”.
McGuinness on writing
A writer's task, McGuiness declared in 2015, is "to do something that no one has done before, to discover". In the same interview, he added that: "The enquiring mind, the radical mind, will always be ill at ease about what is said about a particular subject."
Awards and honours
Source for entries 1985-1999:
- 1985 London Evening Standard "Award for Most Promising Playwright" for Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme
- 1985 Roony Prize for Irish Literature for Observe the Sons..
- 1985 Arts Council Bursary for Observe the Sons..
- 1985 Harvey's Best Play Award for Observe the Sons..
- 1985 Cheltenham Literary Prize for Observe the Sons..
- 1986 London Fringe Awards for Best Play and Best Playwright New to the Fringe for Observe the Sons..
- 1986 Plays and Players Award for Most Promising Playwright for Observe the Sons..
- 1987 Ewart-Biggs Peace Prize for Observe the Sons..
- 1990 Prague International Television Awards for The Hen House (BBC2)
- 1992 New York Drama Critics Circle for Someone Who'll Watch Over Me
- 1992 Writers' Guild Award for Best Play for Someone Who'll Watch Over Me
- 1992 Independent Sunday Best Play of the Year Award for Someone Who'll Watch Over Me
- 1992 Oliver Award nomination for Someone Who'll Watch Over Me
- 1992 Tony Award nomination for Someone Who'll Watch Over Me
- 1992 Ireland Fund Literary Award
- 1996 Tony Award for Best Revival for A Doll's House
- 1997 French Order of Arts and Letters
- 1999 Oliver Award nomination for Best New Play for Dolly West's Kitchen
- 2014 Irish PEN Award
List of works
- The Glass God (Platform Theatre Group, Dublin, 1982)
- The Factory Girls (Abbey Theatre, Dublin, 1982)
- Borderlands (TEAM Educational Theatre Company, 1984)
- Gatherers (TEAM Educational Theatre Company, 1985)
- Ladybag (Damer Hall, Dublin for Dublin Theatre Festival, 1985)
- Baglady (Abbey, 1985)
- Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme (Abbey, 1985; Hampstead Theatre, London, 1986)
- Innocence (Gate Theatre, Dublin, 1986)
- Times in It (Peacock stage of Abbey Theatre, Dublin 1988: triple bill consisting of 'Feed the Money and Keep Them Coming'; 'Brides of Ladybag' and 'Flesh and Blood')
- Carthaginians (Abbey, 1988; Hampstead, 1989)
- Mary and Lizzie (RSC, 1989)
- The Bread Man (Gate, 1991)
- Someone Who'll Watch Over Me (Hampstead, West End and Broadway, 1992)
- The Bird Sanctuary (Abbey, 1993)
- Mutabilitie (RNT, 1997)
- Dolly West's Kitchen (Abbey, 1999)
- Speaking Like Magpies (RSC, The Swan Theatre, Straford-upon-Avon, 2005)
- Gates of Gold (Gate Theatre, Dublin, 2002. UK premiere Finborough Theatre, 2004. West End transfer 2006.)
