||This article possibly contains original research. (September 2009)|
Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is plot-driven fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre. Genre fiction is generally distinguished from literary fiction. Screenwriting teacher Robert McKee defines genre conventions as the "specific settings, roles, events, and values that define individual genres and their subgenres". These conventions, always fluid, are usually implicit, but sometimes are made into explicit requirements by publishers of fiction as a guide to authors seeking publication. There is no consensus as to exactly what the conventions of any genre are, or even what the genres themselves are; assigning of works to genres is to some extent arbitrary and subjective.
Genre fiction is often controversially dismissed by literary critics as being pure escapism, clichéd, and of poor quality prose.
Genre and the marketing of fiction
In the publishing industry the term "category fiction" is often used as a synonym for genre fiction, with the categories serving as the familiar shelf headings within the fiction section of a bookstore, such as Western or mystery.
The uncategorized section is known in the industry as "general fiction", but in fact many of the titles in this usually large section are often themselves genre novels that have been placed in the general section because sellers believe they will appeal, due to their high quality or other special characteristics, to a wider audience than merely the readers of that genre.
Genre fiction has received some degree of legitimacy, as authors formerly known for their literary fiction have written novels under pseudonyms. Also, with the demise of the hardback book, distinctions between genre fiction and literary fiction may begin to blur, with appropriate changes in marketing.
Though a production not promoted by secondary criticism it is popular literature that holds the largest market share. Romance fiction had an estimated $1.375 billion share in the US book market in 2007. Religion/inspirational literature followed with $819 million, science fiction/fantasy with $700 million, mystery with $650 million and then classic literary fiction with $466 million.
The most important subgenres, in this period, were according to Romance Writers of America's data, given on the basis of numbers of releases:
- Contemporary series romance: 26%
- Contemporary romance: 22%
- Historical romance: 16%
- Paranormal romance: 12%
- Romantic suspense: 7%
- Inspirational romance: 7%
- Romantic suspense (series): 5%
- Other (chick-lit, erotic romance, women's fiction): 3%
- Young adult romance: 3%
Evolution of fiction genres
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Since the beginning of literature it has been acknowledged that there are different types or categories of created work. Poetry, a form of literature older than prose, was in ancient times divided into narrative, dramatic, and lyric forms. Narrative poetry, at least as it was first written (as opposed to recited or sung), was primarily epic. Dramatic poetry came to be divided into tragedy and comedy. The Greek philosopher Aristotle in his Poetics for the first time named story genres by categorizing dramas according to the value-charge of their endings and the design of their stories.
Many fiction genres can be traced to a small number of important or extremely popular literary works written before that genre came into existence. "Genre" fiction is portrayed as those works that seek, in some degree, just to emulate these paradigms. Science fiction began with Jules Verne and then H. G. Wells, as a recognizable genre, although Mary Shelley is generally credited with having written the first science fiction novels (Frankenstein and The Last Man) forty-five years before Jules Verne and H.G. Wells' first literary works. Horror stories and mystery stories can both be traced in large measure to Edgar Allan Poe and a few others. It is possible also that Poe helped originate science fiction with such stories as 'The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfall.'
The period 1900–1910 was fertile for the development, by writers such as M. P. Shiel, of fiction genres and character types. Often these appeared in periodicals, which eventually became the pulp magazines of the early 20th century.
Critical Appraisal and Controversy
Although frequently ignored or ridiculed by literary critics, genre fiction has achieved a measure of acceptance among some modern critics, with Stephen King being awarded the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, polarizing some commentators and instigating debate on genre fiction's literary merit. Derisive comments about genre fiction have sparked responses from Time, Salon, the Atlantic, and the Los Angeles Review of Books. In the 2000s, the BBC defended itself against charges that it had sneered at genre fiction, while the Man Booker and National Book Awards were criticized for ignoring genre fiction in their selection process.
Popular belief is that genre fiction is less worthy to read than literary fiction. Some critics though, actually promote the reading of different genres. What people read can make them more empathetic and relate to others on an intrapersonal level. Specifically, reading Romance and Suspense/Thriller reveals higher traces of sensitivity. This is believed to be because Romance novels focus on interpersonal relationships at their core. Readers of such texts react to the different scenarios of these plots and tend to reflect on like relationships in their own realities.
Most genres of fiction may also be segmented by the age of the intended reader:
List of genres
As noted, there are many different ways of labeling and defining fiction genres. Following are some of the main genres as they are used in contemporary publishing:
Crime fiction stories are centered on criminal enterprise, and can be told from the point of view of the perpetrators or those involved in its detection. They range in tone from lighthearted "caper" stories to darker plots involving organized crime or incarcerated convicts.
