Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)
|Archangel, Angel of Revelation|
All Christian denominations which venerate saints
|Attributes||Archangel; Clothed in blue or white garments; Carrying a lily, a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise, a scroll, and a scepter.|
|Patronage||Telecommunication workers, radio broadcasters, messengers, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, stamp collectors, Portugal, Santander, Cebu, ambassadors|
In the Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (//; Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל Gaḇrīʾēl, 'God is my Strength'; Greek: Ancient Greek: Γαβριήλ; Latin: Gabriel, Fortitudo Dei; Coptic: Coptic: Ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ; Amharic: Amharic: ገብርኤል?; Aramaic: ܓ݁ܰܒ݂ܪܺܝܐܝܶܠ; Arabic: Arabic: جبريل, translit. Jibrīl/Jibriel or Arabic: جبرائيل, translit. Jibrāʾīl) is an archangel, first described in the Hebrew Bible.
In the Hebrew Bible, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel to explain his visions (Daniel 8:15–26, 9:21–27). The archangel also appears in the Book of Enoch and other ancient Jewish writings. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending its people against the angels of the other nations.
The Gospel of Luke relates the stories of the Annunciation, in which the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively (Luke 1:11–38). Many Christian traditions—including Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Roman Catholicism—revere Gabriel as a saint.
Islam regards Gabriel (Jibril) as an archangel sent by God to various prophets, including Muhammad. The first five verses of the Al-Alaq, the 96th chapter of the Quran, is believed by Muslims to have been the first verses revealed by Jibreel to Muhammad.
- 1 Judaism
- 2 Intertestamental literature
- 3 Christianity
- 4 Islam
- 5 Art, entertainment, and media
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Talmudic rabbis interpreted the "man in linen" as Gabriel in the Book of Daniel and the Book of Ezekiel. In the Book of Daniel, Gabriel is responsible for interpreting Daniel's visions. Gabriel's main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in later literature. In the Book of Ezekiel, Gabriel is understood to be the angel that was sent to destroy Jerusalem. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Gabriel takes the form of a man, and stands at the left hand of God. Shimon ben Lakish (Syria Palaestina, 3rd century) concluded that the angelic names of Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel came out of the Babylonian exile (Gen. Rab. 48:9). Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.
In Kabbalah, Gabriel is identified with the sephirah of Gevurah. Gabriel also has a prominent role as one of God's archangels in the Kabbalah literature. There, Gabriel is portrayed as working in concert with Michael as part of God's court. Gabriel is not to be prayed to because only God can answer prayers and sends Gabriel as his agent.
According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the "tree of souls" that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, the Treasury of Souls. Gabriel reaches into the treasury and takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Then Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born.
The intertestamental period (roughly 200 BC – 50 AD) produced a wealth of literature, much of it having an apocalyptic orientation. The names and ranks of angels and devils were greatly expanded, and each had particular duties and status before God.
In 1 Enoch 9:1–3, Gabriel, along with Michael, Uriel and Suriel, "saw much blood being shed upon the earth" (9:1) and heard the souls of men cry, "Bring our cause before the Most High" (9:3). In 1 Enoch 10:1, the reply came from "the Most High, the Holy and Great One" who sent forth agents, including Gabriel—
And the Lord said to Gabriel: "'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have."
Gabriel is the fifth of the five angels who keep watch: "Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim" (1 Enoch 20:7).
When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen:
And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days.
First, concerning John the Baptist, an angel appeared to his father Zacharias, a priest of the course of Abia, (Luke 1:5-7) whose barren wife Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron, while he ministered in the temple:
10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.
11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
12 And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.
15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb.
16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
20 And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.— Luke 1:10-20
After completing his week of ministry, Zacharias returned to his home and his wife Elizabeth conceived. After she completed "five months" (Luke 1:21-25) of her pregnancy, Gabriel is mentioned again:
26 And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
29 And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.
38 And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.— Luke 1:26-38
Gabriel only appears by name in those two passages in Luke. In the first passage the angel identified himself as Gabriel, but in the second it is Luke who identified him as Gabriel. The only other named angels in the New Testament are Michael the Archangel (in Jude 1:9) and Abaddon (in Revelation 9:11). Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. Believers are expressly warned not to worship angels (in Colossians 2:18-19 and Revelation 19:10).
