Fuyu Kyrgyz language
|Ethnicity||875 (no date)|
|unknown (10 cited 1982 census)|
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Fuyu Kyrgyz (Fuyü Gïrgïs, Fu-Yu Kirgiz), also known as Manchurian Kirghiz, is the easternmost Turkic language. Despite its name, it is not a variety of Kyrgyz but is closer to Khakas; the people originated in the Yenisei region of Siberia but were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate by the Dzungars, and then the Qing moved them from Dzungaria to northeastern China in 1761, and the name may be due to the survival of a common tribal name. Sibe Bannermen were stationed in Dzungaria while Northeastern China (Manchuria) was where some of the remaining Öelet Oirats were deported to. The Nonni basin was where Oirat Öelet deportees were settled. The Yenisei Kirghiz were deported along with the Öelet. Chinese and Oirat replaced Oirat and Kirghiz during Manchukuo as the dual languages of the Nonni based Yenisei Kirghiz. The Yenisei Kirghiz were made to pay tribute in a treaty concluded between the Dzungars and Russians in 1635. The present-day Kyrgyz people originally lived in the same area that the speakers of Fuyu Kyrgyz at first dwelled within modern-day Russia. These Kyrgyz were known as the Yenisei Kyrgyz. It is now spoken in northeastern China's Heilongjiang province, in and around Fuyu County, Qiqihar (300 km northwest of Harbin) by a small number of passive speakers who are classified as Kyrgyz nationality.
Although a complete phonemic analysis of Girgis has not been done, Hu and Imart have made numerous observations about the sound system in their tentative description of the language. They describe Girgis as having the short vowels noted as "a, ï, i, o, ö, u, ü" which correspond roughly to IPA [a, ə, ɪ, ɔ, œ, ʊ, ʉ], with minimal rounding and tendency towards centralization. Vowel length is phonemic and occurs as a result of consonant-deletion (Girgis /pʉːn/ vs. Kyrgyz /bygyn/). Each short vowel has an equivalent long vowel, with the addition of /e /. Girgis displays vowel harmony as well as consonant harmony. The consonant sounds in Girgis, including allophone variants, are [p, b, ɸ, β, t, d, ð, k, q, ɡ, h, ʁ, ɣ, s, ʃ, z, ʒ, dʒ, tʃ, m, n, ŋ, l, r, j]. Girgis does not display a phonemic difference between the stop set /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/; these stops can also be aspirated to [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] in Chinese loanwords.
In 1980, Fuyu Girgis was spoken by a majority of adults in a community of around a hundred homes. However, many adults in the area have switched to speaking a local variety of Mongolian, and children have switched to Chinese as taught in the education system.
- Khakas at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Contributors Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (revised ed.). Elsevier. 2010. p. 1109. ISBN 0080877753. Retrieved 24 April 2014. horizontal tab character in
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- Johanson 1998, p. 83.
- Tchoroev (Chorotegin) 2003, p. 110.
- Pozzi & Janhunen & Weiers 2006, p. 113.
- Giovanni Stary; Alessandra Pozzi; Juha Antero Janhunen (2006). Tumen Jalafun Jecen Aku: Manchu Studies in Honour of Giovanni Stary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-3-447-05378-5. Unknown parameter
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- Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. p. 112. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. p. 59. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Millward 2007, p. 89.
- Hu & Imart 1987, p. 1
- Hu & Imart 1987, p. 11
- Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 8–9
- Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 24–25
- Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 11–13
- Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 2–3
- Hu, Zhen-hua; Imart, Guy (1987), Fu-Yü Gïrgïs: A tentative description of the easternmost Turkic language, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Li, Yongsŏng; Ölmez, Mehmet; Kim, Juwon (2007), "Some Newly Identified Words in Fuyu Kirghiz (Part 1)", Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, Neue Folge, 21: 141–169<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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