Fantasy stories use magic or the supernatural as a primary plot element, theme, or setting. Fantasy is frequently divided into high fantasy, which is epic in scope and set in a completely fictitious world, and low fantasy, which blends reality with limited elements of fantasy. Contemporary fantasy and magical realism are somewhat analogous to low fantasy but overlap in complicated ways. Fantasy lends itself to pastiche and is often combined with other genres, making the distinction between fantasy and science fiction sometimes difficult to discern. Weird fiction, in particular, borrows liberally from fantasy, science fiction, and horror.
Horror fiction aims to frighten or disgust its readers. Although many horror novels feature supernatural phenomena or monsters, it is not required. Early horror took much inspiration from Romanticism, birthing Gothic horror. Modern horror, such as cosmic horror and splatterpunk, tends to be less melodramatic and more explicit. Horror is often mixed with other genres.
Mystery or Detective
Mystery fiction, or Detective fiction, typically involves the investigation of a crime, most often one or more murders. The term whodunit, from 'who done it?', indicates that the identity of the criminal is initially unknown, and discovering that identity is the focus of the story. The related term "whydunit" indicates that the criminal's motive is the main focus, and that their identity may be revealed early in the story. Another related term "howcatchem" indicates that the main focus is means by which the detective or investigator catches the killer and that both the identity and motive are revealed early in the story. Sub-types of mystery/detective fiction include "cozy mysteries" (such as those of Agatha Christie) or "hardboiled" mysteries, where the investigator is very tough and unsentimental. Noir fiction is closely related to hardboiled, with the distinction that the protagonist is not an investigator.
Romance is currently the largest and best-selling fiction genre in North America. It has produced a wide array of subgenres, the majority of which feature the mutual attraction and love of a man and a woman as the main plot, and have a happy ending. This genre, much like fantasy fiction, is broad enough in definition that it is easily and commonly seen combined with other genres, such as comedy, fantasy fiction, realistic fiction, or action-adventure. Same sex romantic fiction also exists.
Science fiction, although difficult to define, generally refers to plausible, futuristic stories, ranging from the rigorous hard science fiction, to social science fiction and space opera. Science fantasy occupies a middle ground between fantasy and science fiction. Alternate history is a subgenre where, for some specific reason, the history of the novel deviates from the history of our world. Both alternate history and science fiction are often referred to, alongside fantasy fiction, magical realism and some horror fiction, under the umbrella term speculative fiction. Science fiction is frequently combined with other genres.
Western fiction is defined primarily by being set in the American West in the second half of the 19th century and, secondarily, by featuring heroes who are rugged, individualistic horsemen (cowboys). Other genres, such as romance, have subgenres that make use of the Western setting.
Inspirational fiction is fictional works with faith-based themes. It may be targeted at a specific demographic, such as Christians. Modern inspirational fiction has grown to encompass non-traditional subgenres, such as inspirational thrillers.
- Formula fiction
- Genre studies
- Plot device
- Stock character
- Thriller (genre)
- Historical fiction
- French, Christy Tillery. "Literary Fiction vs Genre Fiction". AuthorsDen. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- McKee, Robert (1997). Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting. New York: HarperCollins. p. 87. ISBN 0-06-039168-5.
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- See the page Romance Literature Statistics: Overview (visited March 16, 2009) of Romance Writers of America homepage. The subpages offer further statistics for the years since 1998.
- "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters ", National Book Foundation, Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Nelson, Erik. "Stephen King: You can be popular and good". Salon. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Jacobs, Alan. "A Defense of Stephen King, Master of the Decisive Moment". The Atlantic. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Dickey, Colin. "King & I: Stephen King and a Balanced Diet". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Flood, Alison (21 April 2011). "BBC denies 'sneering' at genre fiction". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Flood, Alison (18 September 2009). "Science fiction author hits out at Booker judges". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Miller, Laura. "National Book Awards: Genre fiction dissed again". Salon. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Fong, K., Mullin, J.B., & Mar, R.A. (2013). What you read matters: The role of fiction genre in prediction interpersonal sensitivity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, And The Arts, 7(4), 370-376.
- "Romance Industry Statistics". Romance Writers of America. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Forbes, Jamie M. (1998). "Fiction Dictionary". In Herman, Jeff, Writer's Guide to Book Editors, Publishers, and Literary Agents 1999–2000, pp. 861–871. Rocklin, California: Prima Publishing.
- Gelder, Ken (2004). Popular Fiction: The Logics and Practices of a Literary Field. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35647-4
- Johnson-Woods, Toni (2005). Pulp: A collectors book of Australian pulp fiction covers. Australia: Australian National Library. ISBN 0-642-10766-1.
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