The trope of Gabriel blowing a trumpet blast to indicate the Lord's return to Earth is especially familiar in Spirituals. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages state different things: the angels of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:31); the voice of the Son of God (John 5:25-29); God's trumpet (I Thessalonians 4:16); seven angels sounding a series of blasts (Revelation 8-11); or simply "a trumpet will sound" (I Corinthians 15:52).
In related traditions, Gabriel is again not identified as the trumpeter. In Judaism, trumpets are prominent, and they seem to be blown by God himself, or sometimes Michael. In Zoroastrianism, there is no trumpeter at the last judgment. In Islamic tradition, it is Israfil who blows the trumpet, though he is not named in the Qur'an. The Christian Church Fathers do not mention Gabriel as the trumpeter; early English literature similarly does not.
The earliest known identification of Gabriel as the trumpeter comes in John Wycliffe's 1382 tract, De Ecclesiæ Dominio. In the year 1455, in Armenian art, there is an illustration in an Armenian manuscript showing Gabriel sounding his trumpet as the dead climb out of their graves. Two centuries later, Gabriel is identified as the trumpeter, in John Milton's Paradise Lost (1667):
Betwixt these rockie pillars Gabriel sat
Chief of the Angelic guards (IV.545f)...
He ended, and the Son gave signal high
To the bright minister that watch'd, he blew
His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps
When God descended, and perhaps once more
To sound at general doom. (XI.72ff).
Later, Gabriel's horn is omnipresent in Negro spirituals, but it is unclear how the Byzantine conception inspired Milton and the spirituals, though they presumably have a common source.
Gabriel's horn also makes an appearance in "The Eyes of Texas" (1903) in which it signifies the rapture. In Marc Connelly's play based on spirituals, The Green Pastures (1930), Gabriel has his beloved trumpet constantly with him, and the Lord has to warn him not to blow it too soon. Four years later "Blow, Gabriel, Blow" was introduced by Ethel Merman in Cole Porter's Anything Goes (1934).
Saint Gabriel the Archangel's festival day was exclusively celebrated on 18 March according to many sources dating between 1588 and 1921; unusually, a source published in 1856 has the feast celebrated on 7 April for unknown reasons (a note in parentheses states that the day is normally celebrated on 18 March). Writer Elizabeth Drayson mentions the feast being celebrated on 18 March 1588 in her 2013 book "The Lead Books of Granada".
One of the oldest out of print sources placing the feast on 18 March, first published in 1608, is "Flos sanctorum: historia general de la vida y hechos de Jesu-Christo...y de los santos de que reza y haze fiesta la Iglesia Catholica..." by the Spanish writer Alonso de Villegas; a newer edition of this book was published in 1794. Another source published in Ireland in 1886 the Irish Ecclesiastical Record also mentions 18 March. There is a painting from 1886 by the Italian artist Diodore Rahoult, on which 18 March also appears.
The feast of Saint Gabriel was included by Pope Benedict XV in the General Roman Calendar in 1921, for celebration on 24 March. In 1969 the day was officially transferred to 29 September for celebration in conjunction with the feast of the archangels St. Michael and St. Raphael. The Church of England has also adopted the 29 September date, known as Michaelmas.
The Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his feast day on 8 November (for those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 8 November currently falls on 21 November of the modern Gregorian Calendar, a difference of 13 days). Eastern Orthodox commemorate him, not only on his November feast, but also on two other days: 26 March is the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel" and celebrates his role in the Annunciation.
13 July is also known as the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel", and celebrates all the appearances and miracles attributed to Gabriel throughout history. The feast was first established on Mount Athos when, in the 9th century, during the reign of Emperor Basil II and the Empress Constantina Porphyrogenitus and while Nicholas Chrysoverges was Patriarch of Constantinople, the Archangel appeared in a cell near Karyes, where he wrote with his finger on a stone tablet the hymn to the Theotokos, "It is truly meet...".
