From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Navies Armies Air forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Marshal or
Field marshal
Marshal of
the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Commodore Brigadier or
Brigadier general
Air commodore
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Major or
Squadron leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Sub-lieutenant Lieutenant or
First lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign Second
Pilot officer
Midshipman Officer cadet Officer cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
Chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
Sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading seaman Corporal Corporal
Seaman Private Aircraftman

Generalissimo (Italian: Generalissimo [dʒeneraˈlissimo], Spanish: Generalísimo [xeneɾaˈlisimo], Portuguese: Generalíssimo [ʒenɨɾaˈlisimu], Latin: Generalissimus) is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries in which they are used. The word generalissimo is Italian and is the absolute superlative of generale ('general'), thus meaning "the highest-ranking of all generals".

Notable examples of generalissimos include leader of the Republic of China from 1938 to 1975 Chiang Kai-shek,[1] Alexander Menshikov of the Russian Imperial Army (1727-1728),[2] Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla of the Revolutionary Army of Mexico (1809-1811),[3] Kim Jong-Il of the Korean People's Army (1991-2011),[4] George Washington of the Continental and United States Armies (1775-1799 and 1798-1799, respectively),[5] John J. Pershing of the American Expeditionary Forces,[6] Francisco Franco of the Spanish Armed Forces (1936-1975),[7] Maxime Weygand of the French Army (1939), Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippine Revolutionary Army (1898-1901),[8] and Charles XIV John of Sweden of the Royal Swedish Army (1810-1811).[9]

The rank Generalissimus of the Soviet Union would have been a generalissimo but Stalin refused to adopt the rank.[10][11]


The word "generalissimo" is an Italian term, from generale, plus the superlative suffix -issimo, itself from Latin -issimus,[12][13][14][15][16] meaning "utmost, to the highest grade".

Historically this rank was given to a military officer leading an entire army or the entire armed forces of a nation, usually only subordinate to the sovereign.[17] Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers.

List of generalissimos

WallensteinAlbrecht von Waldstein, 1625, 1st Generalissimo
Person Service Country Era Notes
Chiang Kai-shek National Revolutionary Army (later as the Republic of China Armed Forces) Republic of China (Taiwan) 1935 His rank was Tèjí Shàngjiàng (特級上將), or "General Special Class"[18]

[Note 1]

Joffre, JosephJoseph Joffre French Army France 1914 His rank was Marshal of France, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Army was généralissime.
Suvorov, AlexanderAlexander Suvorov Russian Imperial Army Russian Empire 1799
Menshikov, AlexanderAlexander Menshikov Russian Imperial Army Russian Empire 1727–1728 [2]
Foch, FerdinandFerdinand Foch French Army France 1918 Généralissime was the title used to describe Ferdinand Foch's Allied Command, starting 26 March 1918. He actually held the rank of général de division, and later the dignity of Marshal of France.[19]
Gamelin, MauriceMaurice Gamelin French Army France 1939 His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.
Weygand, MaximeMaxime Weygand French Army France 1939 His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.
de Miranda, FranciscoFrancisco de Miranda Venezuelan Army Venezuela 1812
Hidalgo y Costilla, MiguelMiguel Hidalgo y Costilla Revolutionary Army of Mexico América Mexicana 1810 September – 1811 February [3]
Franco, FranciscoFrancisco Franco Spanish Armed Forces Spain 1936–1975 generalísimo[7]
Emilio Aguinaldo Philippine Revolutionary Army Philippines 1898–1901 Heneralismo[8]
Ihsan Nuri Ararat Forces Kurdish Republic of Ararat 1927–1930 [20]
Crown Prince Charles John Royal Swedish Army Sweden 1810–1818 [9]

[Note 2]