- There Came a Gypsy Riding (Almeida Theatre, London, 2007)
- The Holy Moley Jesus Story (Greash Theatre, Dublin, 2008)
- Greta Garbo Came to Donegal (Tricycle Theatre, London, 2010)
- The Match Box (Everyman Playhouse, Liverpool, 2012)
- Rosmersholm by Henrik Ibsen (RNT, 1987)
- Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen (Gate, 1988; RSC and world tour, 1994)
- Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen (Roundabout Theatre, Broadway, 1994)
- A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen (Playhouse Theatre, Broadway, 1997)
- Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov (Gate and Royal Court, 1990)
- Uncle Vanya by Anton Chekhov (Field Day Production, 1995)
- Yerma by Federico García Lorca (Abbey, 1987)
- The Threepenny Opera by Bertolt Brecht (Gate, 1987)
- The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertolt Brecht (RNT, 1997)
- Electra by Sophocles (Donmar and Broadway)
- The Storm by Alexander Ostrovsky (Almeida)
- Hecuba by Euripides
- Phaedra by Seneca
- Oedipus by Sophocles (Royal National Theatre)
- Helen by Euripides (Shakespeare's Globe, 2008)
- John Gabriel Borkman by Henrik Ibsen (Abbey Theatre, 2010)
- Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen (London Classic Theatre, 2011)
- Dancing at Lughnasa (adaptation of play by Brian Friel)
- A Short Stay in Switzerland (BBC TV, 2009, based on the true story of Dr Anne Turner)
- Booterstown (Gallery Press, 1994)
- In Loving Memory (Limerick City Gallery of Art, 1989, with photographs by Amelia Stein)
- The Sea with no Ships (Gallery Press, 1999)
- The Stone Jug (Gallery Press, 2003)
- Dulse (Gallery Press, 2007)
- Arimathea (Brandon, 2013)
- "McGuinness named Professor of Creative Writing at UCD". UCD. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- "Bloomsday Centenary Public Lecture Series". UCD. Retrieved on 3 June 2004.
- "Passion, betrayal and hypocrisy in new version of Ibsen's 'Ghosts' at Town Hall". Galway City Tribune. Retrieved on 13 May 2011.
- Maxwell, Dominic. "Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme at Hampstead Theatre, NW3". The Times. Retrieved on 25 June 2009.
- Higgins, Charlotte. "Frank McGuinness: 'I'm not entirely respectable. I couldn't be'". The Guardian. Retrieved on 18 October 2008.
- "Playwrights in Profile: Frank McGuinness" (RTĒ Radio, 2013) http://www.rte.ie/drama/radio/plays/playwrights/2013/0130/647338-specials-playwrights-frankmcguinness/
- "Playwrights in Profile: Frank McGuinness" (RTĒ Radio, 2013)
- Helen Heusnek Lojek, Contexts for Frank McGuinness' Drama. The Catholic University of America, 2004, page 58.
- "Interview with Frank McGuiness", Arena, RTE, 7 December 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzznCjNLVjE
- Tom Herron, Dead Men Talking: Frank McGuinness’s Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme Éire-Ireland. Vol 39: 1&2 (Spring/Summer 2004): 136-62.
- "Review of Carthaginians" [at Millenium Forum, Derry, 2012, Directed by Adrian Dunbar] Liza Fitzhpatrick. 23 February 2015.
- "Review of There Came a Gipsy Riding [Almeida Theatre, 2007, directed by Michael Attenborough]", Philip Fisher. British Theatre Guide online, 2007. http://www.britishtheatreguide.info/reviews/gypsyriding-rev
- Frank McGuinness interview with Caroline O'Doherty. "A novel idea for veteran playwright McGuinness" 12 Oct 2013. http://www.irishexaminer.com/lifestyle/artsfilmtv/a-novel-idea-for-veteran-playwright-mcguinness-247022.html
- "Review of The Hanging Gardens at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin". Dominic Cavendish, The Telegraph, 8 April 2015 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/theatre/theatre-reviews/10375719/The-Hanging-Gardens-at-the-Abbey-Theatre-Dublin-review.html
- Eimear McBride, “Review of ‘Arimathea’ by Frank McGuinness”. The Guardian online. 9 November 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/nov/09/arimathea-frank-mcguinness-review <accessed 10 April 2015>
- Frank McGuinness, “Extract from Arimathea”, Dublin Review of Books online. Issue 66. April 2015. http://www.drb.ie/new-books/arimathea <accessed 17 April 2015>