Additionally, Gabriel is the patron saint of messengers, those who work for broadcasting and telecommunications such as radio and television, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.
Latter-day Saint teachings
In Latter-day Saint theology, Gabriel is believed to have lived a mortal life as the prophet Noah. The two are regarded as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel being his heavenly name.
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Exegesis narrates that Muhammad saw Gabriel in his full angelic splendor only twice, the first time being when he received his first revelation. As the Bible portrays Gabriel as a celestial messenger sent to Daniel, Mary, and Zechariah, Islamic tradition holds that Gabriel was sent to numerous pre-Islamic prophets with revelation and divine injunctions, including Adam, whom Muslims believe was consoled by Gabriel some time after the Fall, too. He is known by many names in Islam, such as "keeper of holiness."
Though alternate theories exist, whether the occurrence of the Holy Spirit in the Quran refers to Gabriel or not, remains an issue of scholarly debate. In the Quran, Gabriel appears named in 2:97 and 66:4, as well as in 2:92-96, where he is mentioned along with Michael (Mika'il).
Muslims also revere Gabriel for a number of historical events predating the first revelation, found in the Quran. Muslims believe that Gabriel was the angel who informed Zachariah of John's birth, as well as Mary of the future nativity of Jesus; and that Gabriel was one of three angels who had earlier informed Abraham(Ibrahim) of the birth of Isaac (Surah Zaariyaat) . Gabriel also makes a famous appearance in the Hadith of Gabriel, in which he questions Muhammad on the core tenets of Islam.
Islamic texts and other apocryphal works of literature outside the Bible depict the Angel Gabriel's role as a celestial warrior. However, a clear distinction between Enochian and Qur'anic references to the Angel Gabriel is that the former does not designate the Angel Gabriel as the Holy Spirit in 1 Enoch, which has the Angel Gabriel defeating the nephilim. Accordingly, in Islam, Gabriel helped Muhammad overcome his adversaries significantly during the Battle of Badr and against a demon during the Mi'raj. He further encouraged Muhammad wage war and attack the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza.
Art, entertainment, and media
Angels are described as pure spirits. The lack of a defined form allows artists wide latitude in depicting them. Amelia R. Brown draws comparisons in Byzantine iconography between portrayals of angels and the conventions used to depict court eunuchs. Mainly from the Caucasus, they tended to have light eyes, hair, and skin; and those "castrated in childhood developed a distinctive skeletal structure, lacked full masculine musculature, body hair and beards...." As officials, they would wear a white tunic decorated with gold. Brown suggests that "Byzantine artists drew, consciously or not, on this iconography of the court eunuch." Some recent popular works on angels consider Gabriel to be female or androgynous.
Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Georg in Bermatingen
Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Magnus in Waldburg
Archangel Gabriel at the facade of the Cathedral of Reims
- Baltimore's "Little Italy" has for over 80 years hosted an annual "end of summer" St. Gabriel Festival that features a procession with a statue of the saint carried through the streets.
- In Liliom (1930), Gabriel is portrayed by Harvey Clark.
- In The Green Pastures (1936), Gabriel is portrayed by Oscar Polk.
- In Heaven Only Knows (1947), Gabriel was portrayed by William Farnum.
- In The Littlest Angel (1969; television film), Gabriel is portrayed by Cab Calloway.
- In horror film The Prophecy (1995), Gabriel (portrayed by Christopher Walken) searches for an evil soul on Earth during an end-of-days angelic civil war. He is also a character in The Prophecy II (1998) and The Prophecy 3: The Ascent (2000).
- In Jesus (1999; television film), Gabriel is portrayed by John Light.
- In the fantasy/horror film Constantine (2005), Tilda Swinton portrays an androgynous archangel Gabriel, the film's main antagonist on the brink of the Apocalypse.
- In the action/horror film Gabriel (2007), the eponymous character (portrayed by Andy Whitfield) fights to save the souls in purgatory by defeating the evil fallen angels.