Stalin, JosephJoseph Stalin Soviet Armed Forces Soviet Union 1945 Generalissimus of the Soviet Union[21] (declined)
Kim Il-sung Korean People's Army North Korea 1992 Taewonsu[22]
Kim Jong-Il Korean People's Army North Korea 2012 Taewonsu (Promoted posthumously)[4]
Trujillo, RafaelRafael Trujillo Dominican Army Dominican Republic 1930 [23]
Sun Yat-sen Republic of China 1921 Technically as grand marshal[24] (source does not support this)
Albrecht von Wallenstein 30 Year's War Holy Roman Empire via the "Principal Decree of the Imperial Deputation"[25] 1625 [26]
Pershing, JohnJohn Pershing United States Army United States of America 1919 Promoted to General of the Armies of the United States on September 3, 1919. [6]
Washington, GeorgeGeorge Washington Continental Army
United States Army
United States of America 1776 Promoted posthumously to General of the Armies of the United States on January 19, 1976 with date of rank of July 4, 1776. [5]
da Fonseca, DeodoroDeodoro da Fonseca Brazilian Army Brazil 1890 First president of Brazilian Republic and

responsible for the fall of the Brazilian empire.

See also


  1. Chiang Kai-shek was a 特級上將 ("general special class") of the Republic of China, cf. 特級上將授任條例
  2. The Napoleonic Marshal of France Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo, was elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Riksdag of the Estates and King Charles XIII in 1810. Given his exalted French military rank, the rank of generalissimus was likely granted him in order to give him precedence over "mere" Swedish field marshals. Once he became King of Sweden and Norway in 1818, the generalissimus rank became superfluous.


  1. Jonathan Fenby (12 February 2015). Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the China He Lost. Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 978-1-4711-4295-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Menschikow und Stalin waren die einzigen Heerführer der russischen Geschichte, die sich „Generalissimus" nennen ließen." [Menshikov and Stalin were the only military leaders in Russian history who declared themselves "generalissimus".] Jena, Detlev (1996): Die russischen Zaren in Lebensbildern, Graz, p. 520.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Comunica Miguel Hidalgo su proclamaci n como General simo de Am rica. Documentos Historicos de Mexico, 24 Oct 1810.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The Australian, 15 February 2012, Late Kim Jong-il awarded highest honour by North
  5. 5.0 5.1 Public Law 94-479 of January 19, 1976 to provide for the appointment of George Washington to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States
  6. 6.0 6.1 Public Law 66-45 of September 3, 1919 to revive the office of General of the Armies
  7. 7.0 7.1 Cover, TIME magazine, 18 Oct 1943
  8. 8.0 8.1 Emilio Aguinaldo. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  9. 9.0 9.1 (Swedish) Ancienneté och Rang-Rulla öfver Krigsmagten år 1813
  10. Service, Robert (2005). Stalin: A Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-674-01697-2.
  11. S. M. Shtemenko. The General Staff in the War Years. Moskva 1985. Vietnamese version (vol. 2) . pp. 587-588.
  12. Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, French Larousse Étymologique.
  13. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Online Etymology Dictionary.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Define Generalissimo at".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Generalissimo – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Definition of generalissimo – Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionary of English.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Thomas Hobbes (1660), Chapter XVIII: Of the Rights of Sovereigns by institution, retrieved 16 August 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Jay Taylor:The Generalisimo:Chiang Kai-shek and the struggle for modern China (2009) Harvard Press
  19. John McGroarty :The Gray Man of Christ: Generalissimo Foch (1919) Los Angeles, Walter A Abbott
  20. Bletch Chirguh, La Question Kurde: ses origines et ses causes, Le Caire, Impimerie Paul Barbey, 1930, front cover, IHSAN NOURI PACHA Généralissime des forces nationales Kurdes (French)
  21. Joseph Stalin was appointed Generalissimus of the Soviet Union. See: Ivan Aleksandrovich Venediktov, Selskokhozyaystvennaya yentsiklopediya, Vol. 4, Gos. izd-vo selkhoz, 1956, p. 584. (Russian)
  22. The Daily Yomuiri, 29 September 2010, Kim Jong Un spotlighted / 'Heir apparent' promoted to general, makes DPRK media debut
  23. Stanley Walker : Generalissimo Rafael L. Trujillo (1955) Caribbean Library
  24. Linda Pomerantz-Zhang (1992). Wu Tingfang (1842–1922): reform and modernization in modern Chinese history. Hong Kong University Press. p. 255. ISBN 962209287X. Retrieved 2010-10-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. A short history of Germany. Ernest Flagg Henderson, 1908
  26. Tilly und Wallenstein – ein Vergleich zweier Heerführer. Harry Horstmann, 2010. (German)