- See Frank McGuinness in conversation with Caroline O’Doherty. “A novel idea for veteran playwright McGuinness” 12 Oct 2013. <http://www.irishexaminer.com/lifestyle/artsfilmtv/a-novel-idea-for-veteran-playwright-mcguinness-247022.html <accessed 10 April 2015>
- Brian Lynch. “McGuinness’s first novel, unique in Irish Fiction”. The Irish Independent online. 22 September 2013. http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/books/mcguinnesss-first-novel-unique-in-irish-fiction-29594919.html <accessed 10 April 2015>
- Christina Hunt Mahoney. “Frank McGuinness, Master of a Novel Form”. The Irish Times online. 9 November 2013. http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/books/frank-mcguinness-master-of-a-novel-form-1.1585622 <accessed 10 April 2015>
- Carol Taaffe. “Gianni in Buncrana”. Dublin Review of Books. Issue 66, April 2015. http://www.drb.ie/contributors-articles/gianni-in-buncrana <accessed 15 April 2015>
- “Paprika”, in Surge - 16 New Short Stories by Irish Writers. Dublin: Brandon Press, 2014. The story was reproduced in The Irish Times online: http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/books/paprika-a-new-short-story-by-frank-mcguinness-1.2003972
- Sarah Gilmartin. “Surge: New Writing from Ireland – Shards of glass and solid bricks in this winning collection”. The Irish Times online. 22 December 2014. http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/books/surge-new-writing-from-ireland-shards-of-glass-and-solid-bricks-in-a-winning-collection-1.2044115 <accessed 15 April 2015>.
- “How I turned Oedipus into an Opera”, Frank McGuinness. The Guardian online. 14 April 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/stage/2014/apr/30/frank-mcguinness-thebans-oedipus-eno-opera <accessed 1 April 2015>
- “How I turned Oedipus into an Opera”, Frank McGuinness. The Guardian online. 14 April 2014.
- “A Composer’s Ambitious Take on Sophocles Makes a Big Impression in London”, Michael White, The New York Times online, 5 April 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/06/arts/music/review-of-julian-andersons-thebans-for-the-english-national-opera.html?_r=0 <accessed 1 April 2015>
- “Thebans review – Julian Anderson’s dazzling new opera for ENO” Guy Dammann. The Guardian online. 5 May 2014 http://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/may/04/thebans-english-national-opera-review-julian-anderson-frank-mcguinness <accessed 1 April 2015>
- “Thebans: A Triumphant World Premiere at ENO” Stephen Wilmot, Londonist, 5 May 2014. http://londonist.com/2014/05/thebans-a-triumphant-world-premiere-at-eno.php <accessed 1 April 2015>
- “Pain of Thrones”, Paul Driver, The Sunday Times, 11 May 2014 http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/culture/music/article1407781.ece <accessed 1 April 2015>
- "Frank McGuinness, Playwright", UCD Faces of Research, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0gPtZAwtTE
- Helen Lojek (2004). Contexts for Frank McGuinness's Drama. CUA Press. p. xvi. Retrieved May 29, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rose Doyle (February 13, 2013). "Living here: Playwright and poet Frank McGuinness in Booterstown, Co Dublin". The Irish Times. Retrieved May 29, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "McGuinness honoured with 2014 Irish PEN Award for Outstanding Achievement in Irish Literature". University College Dublin. 14 February 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Marlowe, Sam. "Yerma". The Times. Retrieved on 30 August 2006. "The play, in Frank McGuinness's sinewy translation, sets the sacred against the profane, sensuality against repression and duty against instinct".
- McBride, Charlie. "‘Stunning reworking’ of Ibsen’s Ghosts for Town Hall". Galway Advertiser. Retrieved on 5 May 2011.
- Eamonn Jordan The feast of famine: the plays of Frank McGuinness (Bern: Peter Lang, 1997) ISBN 3-906757-71-4
- Helen Lojek (ed.) The theatre of Frank McGuinness: stages of mutability (Dublin: Carysfort Press, 2002) ISBN 1-904505-01-5
- Hiroko Mikami, Frank McGuinness and his Theatre of Paradox (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 2002)
- Kenneth Nally, Celebrating Confusion: The Theatre of Frank McGuinness (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009) ISBN 1-4438-0335-9