- In the apocalyptic supernatural action film Legion (2010), Kevin Durand plays the role of Archangel Gabriel, the leader of the angel army, and the main antagonist. The story was continued in the TV series Dominion .
- 2005: Spanish role-playing game Anima: Beyond Fantasy - Gabriel is as the humans know one of the seven "Beryls" (godlike beings of light) and is identified with the archangel of the same name. She has associated love, friendship, arts, and peace.
- In the Japanese role-playing game Shin Megami Tensei - Gabriel is one of the Demons the player can summon to assist in battle.
- In the video game El Shaddai: Ascension of the Metatron, based on the Book of Enoch, Gabriel is featured alongside Michael, Raphael and Uriel as a guide for Enoch on his quest. All four archangels take the form of swans while on Earth. Gabriel is depicted as female in this interpretation, and implied to be an angel of wisdom. She is associated with the Veil weapon Enoch uses.
- In his epic poem Paradise Lost, John Milton made Gabriel chief of the angelic guards placed over Paradise
- The Hebrew poem "Elifelet" (אליפלט) by Nathan Alterman, put to music and often heard on the Israeli Radio, tells of a heroic, self-sacrificing Israeli soldier being killed in battle. Upon the protagonist's death, the angel Gabriel descends to Earth, in order to comfort the spirit of the fallen hero and take him up to Heaven
- The main character of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses (1988) believes that he is the modern incarnation of Gabriel.
- In Japanese light novel series No Game No Life (2012), Jibril is a member of the Flügel race and was a member of the Council of 18 Wings, a prominent section in the government. She is depicted as loving knowledge and books.
- In volume 3 of the Japanese light novel series The Devil Is a Part-Timer!, an archangel named Gabriel appeared and is the guardian of the Sephirah Yesod.
- In the Japanese light novel High School DxD features Gabriel, alongside the rest of the Seraph. In the novel, Gabriel is depicted as a female and is given the titles of "The Strongest Woman in Heaven" and "The Most Beautiful Woman in Heaven."
- In August Wilson's Fences (1985), the mentally handicapped character Gabriel believes with every fibre of his soul that he is the Archangel Gabriel. He carries around a trumpet on him always, and strives to chase away the "hellhounds." In the last scene of the play, he calls for Saint Peter to open up the gates.
The eccentric English hagiographer and antiquarian, Sabine Baring-Gould (1834–1924) wrote "Gabriel's Message", the English translation of the Basque Christmas carol Birjina gaztetto bat zegoen. The original charol is likely related to the 13th or 14th-century Latin chant Angelus Ad Virginem, which itself is based on the biblical account of the Annunciation in the Gospel of Luke.
Just as sure as we're living, just as sure as we're born
Look up, look up - seek your Maker - 'fore Gabriel blows his horn.
- See also Gabriel gallery in Commons.
Daniel 8:15 describes Gabriel as appearing in the "likeness of man" and in Daniel 9:21 he is referred to as "the man Gabriel." David Everson observes that "such anthropomorphic descriptions of an angel are consistent with previous...descriptions of angels," as in Genesis 19:5.
Gabriel is most often portrayed in the context of scenes of the Annunciation. In 2008 a 16th-century drawing by Lucas van Leyden of the Netherlands was discovered. George R. Goldner, chairman of the department of prints and drawings at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, suggested that the sketch was for a stained glass window. "The fact that the archangel is an ordinary-looking person and not an idealized boy is typical of the artist", said Goldner.
In chronological order (to see each item, follow the link in the footnote):
- Archangel Gabriel (Triptych), early 10th century, Benaki Museum
- The Archangel Gabriel, Pisan, c. 1325/50, National Gallery of Art
- The Archangel Gabriel, Masolino da Panicale, c. 1420/30, National Gallery of Art
- Justice between the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, Jacobello del Fiore, 1421
- Merode Altarpiece (Triptych), Robert Campin, c. 1425, Metropolitan Museum of Art
- The Angel Gabriel, Agostino di Duccio, c. 1450
- Annunciation, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1475
- The Angel Gabriel, Neroccio d'Landi, c. 1490
- The Angel Gabriel, late 15th or early 16th century, Flemish, National Gallery of Art
- The Angel Gabriel, Ferrari Gaudenzio, 1511, National Gallery, London
- Gabriel delivering the Annunciation El Greco, 1575 (pictured above)
- Go Down Death, Aaron Douglas, 1934
The Military Order of Saint Gabriel was established to recognize "individuals who have made significant contributions to the U.S. Army Public Affairs community and practice." The medallion depicts St. Gabriel sounding a trumpet, while the obverse displays the Army Public Affairs emblem.
- The Twilight Zone (1960) episode, "A Passage for Trumpet" – The down-and-out musician Joey Crown (Jack Klugman) meets an enigmatic trumpet player named "Gabe" (played by John Anderson), in what has been described as Rod Serling's version of It's a Wonderful Life.
- Supernatural (2005) – Gabriel, portrayed by Richard Speight Jr., is a runaway archangel who kills people he deems evil, also interacting with other angels, including his siblings Michael, Raphael, and Lucifer.
- Dominion (2014) – Gabriel, portrayed by Carl Beukes, is the series antagonist, who plans to kill the Archangel Michael and annihilate humanity.
- Now Apocalypse (2019) – Gabriel, portrayed by Tyler Posey, is an enigmatic trumpet player who has a passionate tryst with series protagonist Ulysses Zane before warning him about an impending apocalypse.
- Amazon Prime miniseries Good Omens (2019) – Gabriel is portrayed by Jon Hamm. The show is based on the novel by Terry Pratchett and Neil Gaiman.
- Angel of the Lord
- Christian angelic hierarchy
- Fleur de lys
- Gabriel's Horn, a mathematical figure
- List of angels in theology
- List of names referring to El
- Saint Gabriel, patron saint archive
- Zimmerman, Julie. "Friar Jack's Catechism Quiz: Test Your Knowledge on Angels". AmericanCatholic.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- OrthodoxWiki. "Archangel Gabriel" (Internet). OrthodoxWiki. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
Because the Angels are incorporeal beings, though they nevertheless take on human form when appearing to mankind, it can be difficult to differentiate one from another in icons. However, Gabriel is most often portrayed with certain distinguishing characteristics. He typically wears white or blue garments; he holds either a lily (representing the Theotokos), a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise presented to him by the Theotokos, or a spear in his right hand and often a mirror—made of jasper and with a Χ (the first letter of Christ (Χριστος) in Greek)—in his left hand. He should not be confused with the Archangel Michael, who carries a sword, shield, date-tree branch, and in the other hand a spear, white banner (possibly with scarlet cross) and tends to wear red. Michael's specific mission is to suppress enemies of the true Church (hence the military theme), while Gabriel's is to announce mankind's salvation.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ronner, John (March 1993). Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More!. Murfreesboro, TN: Mamre Press. pp. 70–72, 73. ISBN 9780932945402. LCCN 93020336. OCLC 27726648. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
Artists like to show Gabriel carrying a lily (Mary's flower), a scroll and a scepter.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Catholic Online. "St. Gabriel, the Archangel". Catholic.org. Retrieved 15 November 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Guiley, Rosemary (2004). Encyclopedia of Angels (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. p. 140. ISBN 9780816050239. OCLC 718132289. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
He is the patron saint to telecommunication workers, radio broadcasters, messengers, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ginzberg, Louis. 1909. Legends of the Jews Vol I : The Creation of The World - The First Things Created Archived 20 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine, translated by H. Szold. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
- For example, Book of Common Prayer 1662, Calendar (29 September) "S. Michael and all Angels", page xxix; or propers, page 227, "Saint Michael and All Angels".
- Ali, Maulana Muhammad; Gallegos, Christopher (1936). The Religion of Islam. Lahore: eBookIt.com. p. 69. ISBN 9781934271186.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Skinner, Andrew C (1992), "Noah", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1016–1017, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
- Romney, Joseph B. "Noah, The Great Preacher of Righteousness". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
the Prophet Joseph Smith said: “Noah, who is Gabriel, … stands next in authority to Adam in the Priesthood;<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft5. Jahrgang 1997 diagonal-Verlag Ursula Spuler-Stegemann Der Engel Pfau zum Selbstvertändnis der Yezidi p. 14 (german)
- James M. Robinson (2007) [First published 1978]. "The Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit". The Nag Hammadi Scriptures. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060523787.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gabriel. Jewish Encyclopedia. 5. 1906. pp. 540–543. Retrieved 2 December 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Student. "Everson, David. "Gabriel Blow Your Horn! - A Short History of Gabriel within Jewish Literature", Xavier University, December 2009". Bibleinterp.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Scholem, Gershom Gerhard (1990). Origins of the Kabbalah. ISBN 0691020477. Retrieved 1 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Luke 1:10-20 KJV. (other versions: Luke 1:1-25)
- THE Dedication (Jesus' birth) "The priests serve 4 weeks per year: 1 week twice a year in courses, and the two week-long feasts, unleavened bread and tabernacles. Pentecost is a one-day observance, which would have come before Zacharias' (the 8th) course began, or at the latest, the 1st day of his course, which was from 12 thru 18 Sivan, or noon on the 19th, if Josephus is correct that courses changed at noon on the sabbaths." Josephus Antiquities b.7 ch.14 s.7 "eight days, from sabbath to sabbath." Josephus against Apion b.2 sect.8 "mid-day"
- Luke 1:26-38 KJV. (other versions: Luke 1:26-38)
- See also Easton's Bible Dictionary angel entry
- S. Vernon McCasland, "Gabriel's Trumpet", Journal of Bible and Religion 9:3:159–161 (August 1941) JSTOR 1456405
- Vaughn, Robert (1845). Tracts & Treatises of John De Wycliffe, D.D. Wycliffe Society. p. 79.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Walters MS 543, fol. 14.
- Milton, Paradise Lost, XI.72ff
- Nicar, Jim. "The Origins of "The Eyes of Texas"". Longhorn Band. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Catholic Directory, Ecclasiastical Register, and Almanac". 1856. Retrieved 29 April 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Drayson, Elizabeth (13 January 2016). The Lead Books of Granada. Palgrave Macmillan - 2013 edition. p. 3. ISBN 978-1137358844.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- de Villegas, Alonso (1794). Flos sanctorum: historia general de la vida y hechos de Jesu-Christo... Spain: Imprenta de Isidro Aguasvivas. p. 250.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Irish Ecclesiastical Record. Browne and Nolan, 1886. 1886. p. 1112.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Archangel Gabriel, divine messenger; commemoration on 18 March, 1886". Retrieved 30 April 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Butler's Lives of the saints, vol. 1, edited by Herbert Thurston and Donald Attwater, Christian Classics, 1981 ISBN 9780870610455
- Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 119
- "The miracle of "Axion Estin"".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Velimirovic, Bishop Nikolai (1985). "13 July: The Holy Archangel Gabriel". Prologue from Ochrid. Birmingham, UK: Lazarica Press. ISBN 978-0-948298-05-9. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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But Gabri-el is unique amongst an otherwise male or androgynous host, for it is almost certain that this great Archangel is the only female in the higher echelons.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Archangel Correspondence. Archangel Gabriel, Angelic & Planetary Symbols. Last accessed 24 March 2017.
- Catholic Encyclopedia. St. Gabriel the Archangel. Last accessed 24 March 2017.
- Celdrán, José Alfredo González, and Ruck, Carl A. P. Daturas for the Virgin Last accessed 24 March 2017.
- Christian Art. Icons of the Archangel Gabriel. Last accessed 24 March 2017.
- Jewish Encyclopedia.com. Gabriel. Last accessed 24 March 2017.
- Hassett, Maurice. "Early Christian Representations of Angels." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Last accessed 24 March 2017
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